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Space Station Centrifuge Gravity Simulation 196x NASA color 3min
 
02:38
video for embedding at http://scitech.quickfound.net/ Space station artificial gravity is tested in a centrifuge of the type seen in "2001: A Space Odyssey" at NASA Langley Research Center. Two different rotation rates simulate one-tenth gravity (0.1 G, station rotating at about 4 rpm) and one-half gravity (0.5 G, station rotating at about 9 rpm). This is the same public domain video uploaded by NASA with letterboxing (black borders) removed and the aspect ratio corrected. Also, this particular NASA Langley video contained two other unrelated segments (comparison of walking and running Earth and lunar gravity, and lunar landing simulation in simulated lunar gravity) which I have uploaded separately. NASA, space program, astronaut, artificial gravity, centrifuge, simulation, Langley Research Center, space station
Просмотров: 94455 Jeff Quitney
Anti-Tank Warfare: "Crack That Tank" 1943 US Army Training Film; "Fighting Men" Series
 
13:10
Support this channel: https://www.patreon.com/jeffquitney US Army Training Film playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL0C7C6CCF1C0DEBB3 more at http://quickfound.net/links/military_news_and_links.html "Fighting Men: Crack That Tank" - Department of Defense. Department of the Army. US Army training film TF21-1019 Originally a public domain film from the US Army, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anti-tank_warfare Wikipedia license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ Anti-tank warfare arose as a result of the need to develop technology and tactics to destroy tanks during World War I. Since the first tanks were developed by the Triple Entente in 1916 but not operated in battle until 1917, the first anti-tank weapons were developed by the German Empire.[1] The first developed anti-tank weapon was a scaled-up bolt-action rifle, the Mauser 1918 T-Gewehr that fired a 13mm cartridge with a solid bullet that could penetrate the thin armor of tanks of the time and destroy the engine or ricochet inside killing occupants.[2] Because tanks represent an enemy's land greatest force projection, anti-tank warfare has been incorporated into the doctrine of nearly every combat service since. Most predominant anti-tank weapons at the start of World War II were the tank-mounted gun, anti-tank guns and anti-tank grenades used by the infantry as well as ground-attack aircraft. Anti-tank warfare evolved rapidly during World War II, leading to the inclusion of infantry portable weapon such as the Bazooka, anti-tank combat engineering, specialized anti-tank aircraft and self-propelled anti-tank guns (tank destroyers). Both the Soviet Red Army and the German Army developed methods of combating tank-led offensives, including deployment of static anti-tank weapons embedded in in-depth defensive positions, protected by anti-tank obstacles and minefields, and supported by mobile anti-tank reserves and ground attack aircraft.
Просмотров: 430304 Jeff Quitney
WWII Infantry Full Combat Pack, US Army; from The Big Picture TV-211 (circa 1951)
 
05:01
more at http://quickfound.net/links/military_news_and_links.html "Colonel Quinn appears and explains the clothing, equipment and food available to the combat infantryman." Combat pack, ammo belt, canteen, bayonet, first aid kit, mess kit, cargo pack, entrenching tool, etc, are shown. Excerpt from "The Big Picture" episode TV-211 The Big Picture TV Series playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL_hX5wLdhf_Jwfz5l_3NRAcCYURbOW2Fl Public domain film from the US National Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haversack ...Haversacks were in use during the American Civil War, as recounted in Grant's memoirs, "In addition to the supplies transported by boat, the men were to carry forty rounds of ammunition in the cartridge-boxes and four days' rations in haversacks." In 1910 the U.S. Army adopted the M-1910 haversack (or M10) as the standard back pack for all infantrymen. The pack is essentially a sheet of rugged khaki-colored canvas that folds around its contents (bedroll, clothing, daily rations, and assorted personal items), and is held together by flaps and adjustable buckle-straps. The two shoulder straps are designed to attach to a web belt or suspender configuration. The exterior of the pack has loops, rings, and grommet tabs for attaching a bayonet sheath, a "meat can" (mess kit) pouch, and a canvas carrier for a short-handled shovel (a.k.a. entrenchment tool). This pack remained in service, most notably during World War I, until 1928 when it was superseded by the slightly modified M-1928 pack. However, thousands of surplus M10s were issued during World War II to compensate for shortages in war-time textile production. The M-1928 haversack (M28) continued to be the standard-issue army back pack for the duration of World War II. The only exceptions being officers, engineers, paratroops, and medics who were issued the more compact M-1936 Musette Bag. The M28 was gradually phased out starting in 1944 with the introduction of the olive drab M-1944 and M-1945 Canvas Combat Field Pack configuration. This new two-part design, based on the Marine M-1941 system, used a much smaller back pack (for rations, clothes, ammunition, and messkit), and a separate Cargo Bag that attached to the bottom for extra clothes, shoes, and misc. items. The upper field pack had the same type of grommet tabs and loops as the M-1928 for attaching a bayonet and entrenchment tool plus straps for securing a "horseshoe" bedroll...
Просмотров: 114351 Jeff Quitney
Bailing Out 1949 US Navy Pilot Training Film; Animated Cartoon
 
09:30
Support this channel: https://www.patreon.com/jeffquitney US Navy Training Film playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLA40407C12E5E35A7 Pilot Training Film playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLCA6387BA013F9A4D more at http://scitech.quickfound.net/aviation_news_and_search.html On bailing out from an aircraft in trouble-- don't wait until it's too late... The narrator sounds like Paul Frees. US Navy Training Film MN-4353A Originally a public domain film from the US Navy, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parachuting Wikipedia license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ Parachuting, or skydiving, is a method of transiting from a high point to Earth with the aid of gravity, involving the control of speed during the descent with the use of a parachute. It may involve more or less free-falling which is a period during the parachute has not been deployed and the body gradually accelerates to terminal velocity. The first parachute jump in history was made by André-Jacques Garnerin, the inventor of the parachute, on October 22 1797. Garnerin tested his contraption by leaping from a hydrogen balloon 3,200 feet (980 m) above Paris. Garnerin's parachute bore little resemblance to today's parachutes, however, as it was not packed into any sort of container and did not feature a ripcord. The first intentional freefall jump with a ripcord-operated deployment was not made until over a century later by Leslie Irvin in 1919. While Georgia Broadwick made an earlier freefall in 1914 when her static line became entangled with her jump aircraft's tail assembly, her freefall descent was not planned. Broadwick cut her static line and deployed her parachute manually, only as a means of freeing herself from the aircraft to which she had become entangled. The military developed parachuting technology as a way to save aircrews from emergencies aboard balloons and aircraft in flight, and later as a way of delivering soldiers to the battlefield. Early competitions date back to the 1930s, and it became an international sport in 1952... Manually exiting an aircraft and parachuting to safety has been widely used by aviators (especially military aviators and aircrew), and passengers to escape an aircraft that could not otherwise land safely. While this method of escape is relatively rare in modern times, it was commonly used in World War I by military aviators, and utilized extensively throughout the air wars of World War II. In modern times, the most common means of escape from an aircraft in distress is via an ejection seat. Said system is usually operated by the pilot, aircrew member, or passenger, by engaging an activation device manually. In most designs, this will lead to the seat being propelled out of and away from the aircraft carrying the occupant with it, by means of either an explosive charge or a rocket propulsion system. Once clear of the aircraft, the ejection seat will deploy a parachute, although some older models entrusted this step to manual activation by the seat's occupant...
Просмотров: 248431 Jeff Quitney
Private SNAFU "The Home Front" 1943 US Army Cartoon Mel Blanc, Frank Tashlin, World War II
 
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Support this channel: https://www.patreon.com/jeffquitney more at http://quickfound.net/links/military_news_and_links.html "Private Snafu imagines the good times his family is having back home while he's stationed in the Arctic. Technical Fairy First Class shows that even his family is helping with the war effort - his dad building tanks, his mom planting a Victory Garden, Grandpa riveting battleships, and his girl joining the WAC's and even the family's horse is pitching in. This is one of 26 Private SNAFU ('Situation Normal, All Fouled Up) cartoons made by the US Army Signal Corps to educate and boost the morale the troops. Originally created by Theodore Geisel (Dr. Seuss) and Phil Eastman, most of the cartoons were produced by Warner Brothers Animation Studios - employing their animators, voice actors (primarily Mel Blanc) and Carl Stalling's music." Originally a public domain film slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Private_Snafu Wikipedia license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ Private Snafu is the title character of a series of black-and-white American instructional cartoon shorts produced between 1943 and 1945 during World War II. The character was created by director Frank Capra, chairman of the U.S. Army Air Force First Motion Picture Unit, and most were written by Theodor "Dr. Seuss" Geisel, Philip D. Eastman, and Munro Leaf. Although the United States Army gave Walt Disney the first crack at creating the cartoons, Leon Schlesinger of the Warner Bros. animation studio underbid Disney by two-thirds and won the contract. Disney had also demanded exclusive ownership of the character, and merchandising rights. Nel (2007) shows the goal was to help enlisted men with weak literacy skills learn through animated cartoons (and also supplementary comic books). They featured simple language, racy illustrations, no profanity, and subtle moralizing. Private Snafu did everything wrong, so that his negative example taught basic lessons about secrecy, disease prevention, and proper military protocols. Private Snafu cartoons were a military secret—for the armed forces only. Surveys to ascertain the soldiers' film favorites showed that the Snafu cartoons usually rated highest or second highest. Each cartoon was produced in six weeks, compared to the six months usually taken for short cartoons of the same kind... Most of the Private Snafu shorts are educational, and although the War Department had to approve the storyboards, the Warner directors were allowed great latitude in order to keep the cartoons entertaining... The Snafu shorts are notable because they were produced during the Golden Age of Warner Bros. animation. Directors such as Chuck Jones, Friz Freleng, Bob Clampett, and Frank Tashlin worked on them, and their characteristic styles are in top form. P. D. Eastman was a writer and storyboard artist for the Snafu shorts. Voice characterizations were provided by the celebrated Mel Blanc (Private Snafu's voice was similar to Blanc's Bugs Bunny characterization, and Bugs himself actually made cameos in the Snafu episodes Gas and Three Brothers). Toward the end of the war, other studios began producing Snafu shorts as well (the Army accused Schlesinger of padding his bills), though some of these never made it to celluloid before the war ended. The Snafu films are also partly responsible for keeping the animation studios open during the war—by producing such training films, the studios were declared an essential industry. After the war, the Snafu cartoons went largely forgotten. Prints eventually wound up in the hands of collectors, and these form the basis for The Complete, Uncensored Private Snafu, a VHS and DVD collection from Bosko Video...
Просмотров: 1677763 Jeff Quitney
1956 Chevy Stunt Driving: "Thrill Driver's Choice" 1956 Chevrolet; Joie Chitwood Thrill Show
 
