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Taber’s Medical Dictionary   erythroblastosis
erythroblastosis fetalis:A neonatal disease caused by blood type incompatibility between the mother and her developing fetus, specifically Rh incompatibility. SYN: SEE: erythroblastosis fetalis SEE: Rh blood group INCIDENCE After the introduction into clinical use of Rh immunoprophylaxis, the incidence of hemolytic disease of the newborn fell dramatically in developed nations. It is currently estimated to occur in less than 1 of 1000 pregnancies. The disease is more common in developing nations, e.g., in India and Southeast Asia. CAUSES The disease is produced in the developing fetus when maternal antibodies do not match fetal blood groups. Incompatibilities in the Rh antigen system and in some rarer blood antigens can cross the placenta, and cause widespread destruction of fetal red blood cells. Incompatibilities in the ABO blood types are common, but do not cause as severe disease in the fetus or newborn. TREATMENT In cases of Rh incompatibility, the condition can be controlled during pregnancy by following the anti-Rh titer of the mother's blood and the bilirubin level of the fetus by amniocentesis. These indices show whether the pregnancy should be allowed to go to full term and if intrauterine transfusion is indicated or if labor should be induced earlier. Delivery should be as free of trauma as possible and the placenta should not be manually removed. The infant with hemolytic disease should be immediately seen by a physician who is capable of and has the facilities and blood supplies available for exchange transfusion. The use of Rh (D) immune globulin after abortion, at 28 weeks' gestation, and within 72 hr of delivery has been beneficial. sbs15625@gmail.com https://twitter.com/BariSadik https://www.facebook.com/sadikatulbari.sadik https://www.facebook.com/mats.dmf?ref=hl
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Hepatic Portal Circulation
1. Blood flow from the abdominal organs that passes through the portal vein, the sinusoids of the liver, and into the hepatic vein before returning to the heart from the inferior vena cava. This pathway permits the liver to process and to detoxify substances entering the body from the gastrointestinal tract. 2. A portal system between the hypothalamus and the anterior pituitary gland. The hypothalamus secretes releasing or inhibiting hormones into the blood; they are carried directly to the anterior pituitary and stimulate or inhibit secretion of specific hormones. Pls Subscriptions and Share : Commentator : https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCFFnAEmlw80lqFPtJ4-DRPg Follow on Google plus : https://plus.google.com/u/0/103145750816796159026 Follow us on Twitter : https://twitter.com/BariSadik Like us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/sadikatulbari.sadik Like & comment facebook page :https://www.facebook.com/mats.dmf?ref=hl
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Blood type and transfusion reactions
blood group: A genetically determined system of antigens located on the surface of the erythrocyte. There are a number of human blood group systems; each system is determined by a series of two or more genes that are allelic or closely linked on a single autosomal chromosome. The ABO system is of prime importance in blood transfusions. The Rhesus (Rh) system is esp. important in obstetrics. There are about 30 Rh antigens. ABO BLOOD TYPES ; SEE: Rh factor The population can be phenotypically divided into four ABO blood groups: A, B, AB, and O. Individuals in the A group have the A antigen on the surface of their red cells; B group has the B antigen on red cells; AB group has A and B antigens on red cells; and O group has neither A nor B antigens on red cells. The individuals in each group have in their sera the corresponding antibody to the red cell antigens that they lack. Thus, a group A person has the anti-B antibody; group B has anti-A antibodies; group AB has no antibodies for A and B; and group O individuals have anti-A and anti-B antibodies in their sera. Blood group factors are important in blood banking. Analysis of blood groups is important in identification of bloodstains for medicolegal purposes, in genetic and anthropological studies, and, formerly, in determination of the probability of fatherhood in paternity suits. sbs15625@gmail.com https://twitter.com/BariSadik https://www.facebook.com/sadikatulbari.sadik https://www.facebook.com/mats.dmf?ref=hl
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Knee cartilage replacement surgery
Autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) surgery, the current treatment for repairing areas of cartilage damage, has shown limited success, partly because it does not stimulate the growth of normal knee joint cartilage, or hyaline cartilage, but rather produces fibrocartilage, the type of cartilage commonly found in scar tissue. In most cases, fibrocartilage does not stand up over time. A new implant technology, NeoCart, uses a 3-D matrix to protect cells and encourage growth and development of natural cartilage tissue, grown from a patient's own cartilage cells. This technique optimally produces tissue that contains both multiplying cells and a substantial amount of true cartilage cells, and has shown excellent cartilage fill and integration with surrounding cartilage. NeoCart Cartilage cells are biopsied from a non-weight bearing area of the patient's knee joint. The cartilage cells, or chondrocytes, are isolated from the cartilage and multiplied using standard tissue culture techniques. The cells are seeded into a unique 3-D collagen scaffold under exacting conditions of high pressure, oxygen concentration and perfusion that mimic the knee's normal experiences, such as walking. After a few weeks, a 3-D piece of the patient's own neocartilage, having characteristics of maturing native articular cartilage, is implanted into the patient's damaged knee area in a simple procedure that usually takes less than an hour. A new bioadhesive is used that makes implantation quick and easy. Within months, the matrix remodels, the cells mature and the cartilage integrates with the host tissue. Advanced MRI imaging developed at UCSF evaluates cartilage development and integration. NeoCart is currently in Phase III clinical trials. UCSF's Orthopedic Institute is one of the six centers nationwide participating in the study. Patients at UCSF have access to the treatment through study participation. Patient Criteria At this time, NeoCart is designed to repair damage to an otherwise healthy knee, but not natural deterioration from age or osteoarthritis. The treatment is recommended for patients with knee cartilage damage or deterioration caused by: Injury or trauma, including sports injuries Repetitive use of the joint Congenital abnormalities in joint structure Endocrine disorders Research UCSF Cartilage Repair and Regeneration Center is part of the new UCSF Orthopaedic Institute, the largest center of its kind in Northern California, offering a "one-stop shop" for outpatient orthopedic care, including cutting-edge technology and treatment. In addition to patient care, the institute conducts basic and clinical research. Currently, researchers are participating in a phase III clinical trial studying NeoCart. The institute also is participating in research to design the next generation of cartilage regeneration using adult stem cells to grow human cartilage. Using stem cells versus a patient's own cartilage cells has a number of advantages — stem cells can be grown and implanted in very large quantities, compared to cells from a patient, which can be extracted in only limited amounts; and stem cells develop into a more durable joint surface.
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Surgical Repair of a Jones Fracture
Jones fracture: A transverse fracture of the proximal diaphysis, approx. ¾ in from the base of the fifth metatarsal. This fracture is commonly confused with an avulsion fracture of the styloid process of the fifth metatarsal. The distinction is important because the true Jones fracture often results in a nonunion if the fracture is not properly identified and managed. It is usually repaired by internal fixation with a screw. Surgical Repair of a Jones Fracture... Don't forget to subscribe.... Pls Subscriptions and Share : https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCFFnAEmlw80lqFPtJ4-DRPg sbs15625@gmail.com https://twitter.com/BariSadik https://www.facebook.com/sadikatulbari.sadik https://www.facebook.com/mats.dmf?ref=hl
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Intradermal injections locating sites and Administrering
Intradermal injections :Injection into the skin, used in giving serums and vaccines when a local reaction is desired. How To Do an Intradermal Injection. sbs15625@gmail.com https://twitter.com/BariSadik https://www.facebook.com/sadikatulbari.sadik https://www.facebook.com/mats.dmf?ref=hl
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Cardiac cycle physiology
Cardiac cycle: The period from the beginning of one heartbeat to the beginning of the succeeding beat, including systole and diastole. Normally, the atria contract immediately before the ventricles. The ordinary cycle lasts 0.8 sec with the heart beating approx. 60 to 85 times a minute in the adult at rest. Atrial systole lasts 0.1 sec, ventricular systole 0.3 sec, and diastole 0.4 sec. Although the heart seems to be working continuously, it actually rests for a good portion of each cardiac cycle.