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Support this channel: https://www.patreon.com/jeffquitney Auto Mechanics playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLCED11EACAE477F6C more at http://cars.quickfound.net/ Joie Chitwood Thrill Show drivers exclusively drive 1956 Chevrolets. Originally a public domain film from the Library of Congress Prelinger Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joie_Chitwood Wikipedia license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ George Rice "Joie" Chitwood (April 14, 1912 - January 3, 1988) was an American racecar driver and businessman. He is best known as a daredevil in the Joie Chitwood Thrill Show. Born in Denison, Texas of Cherokee Indian ancestry, he was dubbed "Joie" by a track promoter and the name stuck. Racing career Chitwood started his racecar driving career in 1934 at a dirt track in Winfield, Kansas. From there, he began racing sprint cars. In 1939 and 1940 he won the AAA East Coast Sprint car championship. He switched to the CSRA and won its title in 1942. Between 1940 and 1950 competed at the Indianapolis 500 seven times finishing fifth on three different occasions. He was the first man ever to wear a safety belt at the Indy 500. Joie Chitwood Thrill Show Chitwood also operated the "Joie Chitwood Thrill Show", an exhibition of auto stunt driving that became so successful he gave up racing. Often called "Hell Drivers," he had five units that for more than forty years toured across North America thrilling audiences in large and small towns alike with their death-defying automobile stunts. His show was so popular, that in January 1967, the performance at the Islip Speedway, New York was broadcast on ABC television's Wide World of Sports. On May 13, 1978, Joie Chitwood set a world record when he drove a Chevrolet Chevette for 5.6 miles (9.0 km) on just 2 wheels. His sons, Joie Jr. and Tim both joined the auto thrill show and continued to run the "Joie Chitwood Chevy Thunder Show" after their father's retirement. His grandson, Joie Chitwood III, is the President of Daytona International Speedway and a former president of the Indianapolis Motor Speedway. The show was featured during season 3 of CHiPs in an episode entitled "Thrill Show". Chitwood's show was credited by Evel Knievel as being his inspiration to become a daredevil. Stuntman Chitwood was frequently hired by Hollywood film studios to either do stunt driving for films or to act as auto-stunt coordinator. On a few occasions he appeared in a minor role, notably with Clark Gable and Barbara Stanwyck in the 1950 film about auto racing, To Please a Lady. In 1973, Chitwood is credited as a Stunt Coordinator for the hugely successful James Bond film Live and Let Die (film), where he was also the stunt driver and acted in a minor part. Safety Consultant Chitwood also acted as a car safety consultant, intentionally crashing vehicles for subsequent investigation. He had intentionally crashed more than 3000 vehicles by the time he appeared on the game show I've Got A Secret in 1965. Retirement When Chitwood retired, his sons took over the business. Joie Chitwood died in 1988, aged 75, in Tampa Bay, Florida. He was inducted in the National Sprint Car Hall of Fame in 1993. He was inducted in the Motorsports Hall of Fame of America in 2010 in the Historic category.
Просмотров: 266842 Jeff Quitney
Propfan: "Back to Propellers" 1987 NASA Lewis Research Center Fuel Efficient Aircraft Propulsion
 
02:53
Support this channel: https://www.patreon.com/jeffquitney more at http://scitech.quickfound.net/aviation_news_and_search.html "The video shows the unique propfan design. The propfan is designed to achieve the speeds and altitudes of jets while only using half the normal amount of fuel." Originally a public domain film from NASA, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Propfan Wikipedia license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ A propfan was first defined as a small diameter, highly loaded multiple bladed variable pitch propulsor having swept blades with thin advanced airfoil sections, integrated with a nacelle contoured to retard the airflow through the blades thereby reducing compressibility losses and designed to operate with a turbine engine and using a single stage reduction gear resulting in high performance. The propfan concept was first revealed by Carl Rohrbach and Bruce Metzger of the Hamilton Standard Division of United Technologies in 1975 and was patented by Robert Cornell and Carl Rohrbach of Hamilton Standard in 1979. Later work by General Electric on similar propulsors was done under the name unducted fan, which was a modified turbofan engine, with the fan placed outside the engine nacelle on the same axis as the compressor blades. Propfans are also known as ultra-high bypass (UHB) engines and, most recently, open flux rotor jet engines. The design is intended to offer the speed and performance of a turbofan, with the fuel economy of a turboprop... Limitations and solutions Propeller blade tip speed limit Turboprops have an optimum speed below about 450 mph (700 km/h). The reason is that all propellers lose efficiency at high speed, due to an effect known as wave drag that occurs just below supersonic speeds. This powerful form of drag has a sudden onset, and led to the concept of a sound barrier when it was first encountered in the 1940s. In the case of a propeller, this effect can happen any time the propeller is spun fast enough that the blade tips near the speed of sound, even if the aircraft is motionless on the ground. The most effective way to counteract this problem (to some degree) is by adding more blades to the propeller, allowing it to deliver more power at a lower rotational speed. This is why many World War II fighter designs started with two or three-blade propellers and by the end of the war were using up to five blades... A method of decreasing wave drag was discovered by German researchers in 1935—sweeping the wing backwards. Today, almost all aircraft designed to fly much above 450 mph (700 km/h) use a swept wing. In the 1970s, Hamilton Standard started researching propellers with similar sweep... The propfan concept was developed to deliver 35% better fuel efficiency than contemporary turbofans. In static and air tests on a modified Douglas DC-9, propfans reached a 30% improvement over the OEM turbofans. This efficiency came at a price, as one of the major problems with the propfan is noise... Aircraft with propfans - Antonov An-70 - Beriev A-40 - EcoJet - McDonnell Douglas MD-94X
Просмотров: 172938 Jeff Quitney
Auto Mechanics: Suspensions: "Over the Waves" 1938 Chevrolet Division General Motors
 
09:20
Support this channel: https://www.patreon.com/jeffquitney Auto Mechanics playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLCED11EACAE477F6C more at http://auto-parts.quickfound.net/ "How the Chevrolet suspension system smooths out a rough ride." Originally a public domain film from the Library of Congress Prelinger Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Suspension_(vehicle) Wikipedia license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ Suspension is the term given to the system of springs, shock absorbers and linkages that connects a vehicle to its wheels. Suspension systems serve a dual purpose — contributing to the car's roadholding/handling and braking for good active safety and driving pleasure, and keeping vehicle occupants comfortable and reasonably well isolated from road noise, bumps, and vibrations,etc. These goals are generally at odds, so the tuning of suspensions involves finding the right compromise. It is important for the suspension to keep the road wheel in contact with the road surface as much as possible, because all the forces acting on the vehicle do so through the contact patches of the tires. The suspension also protects the vehicle itself and any cargo or luggage from damage and wear. The design of front and rear suspension of a car may be different... Leaf springs have been around since the early Egyptians. Ancient military engineers used leaf springs in the form of bows to power their siege engines, with little success at first. The use of leaf springs in catapults was later refined and made to work years later. Springs were not only made of metal, a sturdy tree branch could be used as a spring, such as with a bow. Horse drawn vehicles By the early 19th century, most British horse carriages were equipped with springs; wooden springs in the case of light one-horse vehicles to avoid taxation, and steel springs in larger vehicles. These were made of low-carbon steel and usually took the form of multiple layer leaf springs. The British steel springs were not well suited for use on America's rough roads of the time, and could even cause coaches to collapse if cornered too fast. In the 1820s, the Abbot Downing Company of Concord, New Hampshire developed a system whereby the bodies of stagecoaches were supported on leather straps called "thoroughbraces", which gave a swinging motion instead of the jolting up and down of a spring suspension (the stagecoach itself was sometimes called a "thoroughbrace"). Automobiles Henri Fournier on his uniquely dampened and racewinning 'Mors Machine', photo taken 1902 Automobiles were initially developed as self-propelled versions of horse drawn vehicles. However, horse drawn vehicles had been designed for relatively slow speeds and their suspension was not well suited to the higher speeds permitted by the internal combustion engine. In 1901 Mors of Germany first fitted an automobile with shock absorbers. With the advantage of a dampened suspension system on his 'Mors Machine', Henri Fournier won the prestigious Paris-to-Berlin race on the 20th of June 1901. Fournier's superior time was 11 hrs 46 min 10 sec, while the best competitor was Léonce Girardot in a Panhard with a time of 12 hrs 15 min 40 sec. In 1920, Leyland used torsion bars in a suspension system. In 1922, independent front suspension was pioneered on the Lancia Lambda and became more common in mass market cars from 1932... The spring rate (or suspension rate) is a component in setting the vehicle's ride height or its location in the suspension stroke. Vehicles which carry heavy loads will often have heavier springs to compensate for the additional weight that would otherwise collapse a vehicle to the bottom of its travel (stroke). Heavier springs are also used in performance applications where the loading conditions experienced are more extreme. Springs that are too hard or too soft cause the suspension to become ineffective because they fail to properly isolate the vehicle from the road... Wheel rate is the effective spring rate when measured at the wheel. This is as opposed to simply measuring the spring rate alone. Wheel rate is usually equal to or considerably less than the spring rate... Roll couple percentage is the effective wheel rate, in roll, of each axle of the vehicle as a ratio of the vehicle's total roll rate. Roll couple percentage is critical in accurately balancing the handling of a vehicle... Weight transfer during cornering, acceleration or braking is usually calculated per individual wheel and compared with the static weights for the same wheels...
Просмотров: 894362 Jeff Quitney
H-Bomb Armed B-52 Crash Cleanup in Greenland: "Crested Ice" 1968 USAF Strategic Air Command
 