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Taber’s Medical Dictionary   intake and output
Intake and output: ABBR: I and O Measurement of a patient's fluid intake by mouth, feeding tubes, or intravenous catheters and output from kidneys, gastrointestinal tract, drainage tubes, and wounds. Accurate 24-hr measurement and recording is an essential part of patient assessment.
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Operation of lung cancer
The deadliest form of cancer in the U.S., involving cells that originate in the bronchi or lung. The term includes four cell types: squamous cell (epidermoid) carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, large cell (anaplastic) cancer, and small cell (oat cell) cancer. INCIDENCE In 2013, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) estimated that more than 228,000 people would be diagnosed with lung cancer and that about 159,500 would die of the disease. It is the second most common cancer in both men and women. CAUSES The vast majority are caused by carcinogens in tobacco smoke, including secondhand smoke. Other risks include exposure to carcinogenic industrial and air pollutants (asbestos, uranium, arsenic, nickel, chromium, iron oxides, coal dust, and radioactive dusts), concentrations of radon gas, and familial susceptibility. SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS Symptoms may include persistent cough, chest pain, dyspnea, weight loss, or hemoptysis. Changes in normal respiratory patterns or hoarseness, as well as pneumonia, bronchitis, epigastric pain, symptoms of brain metastasis, arm or shoulder pain, or swelling of the upper body are other possible signs. DIAGNOSIS Diagnostic tests include a chest x-ray, computed tomography (CT) scan, cytological sputum analysis, and bronchoscopy. Other tests include needle biopsy, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), thoracentesis, thoracotomy, mediastinoscopy, or pulmonary function tests. TREATMENT Treatment includes lung surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy (including epidermal growth factor receptor blockers) often provided serially or in combination. PROGNOSIS People with localized lung cancer have an approx. 5-year survival of 50%. People with widely metastatic lung cancer have a 5-year survival of less than 5%. PATIENT CARE Staging determines the extent of the disease and aids in planning treatment and predicting the prognosis. Lung cancer is relatively difficult to cure but much easier to prevent. Children and adolescents should be discouraged from smoking tobacco products, and current smokers should be assisted in their efforts to quit, e.g., through referrals to local branches of the American Cancer Society (ACS), smoking-cessation programs, individual counseling, or group therapy. SCREENING AND PUBLIC HEALTH Chest x-rays do not show small, early cancers, but computed tomography (CT) scanning can be used to screen people who have a long history of smoking and evidence of emphysema. In this high-risk group, screening detects the disease in its early stages when it is most likely to be curable. Smokers over the age of 55 who undergo annual lung cancer screening with low-dose CT scans have improved survival relative to those who do not. However, the public health costs of mass screening are high compared with the cost of encouraging smokers to quit or teaching teenagers not to start smoking. Pls Subscriptions and Share : Follow us on: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCFFnAEmlw80lqFPtJ4-DRPg sbs15625@gmail.com https://twitter.com/BariSadik https://www.facebook.com/sadikatulbari.sadik https://www.facebook.com/mats.dmf?ref=hl tabersdictionary.blogspot.com
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Taber’s Medical Dictionary Basic Thumb Spica (Bandage)
Spica bandage: A bandage in which a number of figure-of-eight turns are applied, each a little higher or lower, overlapping a portion of each preceding turn so as to give an imbricated appearance. This type of bandage is used to support, to exert pressure, or to retain dressings on the breast, shoulder, limbs, thumb, great toe, and hernia at the groin. Pls Subscriptions and Share : Follow us on: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCFFnAEmlw80lqFPtJ4-DRPg sbs15625@gmail.com https://twitter.com/BariSadik https://www.facebook.com/sadikatulbari.sadik https://www.facebook.com/mats.dmf?ref=hl http://tabersdictionary.blogspot.com/
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Spinal stenosis surgery & recovery
************Spinal Stenosis Surgery************* Spinal stenosis is an abnormal narrowing (stenosis) of the spinal canal that may occur in any of the regions of the spine. This narrowing causes a restriction to the spinal canal, resulting in a neurological deficit. Symptoms include pain, numbness, paraesthesia, and loss of motor control. The location of the stenosis determines which area of the body is affected. With spinal stenosis, the spinal canal is narrowed at the vertebral canal, which is a foramen between the vertebrae where the spinal cord (in the cervical or thoracic spine) or nerve roots (in the lumbar spine) pass through. There are several types of spinal stenosis, with lumbar stenosis and cervical stenosis being the most frequent. While lumbar spinal stenosis is more common, cervical spinal stenosis is more dangerous because it involves compression of the spinal cord whereas the lumbar spinal stenosis involves compression of the cauda equina. Pls Subscriptions and Share : Follow us on: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCFFnAEmlw80lqFPtJ4-DRPg sbs15625@gmail.com https://twitter.com/BariSadik https://www.facebook.com/sadikatulbari.sadik https://www.facebook.com/mats.dmf?ref=hl tabersdictionary.blogspot.com
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Proper wound dressing technique
A protective or supportive covering for diseased or injured parts. PATIENT CARE The procedure and expected sensations are explained to the patient. His or her privacy is ensured, and necessary supplies are assembled. Strict aseptic technique is followed during dressing changes, and dressings must be properly disposed of in biohazard containers. Personnel must wash their hands before and after the procedure. The wound or incision and dressing are assessed for the presence and character of any drainage. The mnemonic COCA (color, odor, consistency, amount) is useful in assessing and documenting drainage. The condition of the wound or suture line is also checked, and the presence of erythema or edema is noted. Instruction in wound assessment and dressing change techniques is provided to the patient and his or her family members. Pls Subscriptions and Share : Follow us on: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCFFnAEmlw80lqFPtJ4-DRPg sbs15625@gmail.com https://twitter.com/BariSadik https://www.facebook.com/sadikatulbari.sadik https://www.facebook.com/mats.dmf?ref=hl tabersdictionary.blogspot.com
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Removal of Kidney Stone
Drinking water. Drinking as much as 2 to 3 quarts (1.9 to 2.8 liters) a day may help flush out your urinary system. Unless your doctor tells you otherwise, drink enough fluid — mostly water — to produce clear or nearly clear urine. Pls Subscriptions and Share : Follow us on: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCFFnAEmlw80lqFPtJ4-DRPg sbs15625@gmail.com https://twitter.com/BariSadik https://www.facebook.com/sadikatulbari.sadik https://www.facebook.com/mats.dmf?ref=hl tabersdictionary.blogspot.com
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Percutaneous Placement of a Pulmonary valve "melody Pulmonary Valve"
Percutaneous Placement of a Pulmonary valve "melody Pulmonary Valve" Derek Williams Pediatric cardiology Pls Subscriptions and Share : Follow us on: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCFFnAEmlw80lqFPtJ4-DRPg sbs15625@gmail.com https://twitter.com/BariSadik https://www.facebook.com/sadikatulbari.sadik https://www.facebook.com/mats.dmf?ref=hl
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Taber’s Medical Dictionary   Axillary temperature
What is it? An axillary (AK-sih-lar-e) temperature (TEM-per-ah-chur) is when your armpit (axilla) is used to check your temperature. A temperature measures body heat. A thermometer (ther-MOM-uh-ter) is used to take the temperature in your armpit. An axillary temperature is lower than one taken in your mouth, rectum, or your ear. This is because the thermometer is not inside your body such as under your tongue. Why do I need to check an axillary temperature? An axillary temperature may be done to check for a fever. "Fever" is a word used for a temperature that is higher than normal for the body. A fever may be a sign of illness, infection or other conditions. A normal axillary temperature is between 96.6° (35.9° C) and 98° F (36.7° C). The normal axillary temperature is usually a degree lower than the oral (by mouth) temperature. The axillary temperature may be as much as two degrees lower than the rectal temperature. Body temperature changes slightly through the day and night, and may change based on your activity. What kind of thermometer is used to take an axillary temperature? A digital thermometer may be used to take an axillary temperature. It is a small hand-held device with a "window" showing your temperature in numbers. There are many kinds of digital thermometers. Most digital thermometers are easy to use and measure body temperature in less than a minute. Carefully read the instructions before using your digital thermometer. Digital thermometers can be bought at grocery, drug, or medical supply stores. Glass thermometers with red or blue alcohol inside may also be used for axillary temperatures. Glass thermometers with galinstan (GAL-in-stan) may also be used to check an axillary temperature. Galinstan thermometers have a silver colored line, but will be marked "mercury-free" when you buy one. Be very careful using a glass thermometer to check an axillary temperature on infants and children. Infants and children may move suddenly and break the glass thermometer next to their skin. You may need to hold a glass thermometer in place for up to ten minutes in order to get a correct axillary temperature reading. Alcohol-filled and galinstan glass thermometers are harder than digital thermometers to find in regular grocery stores. In the past, mercury (MER-kure-e) thermometers were used. This thermometer is a thin glass tube with a silver line inside. Mercury is inside the silver tip and line. Mercury is a toxic and hazardous chemical. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), and other organizations warn against using mercury thermometers. If the thermometer breaks, the mercury may be breathed in or absorbed (soaked) into your skin. Mercury is bad for your health, as well as for the water, wildlife, and waste systems on earth. If you have a mercury thermometer, replace it with a digital thermometer. You may also replace it with a glass thermometer having alcohol or galinstan instead of mercury in it. If your mercury thermometer breaks, do not touch the thermometer or the mercury. Do not try to clean up the spill. Open your windows to air out the area. Take children and pets out of the area right away. Contact the following: 24-Hour Nationwide Poison Control Hotline National Capital Poison Center 3201 New Mexico Avenue, Suite 310 Washington , DC 20016 Phone: 1- 800 - 222-1222 Web Address: http://www.poison.org How do I use a digital thermometer? Wait at least 15 minutes after bathing or exercising before taking your axillary temperature. Take the thermometer out of its holder. Put the tip into a new throw-away plastic cover. If you do not have a cover, clean the pointed end (probe) with soap and warm water or rubbing alcohol. Rinse it with cool water. Put the end with the covered tip securely in your armpit. Hold your arm down tightly at your side. Keep the thermometer in your armpit until the digital thermometer beeps. Remove the thermometer when numbers show up in the "window". Pls Subscriptions and Share : Follow us on: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCFFnAEmlw80lqFPtJ4-DRPg sbs15625@gmail.com https://twitter.com/BariSadik https://www.facebook.com/sadikatulbari.sadik https://www.facebook.com/mats.dmf?ref=hl http://tabersdictionary.blogspot.com/
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Taber’s Medical Dictionary   tracheostomy care
Tracheotomy is a surgical procedure which consists of making an incision on the anterior aspect of the neck and opening a direct airway through an incision in the trachea (windpipe). The resulting stoma (hole), or tracheostomy, can serve independently as an airway or as a site for a tracheostomy tube to be inserted; this tube allows a person to breathe without the use of his or her nose or mouth. Both surgical and percutaneous techniques are widely used in current surgical practice. It is among the oldest described procedures. sbs15625@gmail.com https://twitter.com/BariSadik https://www.facebook.com/sadikatulbari.sadik https://www.facebook.com/mats.dmf?ref=hl
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Endoscopic Bladder Resection for Bladder Cancer
Bladder cancer is any of several types of cancer arising from the epithelial lining (i.e., the urothelium) of the urinary bladder. Rarely the bladder is involved by non-epithelial cancers, such as lymphoma or sarcoma, but these are not ordinarily included in the colloquial term "bladder cancer." It is a disease in which abnormal cells multiply without control in the bladder. The most common type of bladder cancer recapitulates the normal histology of the urothelium and is known as transitional cell carcinoma or more properly urothelial cell carcinoma. Five-year survival rates in the United States are around 77%. Bladder cancer is the 9th leading cause of cancer with 430,000 new cases[3] and 165,000 deaths occurring in 2012. Signs and symptoms: Bladder cancer characteristically causes blood (redness) in the urine. This blood in the urine may be visible to the naked eye (gross/macroscopic hematuria) or detectable only by microscope (microscopic hematuria). Hematuria is the most common symptom in bladder cancer. It occurs in approximately 80-90% of the patients. Other possible symptoms include pain during urination, frequent urination, or feeling the need to urinate without being able to do so. These signs and symptoms are not specific to bladder cancer, and are also caused by non-cancerous conditions, including prostate infections, over-active bladder and cystitis. There are many other causes of hematuria, such as bladder or ureteric stones, infection, kidney disease, kidney cancers and vascular malformations. Patients with advanced disease refer pelvic or bony pain, lower-extremity edema, or flank pain. Rarely a palpable mass can be detected on physical examination. ***John Cudecki, M.D. provides expert commentary while surgical partner, Michael Gomez, M.D., performs a bladder tumor resection on a patient with bladder cancer from Mercy Hospital and Medical Center in Chicago, IL. The expert commentary features solutions for ergonomic positioning of the OR table and imaging monitors in a hybrid OR. Pls Subscriptions and Share : Follow us on: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCFFnAEmlw80lqFPtJ4-DRPg sbs15625@gmail.com https://twitter.com/BariSadik https://www.facebook.com/sadikatulbari.sadik https://www.facebook.com/mats.dmf?ref=hl tabersdictionary.blogspot.com
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Wound  drainage systems : Negative pressure
The flow or withdrawal of fluids, such as blood, infused saline, pus, and collected debris, from a cavity, organ, surgical site, or wound. active drainage: Drainage in which negative pressure is maintained in the drainage tube. It is used in treating pneumothorax and in certain types of drains or catheters in the intestinal tract, body cavity, or surgical wound. Autogenic drainage: A diaphragmatic breathing pattern used by patients with respiratory illnesses (such as cystic fibrosis or bronchiectasis) to clear the lungs of mucus and other secretions. Various techniques are used, all of which combine positive reinforcement of deep breathing and voluntary cough suppression for as long as possible before evacuating the airways of mucus. capillary drainage Drainage by capillary action. chest drainage Placement of a drainage tube in the chest cavity, usually in the pleural space. The tube is used to drain air, fluid, or blood from the pleural space so that the compressed and collapsed lung can expand. The tube is connected to a system that produces suction. This helps to remove the material from the pleural space and also prevents air from being sucked into the space. closed drainage Drainage of a wound or body space into a self-contained, sealed collecting system. closed sterile drainage A sterile tube draining a body site, such as the abdominal cavity or pleural space, that is designed to prevent the entry of air and bacteria into the tubing or the area being drained. Pls Subscriptions and Share : https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCFFnAEmlw80lqFPtJ4-DRPg sbs15625@gmail.com https://twitter.com/BariSadik https://www.facebook.com/sadikatulbari.sadik https://www.facebook.com/mats.dmf?ref=hl
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Normal Gait Cycle Knee Focus
A (bipedal) gait cycle is the time period or sequence of events or movements during locomotion in which one foot contacts the ground to when that same foot again contacts the ground, and involves forward propulsion of the centre of gravity. A single gait cycle is also known as a stride. Each gait cycle or stride has two phases: Stance Phase, the phase during which the foot remains in contact with the ground, and the Swing Phase, the phase during which the foot is not in contact with the ground. Pls Subscriptions and Share : Follow us on: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCFFnAEmlw80lqFPtJ4-DRPg sbs15625@gmail.com https://twitter.com/BariSadik https://www.facebook.com/sadikatulbari.sadik https://www.facebook.com/mats.dmf?ref=hl tabersdictionary.blogspot.com
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Deep brain stimulation innovation surgery video _ neurology and neurosurgery
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a neurosurgical procedure introduced in 1987, involving the implantation of a medical device called a neurostimulator (sometimes referred to as a 'brain pacemaker'), which sends electrical impulses, through implanted electrodes, to specific targets in the brain (brain nuclei) for the treatment of movement and neuropsychiatric disorders. DBS in select brain regions has provided therapeutic benefits for otherwise-treatment-resistant disorders such as Parkinson's disease, essential tremor, dystonia, chronic pain, major depression and obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD).Despite the long history of DBS, its underlying principles and mechanisms are still not clear. DBS directly changes brain activity in a controlled manner, its effects are reversible (unlike those of lesioning techniques), and it is one of only a few neurosurgical methods that allow blinded studies. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved DBS as a treatment for essential tremor and Parkinson's disease in 1997,dystonia in 2003, and OCD in 2009. DBS is also used in research studies to treat chronic pain, PTSD, and has been used to treat various affective disorders, including major depression; none of these applications of DBS have yet been FDA-approved. While DBS has proven effective for some patients, potential for serious complications and side effects exists. The deep brain stimulation system consists of three components: the implanted pulse generator (IPG), the lead, and the extension. The IPG is a battery-powered neurostimulator encased in a titanium housing, which sends electrical pulses to the brain to interfere with neural activity at the target site. The lead is a coiled wire insulated in polyurethane with four platinum-iridium electrodes and is placed in one or two different nuclei of the brain. The lead is connected to the IPG by the extension, an insulated wire that runs below the skin, from the head, down the side of the neck, behind the ear to the IPG, which is placed subcutaneously below the clavicle or, in some cases, the abdomen. The IPG can be calibrated by a neurologist, nurse, or trained technician to optimize symptom suppression and control side-effects. DBS leads are placed in the brain according to the type of symptoms to be addressed. For non-Parkinsonian essential tremor, the lead is placed in the ventrointermediate nucleus (VIM) of the thalamus; for dystonia and symptoms associated with Parkinson's disease (rigidity, bradykinesia/akinesia, and tremor), the lead may be placed in either the globus pallidus internus or the subthalamic nucleus; for OCD and depression to the nucleus accumbens; for incessant pain to the posterior thalamic region or periaqueductal gray; for Parkinson plus patients to two nuclei simultaneously, subthalamic nucleus and tegmental nucleus of pons, with the use of two pulse generators; and for epilepsy treatment to the anterior thalamic nucleus. All three components are surgically implanted inside the body. Lead implantation may take place under local anesthesia or with the patient under general anesthesia ("asleep DBS") such as for dystonia. A hole about 14 mm in diameter is drilled in the skull and the probe electrode is inserted stereotactically. During the awake procedure with local anesthesia, feedback from the patient is used to determine optimal placement of the permanent electrode. During the asleep procedure, intraoperative MRI guidance is used for direct visualization of brain tissue and device.The installation of the IPG and extension leads occurs under general anesthesia.[16] The right side of the brain is stimulated to address symptoms on the left side of the body and vice versa. University Hospitals in Cleveland, Ohio recently made history when millions tuned in to watch a live brain surgery Oct. 25 on the National Geographic network. This landmark television event captured the drama of an awake deep brain stimulation surgery of a patient with Parkinson’s disease. Benjamin Walter, MD, Director of the Parkinson’s & Movement Disorders Center, discusses University Hospitals past, current and future innovative uses of DBS. Pls Subscriptions and Share : Follow us on: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCFFnAEmlw80lqFPtJ4-DRPg sbs15625@gmail.com https://twitter.com/BariSadik https://www.facebook.com/sadikatulbari.sadik https://www.facebook.com/mats.dmf?ref=hl tabersdictionary.blogspot.com
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Kidney Stone Treatment with Lithotripsy
Kidney stone disease, also known as urolithiasis, is when a solid piece of material (kidney stone) occurs in the urinary tract.Kidney stones typically form in the kidney and leave the body in the urine stream. A small stone may pass without causing symptoms. If a stone grows to more than 5 millimeters (0.2 in) it can cause blockage of the ureter resulting in severe pain in the lower back or abdomen.A stone may also result in blood in the urine, vomiting, or painful urination.[2] About half of people will have another stone within ten years. Most stones form due to a combination of genetics and environmental factors. Risk factors include high urine calcium levels, obesity, certain foods, some medications, calcium supplements, hyperparathyroidism, gout and not drinking enough fluids. Stones form in the kidney when minerals in urine are at high concentration. The diagnosis is usually based on symptoms, urine testing, and medical imaging. Blood tests may also be useful. Stones are typically classified by their location: nephrolithiasis (in the kidney), ureterolithiasis (in the ureter), cystolithiasis (in the bladder), or by what they are made of (calcium, uric acid, struvite, cystine). In those who have had stones, prevention is by drinking fluids such that more than two liters of urine is produced per day. If this is not effective enough, thiazide diuretic, citrate, or allopurinol may be taken. It is recommended that soft drinks containing phosphoric acid (typically colas) be avoided.When a stone causes no symptoms, no treatment is needed.Otherwise pain control is usually the first measure, using medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or opioids.[6][3] Larger stones may be helped to pass with the medication tamsulosin or may require procedures such as extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, ureteroscopy, or percutaneous nephrolithotomy. Between 1% and 15% of people globally are affected by kidney stones at some point in their life.[4] In 2013, 49 million cases occurred,[8] resulting in about 15,000 deaths.[9] They have become more common in the Western world since the 1970s.Generally, more men are affected than women. Kidney stones have affected humans throughout history with descriptions of surgery to remove them dating from as early as 600 BC. Pls Subscriptions and Share : Follow us on: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCFFnAEmlw80lqFPtJ4-DRPg sbs15625@gmail.com https://twitter.com/BariSadik https://www.facebook.com/sadikatulbari.sadik https://www.facebook.com/mats.dmf?ref=hl tabersdictionary.blogspot.com
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How to palpate femoral pulse
The femoral artery (Latin: arteria femoralis) is a large artery in the thigh and the main arterial supply to the lower limb. It enters the thigh from behind the inguinal ligament as the common femoral artery, a continuation of the external iliac artery. Here, it lies midway between the anterior superior iliac spine and the symphysis pubis. The common femoral artery gives off the profunda femoris artery and becomes the superficial femoral artery to descend along the anteromedial part of the thigh in the femoral triangle. It enters and passes through the adductor (subsartorial) canal, and becomes the popliteal artery as it passes through an opening in adductor magnus near the junction of the middle and distal thirds of the thigh. The Femoral Region: As with examination of any other area of the body, exposure is key. Socks, stockings, pants and skirts should all be removed. 1.Begin by simply looking at the area in question, which is on either side of the crease separating the leg from the groin region. Make note of any discrete swellings, which might represent adenopathy or a femoral hernia. 2.Palpate the area, feeling carefully for the femoral pulses as well as for inguinal/femoral adenopathy (nodes which surround the femoral artery and vein.... up to one cm in size are considered non-pathologic). If you feel any lymph nodes, note if they are firm or soft, fixed in position or freely mobile (fixed, firm nodes are more worrisome for pathologic states). Pls Subscriptions and Share : https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCFFnAEmlw80lqFPtJ4-DRPg sbs15625@gmail.com https://twitter.com/BariSadik https://www.facebook.com/sadikatulbari.sadik https://www.facebook.com/mats.dmf?ref=hl
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How To Help Someone Use A Bedpan
A bedpan or bed pan is an object used for the toileting of a bedridden patient in a health care facility, usually made of a metal, glass, or plastic receptacle. A bed pan can be used for both urinary and fecal discharge. Many diseases can confine a patient to bed, necessitating the use of bedpans, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, apoplexia cerebri and dementia. Additionally, many patients may be confined to a bed temporarily as a result of a temporary illness, injury, or surgery, thereby necessitating the use of a bed pan. Bedpans are usually constructed of stainless steel and may be cold, hard and uncomfortable. On the other hand, stainless steel is easy to clean and durable. Also, the supporting area of some products is very small and prolonged use can cause pressure ulcers. To solve these problems, new ergonomic bedpans have been developed, which support the patient with a larger area of warm plastic. Some designs completely cover the genitalia during use, offering protection and an extra measure of privacy. On the other hand, the material is difficult to clean, and plastic may be a reservoir for microorganisms. Fracture bedpans are smaller than standard size bedpans, having one flat end. These bedpans are designed specifically for patients who have had a hip fracture or are recovering from hip replacement. This type of bedpan may be used for those who cannot raise their hips high enough or to roll over onto a regular size bedpan. In recent years, the bedpan liner made of recycled pulp (molded pulp) is more popular in UK hospitals; it is high total cost, single-use, decreasing the risk of cross-contaminated disease. An alternative to the recycled pulp liner is the plastic bedpan liner which creates a barrier between the waste and the bedpan. Some liners are made of biodegradable plastic and contain absorbent powder to eliminate splashing and spills. These liners are being used in hospitals to decrease infection and can also be purchased and used for home care. Pls Subscriptions and Share : https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCFFnAEmlw80lqFPtJ4-DRPg sbs15625@gmail.com https://twitter.com/BariSadik https://www.facebook.com/sadikatulbari.sadik https://www.facebook.com/mats.dmf?ref=hl
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Taber’s Medical Dictionary   scoliosis
A lateral curvature of the spine. It usually consists of two curves, the original abnormal curve and a compensatory curve in the opposite direction. Scoliosis may be functional, structural, or idiopathic. Functional or postural scoliosis usually occurs as a result of a discrepancy in leg length and corrects when the patient bends toward the convex side. Structural scoliosis is related to vertebral bone deformities and thus does not correct with posture changes. Idiopathic scoliosis (the most common kind) may be transmitted as an autosomal dominant or multifactorial trait.
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Personal protective equipment
personal protective equipment : ABBR: PPE Clothing, masks, gloves, or other equipment designed to protect a person from exposure to noxious chemicals or transmissible diseases.
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Process of humoral immune response
The protective activities of antibodies against infection or reinfection by common organisms, e.g., streptococci and staphylococci. B lymphocytes with receptors to a specific antigen react when they encounter that antigen by producing plasma cells (which produce antigen-specific antibodies) and memory cells (which enable the body to produce these antibodies quickly in the event that the same antigen appears later). B-cell differentiation also is stimulated by interleukin-2 (IL-2) secreted by CD4+ T cells and foreign antigens processed by macrophages. Antibodies produced by plasma B cells, found mainly in the blood, spleen, and lymph nodes, neutralize or destroy antigens in several ways. They kill organisms by activating the complement system, neutralize viruses and toxins released by bacteria, coat the antigen (opsonization) or form an antigen-antibody complex to stimulate phagocytosis, promote antigen clumping (agglutination), and prevent the antigen from adhering to host cells. Pls Subscriptions and Share : Follow us on: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCFFnAEmlw80lqFPtJ4-DRPg sbs15625@gmail.com https://twitter.com/BariSadik https://www.facebook.com/sadikatulbari.sadik https://www.facebook.com/mats.dmf?ref=hl tabersdictionary.blogspot.com
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Hydro-colloid dressings:A hydrocolloid dressing is a wafer type of dressing that contains gel-forming agents in an adhesive compound laminated onto a flexible, water-resistant outer layer. Some formulations contain an alginate to increase absorption capabilities.
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Taber’s Medical Dictionary   enema
Enema : The introduction of a solution into the rectum and colon to stimulate bowel activity and cause emptying of the lower intestine, for feeding or therapeutic purposes, to give anesthesia, or to aid in radiographic studies. A solution introduced into the rectum. For more video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y3Xs9Z_3AU8
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Urinal Taber’s Medical Dictionary
Urinal: A urinal is a sanitary plumbing fixture for urination only, predominantly used by males. It can take the form of a container or simply a wall, with drainage and automatic or manual flushing, or without flush water as is the case for waterless urinals. The different types of urinals, be it for single users or as trough designs for multiple users, are intended to be utilized from a standing position (rather than squatting or sitting). The term may also apply to a small building or other structure containing such fixtures. It can also refer to a small container in which urine can be collected for medical analysis, or for use where access to toilet facilities is not possible, such as in small aircraft, during extended stakeouts, or for the bedridden. While urinals are generally intended for use by males, it is also possible for females to use them. Designers of urinals for women have adopted various approaches: some intending the user to "hover" over the unit, facing away from it, others intending the user to stand facing the urinal, with or without a female urination device. While uncommon due to restroom segregation, it is possible for females to use male urinals.
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Taber’s Medical Dictionary   circulation
Fetal circulation: The course of the flow of blood in a fetus. Oxygenated in the placenta, blood passes through the umbilical vein and ductus venosus to the inferior vena cava and thence to the right atrium. It then follows one of two courses: through the foramen ovale to the left atrium and thence through the aorta to the tissues, or through the right ventricle, pulmonary artery, and ductus arteriosus to the aorta and thence to the tissues. In either case the blood bypasses the lungs, which do not function before birth. Blood returns to the placenta through the umbilical arteries, which are continuations of the hypogastric arteries. At birth or shortly after, the ductus arteriosus and the foramen ovale close, establishing the postpartum circulation. If either fails to close, the baby may be hypoxemic. sbs15625@gmail.com https://twitter.com/BariSadik https://www.facebook.com/sadikatulbari.sadik
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Taber’s Medical Dictionary   ovulation
Ovulation : [L. ovulum, little egg] The periodic ripening and rupture of the mature graafian follicle and the discharge of the ovum from the cortex of the ovary. Under the influence of follicle-stimulating hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary, the follicle matures. The enlarging and maturing follicle causes a slight protrusion of the ovarian surface. Final follicular maturation and rupture occur in response to a sudden surge of luteinizing hormone. The ovum is expelled, captured by the fimbriae, and guided into the fallopian tube. Rapid changes occur in the ruptured follicle as it becomes the corpus luteum and secretes large amounts of progesterone. In the absence of fertilization, the corpus luteum degenerates within about a week, forming a fibrous scar known as corpus albicans. sbs15625@gmail.com https://twitter.com/BariSadik https://www.facebook.com/sadikatulbari.sadik
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Oxygen face mask
An oxygen mask provides a method to transfer breathing oxygen gas from a storage tank to the lungs. Oxygen masks may cover the nose and mouth (oral nasal mask) or the entire face (full-face mask). They may be made of plastic, silicone, or rubber.