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Nuclear weapons playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL4CD7F0970A5F16AB "STRATEGIC AIR COMMAND SEMIANNUAL FILM REPORT... CRESTED ICE PROJECT..." From US Air Force Strategic Air Command Film Report FR-818 Public domain film from the US National Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1968_Thule_Air_Base_B-52_crash On 21 January 1968, an aircraft accident (sometimes known as the Thule affair or Thule accident (/ˈtuːli/); Danish: Thuleulykken) involving a United States Air Force (USAF) B-52 bomber occurred near Thule Air Base in the Danish territory of Greenland. The aircraft was carrying four hydrogen bombs on a Cold War "Chrome Dome" alert mission over Baffin Bay when a cabin fire forced the crew to abandon the aircraft before they could carry out an emergency landing at Thule Air Base. Six crew members ejected safely, but one who did not have an ejection seat was killed while trying to bail out. The bomber crashed onto sea ice in North Star Bay, Greenland, causing the conventional explosives aboard to detonate and the nuclear payload to rupture and disperse, which resulted in radioactive contamination. The United States and Denmark launched an intensive clean-up and recovery operation, but the secondary stage of one of the nuclear weapons could not be accounted for after the operation completed. USAF Strategic Air Command "Chrome Dome" operations were discontinued immediately after the accident, which highlighted the safety and political risks of the missions. Safety procedures were reviewed and more stable explosives were developed for use in nuclear weapons. ...Workers involved in the clean-up program have been campaigning for compensation for radiation-related illnesses they experienced in the years after the accident... In 1960, the USAF Strategic Air Command (SAC) began Operation Chrome Dome, a Cold War airborne alert program devised by General Thomas S. Power to fly nuclear-armed B-52 Stratofortresses to the borders of the Soviet Union. The flights were scheduled to ensure that twelve bombers were aloft at all times... Beginning in 1961, B-52 bombers also flew secret "Hard Head" missions (or "Thule Monitor Missions") over Thule Air Base with the purpose of maintaining visual surveillance of the base's strategically important Ballistic Missile Early Warning System (BMEWS)... On 21 January 1968, a B-52G Stratofortress, serial number 58-0188, with the callsign "HOBO 28" from the 380th Strategic Bomb Wing at Plattsburgh Air Force Base, New York was assigned the "Hard Head" mission over Thule and nearby Baffin Bay... At 15:22 EST, about six hours into the flight and 90 miles (140 km) south of Thule Air Base, Haug declared an emergency. He told Thule air traffic control that he had a fire on board... ...the captain realized he would not be able to land the aircraft... and when he confirmed that the aircraft was directly over the lights of Thule Air Base, the... crewmen ejected... The pilotless aircraft initially continued north, then turned left through 180° and crashed onto sea ice in North Star Bay at a relatively shallow angle of 20 degrees—about 7.5 miles (12.1 km) west of Thule Air Base—at 15:39 EST. The conventional high explosive (HE) components of four 1.1 megaton B28FI model hydrogen bombs detonated on impact, spreading radioactive material over a large area in a manner similar to a dirty bomb. "Weak links" in the weapon design ensured that a nuclear explosion was not triggered. The extreme heat generated by the burning of 225,000 pounds (102 t) of jet fuel during the five to six hours after the crash melted the ice sheet, causing wreckage and munitions to sink to the ocean floor... The accident was designated a "Broken Arrow"—a United States military term that describes an accident involving a nuclear weapon... Project Crested Ice South of the impact area, a 400-foot (120 m) by 2,200-foot (670 m) blackened patch was visible where fuel from the aircraft had burned—this area was highly contaminated with JP-4 aviation fuel and radioactive elements that included plutonium, uranium, americium and tritium. Plutonium levels as high as 380 mg/m2 were registered in the area... By the time the operation concluded, 700 specialized personnel from both countries and more than 70 United States government agencies had worked for nine months to clean up the site, often without adequate protective clothing or decontamination measures... Project Crested Ice ended on 13 September 1968...
Просмотров: 28356 Jeff Quitney
World Record 83 G Deceleration Peak on Rocket Sled 1958-05-16  (1967) USAF
 
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Support this channel: https://www.patreon.com/jeffquitney Bioastronautics & Space Medicine playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLE8248A33EE6EC9B5 The two most noted rocket sled human deceleration events in history are shown. First, on December 10, 1954, John Paul Stapp, facing forward, was accelerated to a speed of 632 mph, breaking the land speed record and making him "the fastest man on earth." The sled was then slowed by water, and Stapp took 46.2 g for 1.1 seconds. In the second event, on May 16, 1958, Eli Beeding, facing backward, was accelerated to 35 mph, then stopped in less than 1/10 second (over a distance of 1 foot). Sensors showed Beeding took a momentary peak of 82.6 g while sustaining an average of 40.4 gs for 0.04 seconds. This clip is taken from the US Air Force Film "Pioneers of the Vertical Frontier" (1967). Originally a public domain film from the US National Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eli_Beeding Wikipedia license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ Eli Lackland Beeding Jr. (December 17, 1928 - December 21, 2013) was a U.S. Air Force captain and rocket test subject. In 1958, a series experiments using a miniature rocket sled began at Holloman AFB under the supervision of Colonel John Stapp and Captain Beeding. Participants rode the "Daisy Sled"... in an attempt to learn more about the g-force limits of the human body. On May 16, Capt. Eli Beeding prepared to make a 40 g run. The Daisy shot down the track, reached a top speed around 35 mph, and came to a screeching halt in less than a tenth of a second. "When I hit the water brake," Beeding recalled in a recent interview, "It felt like Ted Williams had hit me on the back, about lumbar five, with a baseball bat." Beeding had barely informed flight surgeon Capt. Les Eason of his troubles when he began to experience tunnel vision and passed out. It was a scary moment, since the standard protocol for shock would be to elevate Beeding’s feet. Yet there was a chance his back was broken, in which case he shouldn’t be touched. Taking a calculated risk, Eason and Tech. Sgt. Roy Gatewood gently moved Beeding onto the side of the sled and elevated his feet. Ten minutes later, Beeding emerged from shock and was rushed to the base hospital. Doctors determined his back was only badly bruised. "I thought that was the big excitement of the day,” Beeding recalls. "But later my boss came to me and said, ‘The chest accelerometer tracing shows you got 82.6 g!’" Subsequent tests with bears showed that the reading was not a fluke, and that Beeding had indeed endured a massive g load. When word got out, the young captain made headlines as the man who had topped John Stapp's g-force record. Beeding however is quick to point out that he rode the sled backwards, and that his time at 83 gs was “infinitesimal” compared to the 1.1 second durations Stapp faced during his own tests. “That doesn’t sound like much (time),” Beeding notes, “But I guarantee you, having been through it at lesser durations, one second is an eternity.” Still, the incident was wholly remarkable and made Beeding a hero and, for several decades thereafter, his name appeared in the Guinness Book of World Records. Guinness and many other sources incorrectly reported that Beeding endured 82.6 gs for 0.04 seconds. Beeding's sled in fact deccelerated at 40.4 gs for 0.04 seconds as it slowed from 35 mph to a stop over a distance of one foot. 82.6 gs was a brief peak acceleration measured by a sensor on his chest due to elastic response of his rib cage. Beeding retired from the Air Force in 1971, later moving to Colorado where he died in 2013 at the age of 85. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Stapp Colonel John Paul Stapp, (July 11, 1910 – November 13, 1999) M.D., Ph.D., was an American career U.S. Air Force officer, flight surgeon, physician, biophysicist, and pioneer in studying the effects of acceleration and deceleration forces on humans. He was a colleague and contemporary of Chuck Yeager, and became known as "the fastest man on earth"... ...in his 29th and last ride at Holloman Air Force Base in New Mexico, Stapp demonstrated that a human can withstand at least 46.2 g (in the forward position, with adequate harnessing). This is the highest known acceleration voluntarily encountered by a human, set on December 10, 1954. Stapp reached a speed of 632 mph (1,017 km/h), which broke the land speed record and made him the fastest man on earth... Stapp died peacefully at his home in Alamogordo at the age of 89.
Просмотров: 1668696 Jeff Quitney
Private SNAFU: "No Buddy Atoll" 1945 US Army Trainng Cartoon; Mel Blanc, Chuck Jones
 