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How to take oral temperature of human beings
A marker of endocrine, metabolic, or muscle activity; the response of the body to heat or cold in the environment; or the presence of infection, inflammation, among other illnesses; it is one of the vital signs. Body temperature varies with the time of day and the site of measurement. Oral temperature is usually 97.5° to 99.5°F (36° to 38°C). Daily fluctuations in an individual may be 1° or 2°F. Body temperature may be measured by a placing a thermometer in the mouth and under the tongue, the rectum, under the arm, in the bladder, within the chambers of the heart, or in the external auditory canal of the ear. Rectal temperature is usually from 0.5° to 1.0°F (0.28° to 0.56°C) higher than by mouth; axillary temperature is about 0.5°F (0.28°C) lower than by mouth. Oral temperature measurement may be inaccurate if performed just after the patient has ingested cold or hot substances or has been breathing with an open mouth. Body temperature is regulated by thermoregulatory centers in the hypothalamus that balance heat production and heat loss. Eighty-five percent of body heat is lost through the skin (radiation, conduction, sweating) and the remainder through the lungs and fecal and urinary excretions. Muscular work (including shivering) is a mechanism for raising body temperature. Elevation of temperature above normal is called fever (pyrexia), and subnormal temperature is hypothermia. Other factors that can influence body temperature are age (infants and children have a wider range of body temperature than adults, and elderly have lower body temperatures than others); menstruation cycle in women (the temperature rises in the ovulatory midcycle and remains high until menses); and exercise (temperature rises with moderate to vigorous muscular activity). Pls Subscriptions and Share : https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCFFnAEmlw80lqFPtJ4-DRPg sbs15625@gmail.com https://twitter.com/BariSadik https://www.facebook.com/sadikatulbari.sadik https://www.facebook.com/mats.dmf?ref=hl
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Taber’s Medical Dictionary   ostomy
Ostomy:A surgically formed fistula connecting a portion of the intestine or urinary tract to the exterior (usually through the abdominal wall). OSTOMY CARE Whether the ostomy is temporary or permanent, the patient should be assured that it will be possible to carry on normal activities with a minimum of inconvenience. Prior to being discharged from the hospital, the patient and/or family should be provided full explanation and demonstration of ostomy care. Consultation with another patient who has become competent in ostomy care will be esp. helpful. Those individuals may be contacted through ostomy clubs that have been organized in various cities. The patient should be provided with precise directions concerning places that sell ostomy care equipment. Detailed instructions for care and use of ostomy devices are included in the package. Specific care involves the stoma (enterostomal care) and irrigation of the bowel, when appropriate, leading to the stoma. In caring for a double-barrel colostomy, it is important to irrigate only the proximal stoma. STOMA CARE The character of the material excreted through the stoma will depend on the portion of the bowel to which it is attached. Excretions from the ileum will be fluid and quite irritating to skin; those from the upper right colon will be semifluid; those from the upper left colon are partly solid; and those from the sigmoid colon will tend to be solid. Care of the stoma, whether for ileostomy or colostomy, is directed toward maintaining the peristomal skin and mucosa of the stoma in a healthy condition. This is more difficult to achieve with an ileostomy than with a lower colon colostomy. The skin surrounding the stoma can be protected by use of commercially available disks (washers) made of karaya gum or hypoallergenic skin shields. The collecting bag or pouch can be attached to the karaya gum washer or skin shield so that a watertight seal is made. The karaya gum washers can be used on weeping skin, but the skin shields cannot. New skin will grow beneath the karaya gum. The stoma may require only a gauze pad covering in the case of a sigmoid colostomy that is being irrigated daily or every other day. If a plastic bag is used for collecting drainage, it will need to be emptied periodically and changed as directed. At each change of the bag, meticulous but gentle skin care will be given. The stoma should not be digitally dilated except by those experienced in enterostomal care. IRRIGATION OF COLOSTOMY Many individuals will be able to regulate the character of their diet so that the feces may be removed from the colonic stoma at planned intervals. The stoma is attached to a plastic bag held in place with a self-adhering collar or a belt. Tap water at 40°C (104°F), is introduced slowly through a soft rubber catheter or cone. The catheter is inserted no further than 10 to 15 cm, and the irrigating fluid container is hung at a height that will allow fluid to flow slowly. The return from the irrigation may be collected in a closed or open-ended bag. The latter will allow the return to empty into a basin or toilet. The return of fluid and feces should be completed in less than one-half hour after irrigating fluid has entered the bowel. At the completion of the irrigating process, the skin and stoma should be carefully cleaned and the dressing or pouch replaced. The equipment should be cleaned thoroughly and stored in a dry, well-ventilated space. When irrigation of an ostomy is provided for a hospitalized patient, charting is done on the amount and kind of fluid instilled, the amount and character of return, the care provided for the stoma, the condition of the stoma, and if a pouch or bag is replaced. MISCELLANEOUS CONSIDERATIONS Odor may be controlled by avoiding foods that the individual finds to cause undesirable odors. Chlorophyll or bismuth subgallate tablets may control odor as well. Gas may be controlled by avoiding foods known to produce gas, which will vary from patient to patient, and with the use of simethicone products. The diet should be planned to provide a stool consistency that will be neither hard and constipating nor loose and watery. The patient may learn this by trial and error and by consulting with nutritionists and ostomy club members. Daily physical activity, sexual relations, and swimming are all possible. sbs15625@gmail.com https://twitter.com/BariSadik https://www.facebook.com/sadikatulbari.sadik https://www.facebook.com/mats.dmf?ref=hl
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Fertilization , implantation ,ovulation and conception in women
Fertilization: The process that begins with the penetration of the secondary oocyte by the spermatozoon and is completed with the fusion of the male and female pronuclei. This usually takes place in the fallopian tube. Viable spermatozoa have been found in the tube 48 hr after the last coitus. After the ovum is fertilized and the diploid chromosome number is restored in the zygote, cell division begins. The blastocyst then enters the uterus, where it may implant for continued nurture and development. Pls Subscriptions and Share and comment : https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCFFnAEmlw80lqFPtJ4-DRPg sbs15625@gmail.com https://twitter.com/BariSadik https://www.facebook.com/sadikatulbari.sadik https://www.facebook.com/mats.dmf?ref=hl
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Taber’s Medical Dictionary   suction
The drawing of fluids or solids from a surface, using negative pressures closed suctioning The incorporation of a suction system into a mechanical ventilator that permits airway suctioning without disconnecting patients from the ventilator. Closed suctioning prevents loss of positive end-expiratory pressure and loss of alveolar volume, and decreases contamination of the airway or the ventilator circuit by gases, germs, liquids, or fomites in the intensive care unit. nasogastric suction The suction of gas, fluid, and solid material from the gastrointestinal tract by use of a tube extending from the suction device to the stomach or intestines via the nasal passage. open suction Clearing the airways of a mechanically ventilated patient with a suction catheter inserted into the endotracheal tube after the patient has been disconnected from the ventilator circuit. PATIENT CARE To avoid hypoxia, the patient must be given high-flow oxygen before suctioning. During insertion of the suction tube no negative pressure is used to avoid damaging the fragile lining of the bronchi. Suction is then applied during tubal withdrawal for 15 sec or less. The patient should be in supine position, with head elevated 30 degrees or higher, unless otherwise contradicted. Baseline vital signs and oxygen saturation are assessed, and the patient informed the procedure may initiate coughing. The health care professional performs hand hygiene and puts on clean gloves. The patient is hyperoxygenated for 1 min prior to and after suctioning by increasing the ventilator’s fraction of inspired oxygen setting (FIO2) to 1. The vacuum regulator is adjusted to the desired suction pressure. The catheter is advanced to the carina of the trachea without suctioning to avoid airway injury. The patient with an intact cough reflex will begin to cough. Suctioning begins as the catheter is pulled out of the airway. The patient is checked for desired and adverse effects (such as hypoxia or arrhythmias), and needs are met. Suctioning is repeated as needed to clear secretions (usually no more than two to three passes). When suctioning is complete, the FIO2 level is returned to the proper setting. Since ventilated patients require frequent oral hygiene, this may be a good time for that to be provided. Gloves are removed, and hand hygiene repeated, and the procedure is documented.
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Taber’s Medical Dictionary Range of Motion (ROM): Cervical Spine
Range of Motion (ROM): Cervical Spine Cervical spine movements are complex and result of individual vertebral motion. There are six movements possible in normal range of motion of cervical spine. These are Flexion A movement by which chin attempts to touch the chest. Extension A movement in opposite direction of flexion Lateral Flexion This movement allows you to tilt your neck as if touch ear to your shoulder. The movement is equal on both sides. Rotation Rotation is the movement which we use to look over our shoulder or look back. The movement is equal on either side. Normal range of motion of cervical spine is Flexion – 80 to 90 degrees Extension – 70 degrees Lateral flexion – 20 to 45 degrees on both sides Rotation – 90° of rotation to both sides. In normal daily use the movements are hardly uniplanar as outlined above. Both flexion and extension movements are reported to be initiated is also initiated in the lower cervical spine. The first cervical vertebra, the atlas, articulates with the occipital condyles, and its primary motions are flexion and extension. Normal flexion to hyperextension at the atlanto-occipital joint range is 15 to 20 degrees. Rest is contributed by lower vertebrae. Rotation and lateral flexion between the occiput and atlas are not possible due to the depth of the atlantal sockets. These movements occur on atlanto axial joint [C1-C2]. The normal ranges of rotation of C1 on C2 are reported to be 50° to each side. Rotation of the atlas on the axis does not occur without a small degree of extension and lateral flexion and sometimes flexion. Cervical spine flexion and extension often create motion in the direction opposite that being experienced in the atlas. Thus, when the cervical spine is flexing, the atlas extends, and when the cervical spine extends, the atlas flexes. The orientation of the cervical vertebral bodies of the mid to lower cervical column allows for rotation and flexion movements but is resistant to lateral flexion. Lateral flexion is possible in the cervical column but only due to coupled rotational movement in each segment to that side.