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Support this channel: https://www.patreon.com/jeffquitney more at http://quickfound.net/links/military_news_and_links.html "Private Snafu and a Japanese sailor simultaneously land on a deserted island, discover each other and fight it out until the private kills the sailor and attempts to sell his sword as a souvenir." Directed by Chuck Jones. "Originally created by Theodore Geisel (Dr. Seuss) and Phil Eastman, most of the cartoons were produced by Warner Brothers Animation Studios - employing their animators, voice actors (primarily Mel Blanc) and Carl Stalling's music." more Private Snafu: Gripes: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2TVTd-kQcuo Fighting Tools: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ntSimW0PlFo Booby Traps: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-PbDa-NlX9A The Home Front http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vGmIhhMi8cg Spies http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WJn_aB4FjpI Snafuperman http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Op6-V5x8XHQ Originally a public domain film from the US National Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Private_Snafu Wikipedia license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ Private Snafu is the title character of a series of black-and-white American instructional cartoon shorts produced between 1943 and 1945 during World War II. The character was created by director Frank Capra, chairman of the U.S. Army Air Force First Motion Picture Unit, and most were written by Theodor "Dr. Seuss" Geisel, Philip D. Eastman, and Munro Leaf. Although the United States Army gave Walt Disney the first crack at creating the cartoons, Leon Schlesinger of the Warner Bros. animation studio underbid Disney by two-thirds and won the contract. Disney had also demanded exclusive ownership of the character, and merchandising rights. Nel (2007) shows the goal was to help enlisted men with weak literacy skills learn through animated cartoons (and also supplementary comic books). They featured simple language, racy illustrations, no profanity, and subtle moralizing. Private Snafu did everything wrong, so that his negative example taught basic lessons about secrecy, disease prevention, and proper military protocols. Private Snafu cartoons were a military secret—for the armed forces only. Surveys to ascertain the soldiers' film favorites showed that the Snafu cartoons usually rated highest or second highest. Each cartoon was produced in six weeks, compared to the six months usually taken for short cartoons of the same kind... Most of the Private Snafu shorts are educational, and although the War Department had to approve the storyboards, the Warner directors were allowed great latitude in order to keep the cartoons entertaining... The Snafu shorts are notable because they were produced during the Golden Age of Warner Bros. animation. Directors such as Chuck Jones, Friz Freleng, Bob Clampett, and Frank Tashlin worked on them, and their characteristic styles are in top form. P. D. Eastman was a writer and storyboard artist for the Snafu shorts. Voice characterizations were provided by the celebrated Mel Blanc (Private Snafu's voice was similar to Blanc's Bugs Bunny characterization, and Bugs himself actually made cameos in the Snafu episodes Gas and Three Brothers). Toward the end of the war, other studios began producing Snafu shorts as well (the Army accused Schlesinger of padding his bills), though some of these never made it to celluloid before the war ended. The Snafu films are also partly responsible for keeping the animation studios open during the war—by producing such training films, the studios were declared an essential industry. After the war, the Snafu cartoons went largely forgotten. Prints eventually wound up in the hands of collectors, and these form the basis for The Complete, Uncensored Private Snafu, a VHS and DVD collection from Bosko Video...
Просмотров: 49448 Jeff Quitney
K-Ration: WWII Assault Ration (Supper Unit), US Army, from The Big Picture TV-211 (circa 1951)
 
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more at http://quickfound.net/links/military_news_and_links.html The K-Ration Supper Unit, aka "Food Packet, Individual Assault Ration IA-3" is displayed and described. "Colonel Quinn appears and explains the... food available to the combat infantryman." Excerpt from "The Big Picture" episode TV-211 C-Ration: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O80XuLnF3F4 Public domain film from the US National Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/K-ration The K-ration was an individual daily combat food ration which was introduced by the United States Army during World War II. It was originally intended as an individually packaged daily ration for issue to airborne troops, tank corps, motorcycle couriers, and other mobile forces for short durations. The K-ration provided three separately boxed meal units: breakfast, dinner (lunch) and supper (dinner)... History In 1941, Dr. Ancel Keys (a University of Minnesota physiologist) was assigned by the U.S. War Department to design a non-perishable, ready-to-eat meal that could fit in a soldier's pocket as a short-duration, individual ration. Keys went to a local supermarket to choose foods that would be inexpensive, but still be enough to provide energy. He purchased hard biscuits, dry sausages, hard candy, and chocolate bars. He then tested his 28-ounce, 3,200 calorie (871 gram, 13,400 kJ) meals on six soldiers in a nearby army base. The meals only gained "palatable" and "better than nothing" ratings from the soldiers, but were successful in relieving hunger and providing sufficient energy. The new rations were initially intended as individual rations suitable for short durations only, to be used for a maximum of fifteen meals before supplementation or replacement with 'A-ration' or 'B-ration' field rations. They were soon called the "paratrooper ration", since paratroopers were the first to be issued the ration on an experimental basis. The actual prototype of the K-ration was a pocket ration for paratroopers developed by the Subsistence Research Laboratory (SRL) at the request of the U.S. Army Air Forces (USAAF) early in the war. Two original samples (one version used pemmican biscuits, a peanut bar, raisins, and bouillon paste; the other used pemmican biscuits, a small D ration bar, canned processed meat, and lemon beverage powder) evolved into the one-package breakfast-dinner-supper combination later adopted as standard. The Quartermaster Command's Subsistence Branch altered some components and renamed the ration the Field Ration, Type K, or "K-ration"; the final version totaled 2,830 calories a day. The first procurement of K-rations was made in May 1942. Although rumor has it that it was named after Dr. Keys or was short for "Kommando" (as elite troops were the first to receive it), the letter "K" was selected because it was phonetically distinct from other letter-name rations. The K-ration first saw use in 1942, when it was issued to U.S. Airborne troops on an experimental basis. Initial reports praised it for the variety of the foods incorporated, as well as the light weight. However, testing in extreme climatic and operating environments was extremely limited... Menu Breakfast... Dinner... ...Supper Unit: canned meat, consisting of cervelat sausage, (early version), either pork luncheon meat with carrot or apple (first issue), beef and pork loaf (second issue); biscuits; a 2-ounce (57 g) D ration emergency chocolate bar, (early version) Tropical bar, or (in temperate climates) commercial sweet chocolate bar (late version), a packet of toilet paper tissues; a four-pack of cigarettes; chewing gum, and a bouillon packet (cube or powder). In total, the three meals provided between 2,830 and 3,000 calories, depending upon components. As it was originally intended as an "assault" ration to be issued for short durations, the K-ration was designed to be used for a maximum of 15 meals. The K-ration was mass-produced by several major U.S. food production companies, including H. J. Heinz, Patten Food Products Company and The Cracker Jack Company...
Просмотров: 17230 Jeff Quitney
Nuclear Ramjet (Project Pluto) to Drive "Big Stick" SLAM Missile circa 1959 USAF-Convair
 
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Support this channel: https://www.patreon.com/jeffquitney more at http://quickfound.net Late 50's Convair proposal for "The Big Stick", a Supersonic Low Altitude Missile (SLAM) driven by a nuclear reactor-powered ramjet. The missile could loiter in flight for long periods before dashing at Mach 3 to the targets, delivering multiple atomic bombs. It also would leave a stream of nuclear fallout from its reactor in its wake. SLAM development was cancelled in 1964. Originally a public domain film, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supersonic_Low_Altitude_Missile Wikipedia license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ The Supersonic Low Altitude Missile or SLAM... was a canceled U.S. Air Force project conceived around 1955. Although it never proceeded beyond the initial design and testing phase before being declared obsolete, it represented several radical innovations as a Nuclear delivery system. The SLAM was designed to complement the doctrine of mutually assured destruction... In the event of nuclear war it was intended to fly below the cover of enemy radar at supersonic speeds, and deliver thermonuclear warheads to roughly 16 targets. The primary innovation was the engine of the aircraft, which was developed under the aegis of a separate project code-named Project Pluto, after the Roman god of the underworld. It was a ramjet that used nuclear fission to superheat incoming air instead of chemical fuel. Project Pluto produced two working prototypes of this engine, the Tory-IIA and the Tory-IIC, which were successfully tested in the Nevada desert. Special ceramics had to be developed to meet the stringent weight and tremendous heat tolerances demanded of the SLAM's reactor. These were developed by the Coors Porcelain Company. The reactor itself was designed at the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory. The use of a nuclear engine in the airframe promised to give the missile staggering and unprecedented low-altitude range, estimated to be roughly 113,000 miles (182,000 km) (over four and a half times the equatorial circumference of the earth). The engine also acted as a secondary weapon for the missile: direct neutron radiation from the virtually unshielded reactor would sicken, injure, and/or kill living things beneath the flight path; the stream of fallout left in its wake would poison enemy territory; and its strategically selected crash site would receive intense radioactive contamination. In addition, the sonic waves given off by its passage would damage ground installations. Another revolutionary aspect of the SLAM was its reliance on automation. It would have the mission of a long-range bomber, but would be completely unmanned: accepting radioed commands up to its failsafe point, whereafter it would rely on a Terrain Contour Matching (TERCOM) radar system to navigate to preprogrammed targets. Although a prototype of the airframe was never constructed, the SLAM was to be a wingless, fin-guided aircraft. Apart from the ventral ram-air intake it was very much in keeping with traditional missile design. Its estimated airspeed at thirty thousand feet was Mach 4.2. The SLAM program was scrapped on July 1, 1964. By this time serious questions about its viability had been raised, such as how to test a device that would emit copious amounts of radioactive exhaust from its unshielded reactor core in flight, as well as its efficacy and cost. ICBMs promised swifter delivery to targets, and because of their speed (the Thor traveled at roughly Mach 12) and trajectory were considered virtually unstoppable... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Project_Pluto Project Pluto was a United States government program to develop nuclear powered ramjet engines for use in cruise missiles. Two experimental engines were tested at the United States Department of Energy Nevada Test Site (NTS) in 1961 and 1964... History On January 1, 1957, the U.S. Air Force and the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission selected the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) predecessor, the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, to study the feasibility of applying heat from nuclear reactors to ramjet engines. This research became known as "Project Pluto". The work was directed by Dr. Ted Merkle, leader of the laboratory's R-Division... On May 14, 1961, the world's first nuclear ramjet engine, "Tory-IIA", mounted on a railroad car, roared to life for a few seconds. Three years later, "Tory-IIC" was run for five minutes at full power... On July 1, 1964, seven years and six months after it was started, "Project Pluto" was canceled...
Просмотров: 210151 Jeff Quitney
Orion Exploration Mission 1 Animation 2013 NASA
 
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Support this channel: https://www.patreon.com/jeffquitney more at http://scitech.quickfound.net/astro/orion_cev_news_and_links.html Originally a public domain film from NASA. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exploration_Mission_1 Exploration Mission 1 or EM-1 (previously known as Space Launch System 1 or SLS-1) is the first planned flight of the Space Launch System and the second uncrewed test flight of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle. Set to launch on December 17, 2017 (later postponed to November 2018) from Launch Complex 39B at the Kennedy Space Center, the Orion spacecraft would perform a circumlunar trajectory during the seven day mission. The Block 1 version of SLS used on this mission will consist of two five-segment Solid Rocket Boosters, four RS-25D engines built for the Space Shuttle program and a Interim Cryogenic Propulsion Stage. EM-1 is intended to demonstrate the integrated spacecraft systems prior to a crewed flight and demonstrate a high speed reentry (11 km/s) on Orion's thermal protection system. On January 16, 2013, NASA announced that the European Space Agency would build Orion's service module based off of its Automated Transfer Vehicle, so the flight could also be regarded as a test of ESA hardware as well as American. http://www.nasa.gov/exploration/systems/sls/eft1_ksc.html ...The first SLS mission, Exploration Mission 1, in 2017 will launch an uncrewed Orion to demonstrate the integrated system performance of the SLS rocket and spacecraft prior to a crewed flight. The second SLS mission, Exploration Mission 2, is targeted for 2021 and will launch Orion and a crew of up to four American astronauts. The Orion Program is managed by NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston. The SLS Program is managed by the Marshall Center. Both programs are managed by the Explorations Systems Development Division within the Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters in Washington. http://scitech.quickfound.net/astro/orion_cev_news_and_links.html Exploration is the name of the NASA directorate that has overall responsibility for developing new launch vehicles and spacecraft. The Lockheed Martin-built manned spacecraft component of the system, named the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV, formerly called the Crew Exploraton Vehicle, CEV), was originally intended to be operational by 2014 (with "boilerplate" tests by 2009 and unmanned flight tests of the actual vehicle by 2012), and to be capable of carrying astronauts to the moon by 2020. The first unmannned Orion test flight, Exploration Flight Test 1 (EFT-1), is now targeted for early 2014. Because the SLS Shuttle-replacement launch vehicle will not be ready until almost four years later, this test will ride on a Delta IV-Heavy launch vehicle. Tests of the Orion Boilerplate Test Article (BTA) began in 2011. Testing of the more advanced Orion Ground Test Article (GTA) are expected to begin at Langley Research Center in late 2012 or early 2013. Construction of the first Orion for unmanned orbital tests began in September, 2011. The SLS launch vehicle for Orion is not expected to fly until 2017 at the earliest...
Просмотров: 150557 Jeff Quitney
PreFab Homebuilding from Industry on Parade circa 1954 NAM, Prefabricated Housing
 
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more at http://hardware.quickfound.net/ National Homes Corporation, Lafayette, Indiana, makes the components of a full house every 7 minutes. From the National Association of Manufacturers "Industry on Parade" newsreel. Public domain film from the Prelinger Archive, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prefabricated_building Prefabricated building is a type of building that consists of several factory-built components or units that are assembled on-site to complete the unit... History Buildings have been built in one place and reassembled in another throughout history. Possibly the first advertised prefab house was the Manning Portable Cottage. A London carpenter, Henry Manning, constructed a house that was built in components, then shipped and assembled by British emigrants. This was published at the time (advertisement, South Australian Record, 1837) and a few still stand in Australia. One such is the Friends Meeting House, Adelaide. The peak year for the importation of portable buildings to Australia was 1853, when several hundred arrived. These have been identified as coming from Liverpool, Boston and Singapore (with Chinese instructions for re-assembly). In Barbados the Chattel house was a form of prefabricated building which was developed by emancipated slaves who had limited rights to build upon land they did not own. As the buildings were moveable they were legally regarded as chattels. In 1855 during the Crimean War, after Florence Nightingale wrote a letter to The Times, Isambard Kingdom Brunel was commissioned to design a prefabricated modular hospital. In five months he designed a 1,000 patient hospital, with innovations in sanitation, ventilation and a flushing toilet. Fabricator William Eassie constructed the required 16 units in Gloucester Docks, shipped directly to the Dardanelles. Only used from March 1856 to September 1857, it reduced the death rate from 42% to 3.5%. The world's first prefabricated, pre-cast panelled apartment blocks were pioneered in Liverpool. A process was invented by city engineer John Alexander Brodie, whose inventive genius also had him inventing the football goal net. The tram stables at Walton in Liverpool followed in 1906. The idea was not extensively adopted in Britain, however was widely adopted elsewhere, particularly in Eastern Europe. Prefabricated homes were produced during the Gold Rush in the United States, when kits were produced to enable Californian prospectors to quickly construct accommodation. Homes were available in kit form by mail order in the United States in 1908. Prefabricated housing was popular during World War II due to the need for mass accommodation for military personnel. The United States used Quonset huts as military buildings, and in the United Kingdom prefabricated buildings used included Nissen huts and Bellman Hangars. 'Prefabs' were built after the war as a means of quickly and cheaply providing quality housing as a replacement for the housing destroyed during the war. The proliferation of prefabricated housing across the country was a result of the Burt Committee and the Housing (Temporary Accommodation) Act 1944. Under the Ministry of Works Emergency Factory Made housing programme, a specification was drawn up and bid on by various private construction and manufacturing companies. After approval by the MoW, companies could bid on Council led development schemes, resulting in whole estates of prefabs constructed to provide accommodation for those made homeless by the War and ongoing slum clearance. Almost 160,000 had been built in the UK by 1948 at a cost of close to £216 million. The largest single prefab estate in Britain was at Belle Vale (South Liverpool), where more than 1,100 were built after World War 2. The estate was demolished amid much controversy - the prefabs were very popular with residents - in the mid 1960s. Prefabs were aimed at families, and typically had an entrance hall, two bedrooms (parents and children), a bathroom (a room with a bath) — which was a novel innovation for many British at that time, a separate toilet, a living room and an equipped (not fitted in the modern sense) kitchen. Construction materials included steel, aluminium, timber or asbestos, depending on the type of dwelling. The aluminium Type B2 prefab was produced as four pre-assembled sections which could be transported by lorry anywhere in the country... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prefabricated_home http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manufactured_housing
Просмотров: 23058 Jeff Quitney
The 8"/55 Rapid Fire Gun & Turret 1955 US Navy Training Film; Major Caliber Guns & Turrets
 