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How to bandage a leg
Bandage: A bandage is a piece of material used either to support a medical device such as a dressing or splint, or on its own to provide support to or to restrict the movement of a part of the body. When used with a dressing, the dressing is applied directly on a wound, and a bandage used to hold the dressing in place. Other bandages are used without dressings, such as elastic bandages that are used to reduce swelling or provide support to a sprained ankle. Tight bandages can be used to slow blood flow to an extremity, such as when a leg or arm is bleeding heavily. Bandages are available in a wide range of types, from generic cloth strips to specialized shaped bandages designed for a specific limb or part of the body. Bandages can often be improvised as the situation demands, using clothing, blankets or other material. In American English, the word bandage is often used to indicate a small gauze dressing attached to an adhesive bandage. Please subscriber and share this video https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCFFnAEmlw80lqFPtJ4-DRPg sbs15625@gmail.com https://twitter.com/BariSadik https://www.facebook.com/sadikatulbari.sadik https://www.facebook.com/mats.dmf?ref=hl
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how to maintain personal hygiene
Hygiene is a set of practices performed to preserve health. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), "Hygiene refers to conditions and practices that help to maintain health and prevent the spread of diseases. Many people equate hygiene with 'cleanliness,' but hygiene is a broad term. It includes such personal habit choices as how frequently to bathe, wash hands, trim fingernails, and change clothing. It also includes attention to keeping surfaces in the home and workplace, including bathroom facilities, clean and pathogen-free. Some regular hygiene practices may be considered good habits by a society, while the neglect of hygiene can be considered disgusting, disrespectful, or threatening. Medical hygiene at home Medical hygiene pertains to the hygiene practices that prevents or minimizes disease and the spreading of disease in relation to administering medical care to those who are infected or who are more "at risk" of infection in the home. Across the world, governments are increasingly under pressure to fund the level of healthcare that people expect. Care of increasing numbers of patients in the community, including at home is one answer, but can be fatally undermined by inadequate infection control in the home. Increasingly, all of these "at-risk" groups are cared for at home by a carer who may be a household member who thus requires a good knowledge of hygiene. People with reduced immunity to infection, who are looked after at home, make up an increasing proportion of the population (currently up to 20%).The largest proportion are the elderly who have co-morbidities, which reduce their immunity to infection. It also includes the very young, patients discharged from hospital, taking immuno-suppressive drugs or using invasive systems, etc. For patients discharged from hospital, or being treated at home special "medical hygiene" (see above) procedures may need to be performed for them e.g. catheter or dressing replacement, which puts them at higher risk of infection. Antiseptics may be applied to cuts, wounds abrasions of the skin to prevent the entry of harmful bacteria that can cause sepsis. Day-to-day hygiene practices, other than special medical hygiene procedures are no different for those at increased risk of infection than for other family members. The difference is that, if hygiene practices are not correctly carried out, the risk of infection is much greater.
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Walking Boot
Taber’s Medical Dictionary cast
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Taber’s Medical Dictionary  apical  pulse assessment
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How to take tympanic temperature in children
A tympanic thermometer consists of an otoscope-like tip with an infrared sensor on the end that detects heat radiated from the ear’s tympanic membrane. When using the thermometer, cover the tip with a single-use, disposable plastic sheath. Place the covered tip at the external opening of the ear canal, and wait 2 to 5 seconds after you press the scan button for the temperature display. To obtain an accurate reading from a tympanic thermometer, it is important to place the probe at the proper angle for sealing the ear canal. Do not use the tympanic site if the patient reports ear pain or has excessive earwax, drainage from the ear, or sores or injuries in or around the ear. The average normal oral temperature is 98.6°F (37°C). A rectal temperature is 0.5°F (0.3°C) to 1°F (0.6°C) higher than an oral temperature. An ear (tympanic) temperature is 0.5°F (0.3°C) to 1°F (0.6°C) higher than an oral temperature. Pls Subscriptions and Share : Follow us on: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCFFnAEmlw80lqFPtJ4-DRPg sbs15625@gmail.com https://twitter.com/BariSadik https://www.facebook.com/sadikatulbari.sadik https://www.facebook.com/mats.dmf?ref=hl
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Latest Cardiac monitoring system
The phrase cardiac monitoring generally refers to continuous monitoring of the heart activity, generally by electrocardiography, with assessment of the patients condition relative to their cardiac rhythm. It is different from hemodynamic monitoring, which monitors the pressure and flow of blood within the circulatory system. The two may be performed simultaneously on critical heart patients. A small monitor worn by an ambulatory patient is known as a Holter monitor. Transmitting data from a monitor to a distant monitoring station is known as telemetry or biotelemetry. Monitor/Defibrillators Some digital patient monitors, especially those used EMS services, often incorporate a defibrillator into the patient monitor itself. These monitor/defibrillators usually have the normal capabilities of an ICU monitor, but have manual (and usually semi-automatic AED)defibrillation capability. This is particular good for EMS services, who need a compact, easy to use monitor and defibrillator, as well as for inter- or intrafacility patient transport. Most monitor defibrillators also have transcutaneous pacing capability via large AED like adhesive pads (which often can be used for monitoring, defibrillation and pacing)that are applied to the patient in an anterior-posterior configuration. The monitor defibrillator units often have specialized monitoring parameters such as waveform capnography, invasive BP, and in some monitors, Masimo Rainbow SET pulse oximetry. Examples of monitor defibrillators are the Lifepak 12, 15 and 20 made by Physio Control, the Philips Heartstart MRx, and the E, R, and X Series by ZOLL Medical. What happens after wearing a cardiac event recorder? You may need to wear an event recorder for several days or up to a month. With several recordings, your doctor will be able to decide if your irregular heartbeats require more tests or treatment. Heart rate monitoring Monitoring of the heart rate can be performed as part of electrocardiography, but it can also be measured conveniently with specific heart rate monitors. Such heart rate monitors are largely used by performers of various types of physical exercise
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Sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system
Anatomy :The primary motor cells of the SNS are found in the intermediolateral column of the thoracic and lumbar segments of the spinal cord. The axons (preganglionic axons) of these neurons exit the spinal ventral roots and synapse on neurons in one or more of the peripheral sympathetic ganglia. Twenty-two sympathetic ganglia (paravertebral ganglia) lie in two chains, one on each side of the vertebral column, with approximately one ganglion per spinal cord segment. Other sympathetic ganglion cells are found in clusters more peripherally, usually entwined in nerve plexuses. Four large unpaired plexuses, the celiac, superior mesenteric, aorticorenal, and inferior mesenteric, are often called the "prevertebral sympathetic ganglia." Extending from these plexuses are many smaller plexuses that are named for the structures they surround and innervate; e.g., cardiac plexuses, the esophageal plexus, the gastric plexus, and the prostatic plexus. PHYSIOLOGY AND PHARMACOLOGY Activation of the SNS readies an organism to interact with the outside world. Sympathetic activity dilates pupils, increases heart rate, widens airways, increases circulation to skeletal muscles, decreases circulation to the gastrointestinal tract, and increases the availability of glucose, a direct source of energy. Most of these effects are produced by norepinephrine interacting with adrenergic receptors on effector cells (smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and secretory cells). The various subtypes of adrenergic receptors are associated with characteristic effects. In general, alpha-1 and alpha-2 adrenergic receptors produce smooth muscle contraction, notably constriction of blood vessels; alpha-2 receptors also produce cardiac muscle relaxation. Beta-1 adrenergic receptors produce cardiac muscle contraction, while beta-2 receptors produce smooth muscle contraction, notably in the airways of the lung. Beta-3 receptors, which are found in adipose tissue, stimulate lipolysis. Drugs other than norepinephrine and epinephrine (adrenalin) can act on adrenergic receptors, and receptor subtypes differ in their sensitivity to specific drugs. For example, phenylephrine selectively activates and phentolamine selectively blocks alpha adrenergic receptors, while isoproterenol (isoprenaline) selectively activates and propranolol selectively blocks beta adrenergic receptors. The availability of selective drugs allows some autonomic medical symptoms to be targeted selectively. Pls Subscriptions and Share : https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCFFnAEmlw80lqFPtJ4-DRPg sbs15625@gmail.com https://twitter.com/BariSadik https://www.facebook.com/sadikatulbari.sadik https://www.facebook.com/mats.dmf?ref=hl