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Battleships, Destroyers... US Navy Vessels playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLC3B3291260B28346 US Navy Training Film playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLA40407C12E5E35A7 more at http://quickfound.net/links/military_news_and_links.html Covers 8-inch naval artillery used on US Navy cruisers. "These are the biggest of the Navy's rapid-fire guns, and they're almost completely automatic..." The guns are demonstrated aboard the USS Salem (CA-139) heavy cruiser. Produced by Loucks & Norling Studios Inc. US Navy Training Film MN-9321b Originally a public domain film from the US Navy, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/8"/55_caliber_gun Wikipedia license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ The 8"/55 caliber gun (spoken "eight-inch-fifty-five-caliber") formed the main battery of United States Navy heavy cruisers and two early aircraft carriers. United States naval gun terminology indicates the gun barrel had an internal diameter of 8 inches (203 mm), and the barrel was 55 calibers long (barrel length is 8 inch × 55 = 440 inches or 36.6 feet or 11 meters)... Mark 9 These built-up guns weighed about 30 tons including a liner, tube, jacket, and five hoops. A down-swing Welin breech block was closed by compressed air from the gas ejector system. Loading with two silk bags each containing 45 pounds (20 kg) of smokeless powder gave a 260-pound (120 kg) projectile a velocity of 2800 feet per second (850 m/s). Range was 18 miles 31,860 yd (29,130 m) at the maximum elevation of 41 degrees. Mark 12 These simplified built-up guns eliminated hoops to reduce weight to 17 tons. The breech mechanism was similar and loading two silk bags each containing 43 pounds (20 kg) of smokeless powder gave a 335-pound (152 kg) projectile a velocity of 2500 feet per second (760 m/s). Each gun could fire about four rounds per minute. Maximum range was 30,050 yd (27,480 m) at the maximum elevation of 41 degrees. Mark 14 These guns were similar to Mark 9, with the same shell weight and maximum range, with a smaller chamber and rifling twist increased from 1 in 35 to 1 in 25 in a chromium-plated bore. Mark 15 These guns were similar to Mark 12, with the same shell weight and maximum range, with the smaller chamber of the Mark 14 gun. Useful life expectancy was 715 effective full charges (EFC) per liner. Mark 16 These self-loading guns with lined monobloc construction and vertical sliding breech blocks weighed about 20 tons. Semi-fixed ammunition (projectile and powder case handled separately) with 78 pounds (35 kg) of smokeless powder gave a 335-pound (152 kg) projectile a velocity of 2500 feet per second (760 m/s). Each gun could fire about ten rounds per minute. Useful life expectancy was 780 EFC per liner. Range was 17 miles (27 kilometers) at the maximum elevation of 41 degrees. This gun was modified for the experimental Major Caliber Lightweight Gun. Coast defense use The eight twin turrets of Lexington and Saratoga were removed in early 1942 during refits at Pearl Harbor. The turrets were turned over to the United States Army Coast Artillery Corps and remounted as coastal artillery on Oahu. Four two-turret batteries were established at Salt Lake near Aliamanu Crater (Battery Salt Lake, later Battery Burgess), Wiliwilinui Ridge Military Reservation (Battery Wilridge, later Battery Kirkpatrick), Opaeula Military Reservation (Battery Opaeula, later Battery Riggs), and Brodie Camp Military Reservation (Battery Brodie, later Battery George Ricker). After the war, all of the guns and turrets were scrapped in 1948, along with almost all other US coast artillery. One of USS Louisville's main battery 8 inch 55 caliber gun turrets (Turret No. 2) damaged in a kamikaze attack on January 5, 1945 was removed and taken to the Nevada Test Site and converted into a rotating radiation detector, to collect data on nuclear tests...
Просмотров: 93371 Jeff Quitney
Principles of Refrigeration 1963 US Air Force; How Refrigerators Work
 
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more at http://scitech.quickfound.net/ "SHOWS APPLICATION OF BASIC PHYSICS OF HEAT TRANSFER IN REFRIGERATION UNITS. EXPLAINS TEMPERATURE CHANGES IN REFRIGERANT PASSING THROUGH THE EXPANSION VALVE, COMPRESSOR, CONDENSER AND EVAPORATOR AS IT CARRIES HEAT TO THE OUTSIDE AIR." US Air Force training film TF-5536a Reupload of a previously uploaded film with improved video & sound. Public domain film from the US National Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Refrigeration Refrigeration is a process in which work is done to move heat from one location to another. This work is traditionally done by mechanical work, but can also be done by magnetism, laser or other means. Refrigeration has many applications, including, but not limited to: household refrigerators, industrial freezers, cryogenics, air conditioning, and heat pumps... First refrigeration systems The first known method of artificial refrigeration was demonstrated by William Cullen at the University of Glasgow in Scotland in 1756. Cullen used a pump to create a partial vacuum over a container of diethyl ether, which then boiled, absorbing heat from the surrounding air.[4] The experiment even created a small amount of ice, but had no practical application at that time. In 1758, Benjamin Franklin and John Hadley, professor of chemistry at Cambridge University, conducted an experiment to explore the principle of evaporation as a means to rapidly cool an object. Franklin and Hadley confirmed evaporation of highly volatile liquids, such as alcohol and ether, could be used to drive down the temperature of an object past the freezing point of water. They conducted their experiment with the bulb of a mercury thermometer as their object and with a bellows used to "quicken" the evaporation; they lowered the temperature of the thermometer bulb down to 7 °F (−14 °C), while the ambient temperature was 65 °F (18 °C). Franklin noted that soon after they passed the freezing point of water (32 °F), a thin film of ice formed on the surface of the thermometer's bulb and that the ice mass was about a quarter inch thick when they stopped the experiment upon reaching 7 °F (−14 °C). Franklin concluded, "From this experiment, one may see the possibility of freezing a man to death on a warm summer's day". In 1805, American inventor Oliver Evans designed, but never built, a refrigeration system based on the vapor-compression refrigeration cycle rather than chemical solutions or volatile liquids such as ethyl ether. In 1820, the British scientist Michael Faraday liquefied ammonia and other gases by using high pressures and low temperatures. An American living in Great Britain, Jacob Perkins, obtained the first patent for a vapor-compression refrigeration system in 1834. Perkins built a prototype system and it actually worked, although it did not succeed commercially. In 1842, an American physician, John Gorrie, designed the first system to refrigerate water to produce ice. He also conceived the idea of using his refrigeration system to cool the air for comfort in homes and hospitals (i.e., air conditioning). His system compressed air, then partly cooled the hot compressed air with water before allowing it to expand while doing part of the work needed to drive the air compressor. That isentropic expansion cooled the air to a temperature low enough to freeze water and produce ice, or to flow "through a pipe for effecting refrigeration otherwise" as stated in his patent granted by the U.S. Patent Office in 1851... Alexander Twining began experimenting with vapor-compression refrigeration in 1848, and obtained patents in 1850 and 1853. He is credited with having initiated commercial refrigeration in the United States by 1856... Domestic mechanical refrigerators became available in the United States around 1911... Cyclic refrigeration This consists of a refrigeration cycle, where heat is removed from a low-temperature space or source and rejected to a high-temperature sink with the help of external work, and its inverse, the thermodynamic power cycle. In the power cycle, heat is supplied from a high-temperature source to the engine, part of the heat being used to produce work and the rest being rejected to a low-temperature sink. This satisfies the second law of thermodynamics. A refrigeration cycle describes the changes that take place in the refrigerant as it alternately absorbs and rejects heat as it circulates through a refrigerator...
Просмотров: 109605 Jeff Quitney
Stirling Cycle Engine: "The Stirling Engine: A Wave of the Future" 1992 NASA
 
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Support this channel: https://www.patreon.com/jeffquitney more at http://auto-parts.quickfound.net/ "This video describes the Stirling engine, an external combustion engine which creates heat energy to power the motor, and can use many types of fuel. It can be used for both stationary and propulsion purposes and has advantages of better fuel economy and cleaner exhaust than internal combustion engines. The engine is shown being road tested at Langley Air Force Base." Originally a public domain film from NASA, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stirling_engine Wikipedia license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ A Stirling engine is a heat engine operating by cyclic compression and expansion of air or other gas, the working fluid, at different temperature levels such that there is a net conversion of heat energy to mechanical work. Or more specifically, a closed-cycle regenerative heat engine with a permanently gaseous working fluid, where closed-cycle is defined as a thermodynamic system in which the working fluid is permanently contained within the system, and regenerative describes the use of a specific type of internal heat exchanger and thermal store, known as the regenerator. It is the inclusion of a regenerator that differentiates the Stirling engine from other closed cycle hot air engines. Originally conceived in 1816 as an industrial prime mover to rival the steam engine, its practical use was largely confined to low-power domestic applications for over a century. The Stirling engine is noted for its high efficiency compared to steam engines, quiet operation, and the ease with which it can use almost any heat source. This compatibility with alternative and renewable energy sources has become increasingly significant as the price of conventional fuels rises, and also in light of concerns such as peak oil and climate change. This engine is currently exciting interest as the core component of micro combined heat and power (CHP) units, in which it is more efficient and safer than a comparable steam engine... Robert Stirling was the Scottish inventor of the first practical example of a closed cycle air engine in 1816... Functional description The engine is designed so that the working gas is generally compressed in the colder portion of the engine and expanded in the hotter portion resulting in a net conversion of heat into work. An internal Regenerative heat exchanger increases the Stirling engine's thermal efficiency compared to simpler hot air engines lacking this feature. Key components As a consequence of closed cycle operation, the heat driving a Stirling engine must be transmitted from a heat source to the working fluid by heat exchangers and finally to a heat sink. A Stirling engine system has at least one heat source, one heat sink and up to five heat exchangers. Some types may combine or dispense with some of these. Heat source The heat source may be provided by the combustion of a fuel and, since the combustion products do not mix with the working fluid and hence do not come into contact with the internal parts of the engine, a Stirling engine can run on fuels that would damage other types of engines' internals... Other suitable heat sources include concentrated solar energy, geothermal energy, nuclear energy, waste heat and bioenergy. If solar power is used as a heat source, regular solar mirrors and solar dishes may be utilised. The use of Fresnel lenses and mirrors has also been advocated, for example in planetary surface exploration... Heater / hot side heat exchanger In small, low power engines this may simply consist of the walls of the hot space(s) but where larger powers are required a greater surface area is needed in order to transfer sufficient heat. Typical implementations are internal and external fins or multiple small bore tubes. Designing Stirling engine heat exchangers is a balance between high heat transfer with low viscous pumping losses and low dead space (unswept internal volume). With engines operating at high powers and pressures, the heat exchangers on the hot side must be made of alloys that retain considerable strength at temperature and that will also not corrode or creep. Regenerator In a Stirling engine, the regenerator is an internal heat exchanger and temporary heat store placed between the hot and cold spaces such that the working fluid passes through it first in one direction then the other. Its function is to retain within the system that heat which would otherwise be exchanged with the environment... The primary effect of regeneration in a Stirling engine is to increase the thermal efficiency by 'recycling' internal heat which would otherwise pass through the engine irreversibly...
Просмотров: 220410 Jeff Quitney
Private SNAFU Censored 1944 US Army Training Cartoon, Mel Blanc, Frank Tashlin
 
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Support this channel: https://www.patreon.com/jeffquitney more at http://quickfound.net/links/military_news_and_links.html Private Snafu learns he should watch what he writes in letters to home. "Originally created by Theodore Geisel (Dr. Seuss) and Phil Eastman, most of the cartoons were produced by Warner Brothers Animation Studios - employing their animators, voice actors (primarily Mel Blanc) and Carl Stalling's music." Public domain film from the US National Archives slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). more Private Snafu: Booby Traps: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-PbDa-NlX9A The Home Front http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vGmIhhMi8cg Spies http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WJn_aB4FjpI Snafuperman http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Op6-V5x8XHQ Fighting Tools: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kRyUAUl2q5M Rumors: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rEdboFx1mK8 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Private_Snafu Private Snafu is the title character of a series of black-and-white American instructional cartoon shorts produced between 1943 and 1945 during World War II. The character was created by director Frank Capra, chairman of the U.S. Army Air Force First Motion Picture Unit, and most were written by Theodor "Dr. Seuss" Geisel, Philip D. Eastman, and Munro Leaf. Although the United States Army gave Walt Disney the first crack at creating the cartoons, Leon Schlesinger of the Warner Bros. animation studio underbid Disney by two-thirds and won the contract. Disney had also demanded exclusive ownership of the character, and merchandising rights. Nel (2007) shows the goal was to help enlisted men with weak literacy skills learn through animated cartoons (and also supplementary comic books). They featured simple language, racy illustrations, no profanity, and subtle moralizing. Private Snafu did everything wrong, so that his negative example taught basic lessons about secrecy, disease prevention, and proper military protocols. Private Snafu cartoons were a military secret—for the armed forces only. Surveys to ascertain the soldiers' film favorites showed that the Snafu cartoons usually rated highest or second highest. Each cartoon was produced in six weeks, compared to the six months usually taken for short cartoons of the same kind... Most of the Private Snafu shorts are educational, and although the War Department had to approve the storyboards, the Warner directors were allowed great latitude in order to keep the cartoons entertaining... The Snafu shorts are notable because they were produced during the Golden Age of Warner Bros. animation. Directors such as Chuck Jones, Friz Freleng, Bob Clampett, and Frank Tashlin worked on them, and their characteristic styles are in top form. P. D. Eastman was a writer and storyboard artist for the Snafu shorts. Voice characterizations were provided by the celebrated Mel Blanc (Private Snafu's voice was similar to Blanc's Bugs Bunny characterization, and Bugs himself actually made cameos in the Snafu episodes Gas and Three Brothers). Toward the end of the war, other studios began producing Snafu shorts as well (the Army accused Schlesinger of padding his bills), though some of these never made it to celluloid before the war ended. The Snafu films are also partly responsible for keeping the animation studios open during the war—by producing such training films, the studios were declared an essential industry. After the war, the Snafu cartoons went largely forgotten. Prints eventually wound up in the hands of collectors, and these form the basis for The Complete, Uncensored Private Snafu, a VHS and DVD collection from Bosko Video...
Просмотров: 5440169 Jeff Quitney
Toxic Propellant Hazards ~ 1966 NASA KSC; Hydrazine Rocket Fuel & Nitrogen Tetroxide Oxidizer
 
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Support this channel: https://www.patreon.com/jeffquitney Chemistry playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL_hX5wLdhf_KyuOalV6rwHjo810Zaa6xq NASA & Space Miscellany playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL_hX5wLdhf_K3mK1TZNCkmdD-JMZYGew1 more at: http://scitech.quickfound.net NASA training film for workers handling hydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide at Kennedy Space Center and other NASA installations. "This NASA safety film demonstrates the dangers of rocket fuels, including hydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide, and instructs workers in their safe handling." Film produced by Technicolor, Inc. NASA film KSC-6. Originally a public domain film from the US National Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypergolic_propellant Wikipedia license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ A hypergolic propellant combination used in a rocket engine is one whose components spontaneously ignite when they come into contact with each other. The two propellant components usually consist of a fuel and an oxidizer. Although commonly used hypergolic propellants are difficult to handle because of their extreme toxicity and/or corrosiveness, they can be stored as liquids at room temperature and hypergolic engines are easy to ignite reliably and repeatedly. In contemporary usage, the terms "hypergol" or "hypergolic propellant" usually mean the most common such propellant combination, dinitrogen tetroxide plus hydrazine and/or its relatives monomethylhydrazine and unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine... History Soviet rocket engine researcher Valentin Glushko experimented with hypergolic fuel as early as 1931. It was initially used for "chemical ignition" of engines, starting kerosene/nitric acid engines with an initial charge of phosphorus dissolved in carbon disulfide. Starting in 1935, Prof. O. Lutz of the German Aeronautical Institute experimented with over 1000 self-igniting propellants. He assisted the Walter Company with the development of C-Stoff which ignited with concentrated hydrogen peroxide... Hypergolic propellants were discovered independently, for the third time, in the U.S. by GALCIT and Navy Annapolis researchers in 1940. They developed engines powered by aniline and nitric acid. Robert Goddard, Reaction Motors and Curtiss-Wright worked on aniline/nitric acid engines in the early 1940s, for small missiles and jet assisted take-off (JATO)... Advantages Hypergolic rockets are usually simple and reliable because they need no ignition system... The most common hypergolic fuels, hydrazine, monomethylhydrazine and unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine, and oxidizer, nitrogen tetroxide, are all liquid at ordinary temperatures and pressures. They are therefore sometimes called storable liquid propellants. They are suitable for use in spacecraft missions lasting many years... Because hypergolic rockets do not need an ignition system, they can fire any number of times by simply opening and closing the propellant valves until the propellants are exhausted and are therefore uniquely suited for spacecraft maneuvering... Disadvantages Relative to their mass, traditional hypergolic propellants are less energetic than such cryogenic propellant combinations as liquid hydrogen / liquid oxygen or liquid methane / liquid oxygen. A launch vehicle that uses hypergolic propellant must therefore carry a greater mass of fuel than one that uses these cryogenic fuels. The corrosivity, toxicity, and carcinogeneity of traditional hypergolics necessitate expensive safety precautions. Hypergolic combinations Common - Aerozine 50 + nitrogen tetroxide (N2O4) – widely used in historical American rockets, including the Titan 2; all engines in the Apollo Lunar Module; and the Service Propulsion System in the Apollo Service Module. Aerozine 50 is a mixture of 50% UDMH and 50% straight hydrazine (N2H4). - Unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) + nitrogen tetroxide (N2O4) – frequently used by the Russians, such as in the Proton (rocket family) and supplied by them to France for the Ariane 1 first and second stages (replaced with UH 25); ISRO PSLV second stage. - UH 25 is a mixture of 25% hydrazine hydrate and 75% UDMH. - Monomethylhydrazine (MMH) + nitrogen tetroxide (NTO) – smaller engines and reaction control thrusters:[citation needed] Apollo Command Module reaction control system; Space Shuttle OMS and RCS; Ariane 5 EPS; Draco thrusters used by the SpaceX Dragon spacecraft. The corrosiveness of nitrogen tetroxide can be reduced by adding several percent nitric oxide (NO), forming mixed oxides of nitrogen (MON)...
Просмотров: 168639 Jeff Quitney
The Naval Gun at Iwo Jima 1945 US Navy Tactical Report; Battleship Gun Performance
 