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Adult Polycystic Kidney Disease with End Stage Renal Disease
Polycystic kidney disease (PKD or PCKD, also known as polycystic kidney syndrome) is a genetic disorder in which abnormal cysts develop and grow in the kidneys.Cystic disorders can express themselves at any point, infancy, childhood, or adulthood. The disease occurs in humans and some other animals. PKD is characterized by the presence of multiple cysts (hence, "polycystic") typically in both kidneys; however, 17% of cases initially present with observable disease in one kidney, with most cases progressing to bilateral disease in adulthood. Polycystic kidney disease is one of the most common hereditary diseases in the United States, affecting more than 600,000 people. It is the cause of nearly 10% of end-stage renal disease and affects men, women, and all races equally. *** Stephen Bartlett, M.D., The Peter Angelos Distinguished Professor and Chairman, Department of Surgery, University of Maryland School of Medicine, shares a lecture from a presentation at the Polycystic Kidney Foundation’s National Conference in Orlando, Florida. Pls Subscriptions and Share : Follow us on: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCFFnAEmlw80lqFPtJ4-DRPg sbs15625@gmail.com https://twitter.com/BariSadik https://www.facebook.com/sadikatulbari.sadik https://www.facebook.com/mats.dmf?ref=hl tabersdictionary.blogspot.com
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Surgical Treatment for Sinus Pain : Sinusitis
Sinusitis :Sinusitis is an inflammation, or swelling, of the tissue lining the sinuses. Normally, sinuses are filled with air. But when they become blocked and filled with fluid, germs (bacteria, viruses, and fungi) can grow and cause an infection. Who Gets Sinusitis? About 37 million Americans have it at least once each year. It’s more likely if you have: Swelling inside the nose like from a common cold Blocked drainage ducts Structural differences that narrow those ducts Nasal polyps Conditions that make an infection more likely, such as immune system deficiencies or medications that suppress the immune system. Symptoms of Acute Sinusitis The main ones include: Facial pain or pressure Nasal stuffiness Nasal discharge Loss of smell Cough or congestion You may also have: Fever Bad breath Fatigue Dental pain Symptoms of Chronic Sinusitis You may have these symptoms for 8 weeks or more: A feeling of congestion or fullness in your face A nasal obstruction or blockage Pus in the nasal cavity Fever Nasal discharge or discolored postnasal drainage You may also have: Headaches Bad breath Fatigue Dental pain Diagnosis Your doctor will consider your symptoms and give you a physical examination. He may feel and press your sinuses for tenderness, and tap your teeth to see if you have an inflamed paranasal sinus. Treatment It depends on your particular case. Acute sinusitis. If you have a simple sinus infection, your doctor may recommend you use decongestant meds and steam inhalations. You shouldn’t use an over-the-counter decongestant for more than a few days, though, because it can make you more congested. If your doctor gives you antibiotics, you’ll probably take them for 10 to 14 days. The symptoms usually disappear with treatment. Chronic sinusitis. Warm moist air may help. You can use a vaporizer or inhale steam from a pan of warm (but not too hot) water. Warm compresses can ease pain in the nose and sinuses. Saline nose drops are also safe to use at home. Over-the-counter decongestant nasal drops or sprays could also help, but don’t take them longer than recommended. In some cases, your doctor may prescribe antibiotics or steroids. Pls Subscriptions and Share : Follow us on: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCFFnAEmlw80lqFPtJ4-DRPg sbs15625@gmail.com https://twitter.com/BariSadik https://www.facebook.com/sadikatulbari.sadik https://www.facebook.com/mats.dmf?ref=hl tabersdictionary.blogspot.com
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how to take a radial pulse video
Radial pulse: located on the lateral of the wrist (radial artery). It can also be found in the anatomical snuff box. Ulnar pulse: located on the medial of the wrist (ulnar artery).
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How to TMJ normal motions
The temporomandibular joints (TMJ) are the two joints connecting the jawbone to the skull. It is a bilateral synovial articulation between the temporal bone of the skull above and the mandible below; it is from these bones that its name is derived.
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Robot Assisted Partial Nephrectomy Using Firefly Fluorescence Urology
Nephrectomy is the surgical removal of a kidney. Indications: There are various indications for this procedure, such as renal cell carcinoma, a non-functioning kidney (which may cause high blood pressure) and a congenitally small kidney (in which the kidney is swelling, causing it to press on nerves which can cause pain in unrelated areas such as the back). Nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma is rapidly being modified to allow partial removal of the kidney. Nephrectomy is also performed for the purpose of living donor kidney transplantation. A nephroureterectomy is the removal of a kidney and the entire ureter and a small cuff of the bladder for urothelial cancer of the kidney or ureter. Procedure: he surgery is performed with the patient under general anesthesia. A kidney can be removed through an open incision or laparoscopically. For the open procedure, the surgeon makes an incision in the side of the abdomen to reach the kidney. Depending on circumstances, the incision can also be made midline. The ureter and blood vessels are disconnected, and the kidney is then removed. The laparoscopic approach utilizes three or four small (5–10 mm) cuts in the abdominal and flank area. The kidney is completely detached inside the body and then placed in a bag. One of the incisions is then expanded to remove the kidney for cancer operations. If the kidney is being removed for other causes, it can be morcellated and removed through the small incisions. Recently, this procedure is performed through a single incision in the patient's belly-button. This advanced technique is called single port laparoscopy. For some illnesses, there are alternatives today that do not require the extraction of a kidney. Such alternatives include renal embolization for those who are poor candidates for surgery, or partial nephrectomy if possible. Occasionally renal cell cancers can involve adjacent organs, including the IVC, the colon, the pancreas or the liver. If the cancer has not spread to distant sites, it may be safely and completely removed surgically via open or laparoscopic techniques. Kidney Donation: In January 2009, a woman who had previously had a hysterectomy was able to donate a kidney and have it removed through her vagina. The operation took place at Johns Hopkins Medical Center. This is the first time a healthy kidney has been removed via this method, though it has been done in the past for nephrectomies carried out due to pathology. Removing organs through orifices prevents some of the pain of an incision and the need for a cosmetically unappealing larger scar. Any advance which leads to a decrease in pain and scarring has the potential to boost donor numbers.This operation has also taken place at the Cleveland Clinic, which first performed transvaginal Nephrectomy. Living donation has a mortality risk of 0.03% during the procedure and seems to result in similar health outcomes to controls. After care: Pain medication is often given to the patient after the surgery because of pain at the site of the incision. An IV with fluids is administered. Electrolyte balance and fluids are carefully monitored, because these are the functions of the kidneys. It is possible that the remaining kidney does not take over all functionality. A patient has to stay in the hospital between 2 and 7 days depending on the procedure and complications. Pls Subscriptions and Share : Follow us on: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCFFnAEmlw80lqFPtJ4-DRPg sbs15625@gmail.com https://twitter.com/BariSadik https://www.facebook.com/sadikatulbari.sadik https://www.facebook.com/mats.dmf?ref=hl tabersdictionary.blogspot.com
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Video for Cardinal Movements of Labor
1. An act or instance of moving from a higher place or location to a lower one, e.g., from the testes to the scrotum. 2. Derivation from a common ancestor; lineage; ancestry. 3. In obstetrics, the movement of a fetus through the pelvis during labor and delivery. Pls Subscriptions and Share : Follow us on: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCFFnAEmlw80lqFPtJ4-DRPg sbs15625@gmail.com https://twitter.com/BariSadik https://www.facebook.com/sadikatulbari.sadik https://www.facebook.com/mats.dmf?ref=hl tabersdictionary.blogspot.com
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