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Support this channel: https://www.patreon.com/jeffquitney US Navy Training Film playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLA40407C12E5E35A7 World War II playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL3E5ED4749AE3CD2C more at http://quickfound.net/links/military_news_and_links.html "The Naval Gun at Iwo Jima: Destruction of Defenses Preceding the Landing Assault" US Navy Tactical Report MN-5562 Originally a public domain film from the US National Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Iwo_Jima Wikipedia license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ The Battle of Iwo Jima (19 February -- 26 March 1945), or Operation Detachment, was a major battle in which the United States fought for and captured the island of Iwo Jima from the Empire of Japan. The U.S. invasion, charged with the mission of capturing the three airfields on Iwo Jima, resulted in some of the fiercest fighting in the Pacific Campaign of World War II. The Imperial Japanese Army positions on the island were heavily fortified, with a vast network of bunkers, hidden artillery, and 18 km (11 mi) of underground tunnels. The Americans were covered by extensive naval and air support, capable of delivering an enormous amount of firepower onto the Japanese positions. The battle was the first American attack on the Japanese Home Islands, and the Imperial soldiers defended their positions tenaciously. Iwo Jima was also the only U.S. Marine battle where the American overall casualties exceeded the Japanese, although Japanese combat deaths numbered 3 times that of Americans. Of the 22,000 Japanese soldiers present at the beginning of the battle, only 216 were taken prisoner. The rest were killed or missing and assumed dead. Despite heavy fighting and casualties on both sides, Japanese defeat was assured from the start. The Americans possessed an overwhelming superiority in arms and numbers; this, coupled with the impossibility of Japanese retreat or reinforcement, ensured that there was no plausible scenario in which the U.S. could have lost the battle. The battle was immortalized by Joe Rosenthal's photograph of the raising of the U.S. flag on top of the 166 m (545 ft) Mount Suribachi by five Marines and one Navy Corpsman... Starting on 15 June 1944, the U.S. began strikes against Iwo Jima that would become the longest and most intense conflict in the Pacific theater. These would be a combination of naval assaults and bombings that would go on for almost one year. Major General Harry Schmidt requested a ten day shelling of the island before the land invasion, but was given only three, which were impaired by the weather conditions. Each heavy ship was given an area to fire on which combined with all the ships covered the entire island. A ship would fire for approximately six hours before stopping for a certain amount of time... Although the island was declared secure at 18:00 on 16 March 25 days after the landings, the 5th Marine Division still faced Kuribayashi's stronghold in a gorge 640 m (700 yd) long at the northwestern end of the island... A weapon heavily used in the Pacific was the United States M2A1 flamethrower... Of the 22,060 Japanese soldiers entrenched on the island, 21,844 died either from fighting or by ritual suicide. Only 216 were captured during the battle. According to the official Navy Department Library website, "The 36-day (Iwo Jima) assault resulted in more than 26,000 American casualties, including 6,800 dead." To put that into context, the 82-day Battle for Okinawa lasted from early April until mid-June 1945 and U.S. (5 Army and 2 Marine Corps Divisions) casualties were over 62,000 of whom over 12,000 were killed or missing ; while the Battle of the Bulge lasted 40 days (16 December 44 -- 25 January 45) with almost 90,000 U.S. casualties; 19,000 killed, 47,500 wounded, and 23,000 captured or missing. Iwo Jima was also the only U.S. Marine battle where the American casualties exceeded the Japanese, although Japanese combat deaths numbered three times as many American deaths... USS Bismarck Sea had also been lost, as the last U.S. aircraft carrier sunk in World War II... After Iwo Jima, it was estimated there were no more than 300 Japanese left alive in the island's warren of caves and tunnels. In fact, there were close to 3,000...
Просмотров: 553121 Jeff Quitney
Shotgun or Sidearm? ~ 1976 Sid Davis Police Training Film; When Should Cops Use Shotguns?
 
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Support this channel: https://www.patreon.com/jeffquitney FBI & Police Training playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL1265E0E6B45AC07D Firearms playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL22A5611941174745 more at http://quickfound.net "Most cops get a fair amount of practice with their sidearms. But they don't fire a shotgun very often... and just as important, they don't know when to take the shotgun out of the police car..." Shot in Pasadena, California, with the cooperation of the Pasadena Police Department. Originally a public domain film from the Library of Congress Prelinger Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Riot_shotgun Wikipedia license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ A riot shotgun is a shotgun designed or modified for use as a primarily defensive weapon, by the use of a short barrel and a larger magazine capacity than shotguns marketed for hunting. The riot shotgun is used by military personnel for guard duty and was at one time used for riot control, and is commonly used as a door breaching and patrol weapon by law enforcement personnel, as well as a home defense weapon by private citizens. Guns of this type are often labeled as breaching shotguns, tactical shotguns or special-purpose shotguns to denote the larger scope of their use; however these are largely marketing terms... Characteristics The primary characteristic of a riot shotgun is a "short" barrel (generally 14 to 20" long; 18" is the shortest length available in the U.S. that is not subject to additional federal BATFE regulation, though such restrictions are rarely a problem for police departments and thus shorter-barrel shotguns are not uncommon among police) which makes the shotgun more compact and easier to handle, easier to stow inside a police vehicle, and more suitable for quick aiming at (close) stationary targets. Generally they have an open (cylinder-bore) choke, to permit the shot to spread quickly and to allow use with other types of projectiles, and they may be equipped with bead, rifle, or ghost-ring sights. Riot guns are most often pump-action due to this design's lower cost and higher reliability, although in recent years a number of semi-automatic shotguns designed primarily for defensive use have become available and are used by military, law enforcement and civilians alike. Most riot guns are chambered in 12-gauge and can handle either 2.75" "standard-length" or 3" "magnum" cartridges. Most non-shotshell loads, such as less lethal ammunition like bean bags, are made only in 12-gauge. However, 20-gauge and .410 shotguns in riot gun configuration are available. Smaller bores are popular for home defense, as the reduced power and recoil make them more suitable for less experienced shooters who are recoil-sensitive. While most hunting shotguns hold between 2 and 5 shells (often 3 shells, to comply with U.S. regulations for migratory bird hunting), riot shotguns can have a magazine tube as long as the barrel, allowing for 6 to 10 shells to be loaded depending on the model, barrel length, and type of shells loaded...
Просмотров: 201627 Jeff Quitney
Off-Base Activities: "Killjoy Was Here!" 1956 US Air Force Animated Training Film Cartoon
 
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Support this channel: https://www.patreon.com/jeffquitney USAF Training Film playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL8F26D920AA815835 more at http://quickfound.net/links/military_news_and_links.html Airman Killjoy makes enemies, then Airman Archie tries to make friends, with the locals near USAF bases. "This film uses animation to instruct U.S. Air Force personnel on their responsibilities to communities surrounding their installations." US Air Force Training Film SFP-366 Originally a public domain film from the US National Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_with_overseas_military_bases#United_States Wikipedia license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ ...The establishment of military bases abroad enable a country to project power, e.g. to conduct expeditionary warfare, and thereby influence events abroad. Depending on their size and infrastructure, they can be used as staging areas or for logistical, communications and/or intelligence support. Many conflicts throughout modern history have resulted in overseas military bases being established in large numbers by world powers, and the existence of bases abroad has served countries having them in achieving political and military goals. The British Empire and other colonial powers established overseas military bases in many of their colonies during the First and Second World Wars, where useful, and actively sought rights to facilities where needed for strategic reasons. At one time, establishing coaling stations for naval ships was important. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union established military bases where they could within their respective spheres of influence, and actively sought influence where needed. More recently, the War on Terror has resulted in overseas military bases being established in the Middle East. Whilst the overall number of overseas military bases has fallen since 1945, France, Russia, the United Kingdom and the United States still possess a substantial number. Smaller numbers of overseas military bases are operated by India, Italy, Japan and Turkey. The United States is the largest operator of military bases abroad, with 38 "named bases" having active duty, national guard/reserve, and/or civilian personnel as of September 30, 2014. Its largest, in terms of personnel, was Ramstein AB, in Germany, with almost 9,200 personnel... United States - Afghanistan - Camp Dwyer; Forward Operating Base Delhi; Forward Operating Base Geronimo; Firebase Fiddler's Green; PB Jaker - Australia - Pine Gap Bahrain - Naval Support Activity Bahrain; Isa Air Base Belgium - Chièvres Air Base; Kleine Brogel Air Base Brazil - United States Naval Support Detachment, São Paulo British Indian Ocean Territory - Naval Support Facility Diego Garcia - Bulgaria - Aitos Logistics Center; Bezmer Air Base; Graf Ignatievo Air Base; Novo Selo Range - Cuba - Guantanamo Bay Naval Base - Djibouti - Camp Lemonnier - Germany - US Army installations in Germany; Panzer Kaserne; Ramstein Air Base; Spangdahlem Air Base - Greece - Naval Support Activity Souda Bay[41] - Greenland - Thule Air Base - Honduras - Soto Cano Air Base - Israel - Port of Haifa (United States Sixth Fleet); Dimona Radar Facility - Italy - US Army installations in Italy; Naval Air Station Sigonella; Naval Support Activity Naples; Aviano Air Base; Darby Military Community - Japan - United States Forces Japan - Kosovo - Camp Bondsteel - Kuwait - Ali Al Salem Air Base; Camp Arifjan; Camp Buehring; Kuwait Naval Base - Netherlands - Volkel Air Base - Norway - 426th Air Base Squadron at Sola Air Station - Oman - RAFO Masirah; RAFO Thumrait - Portugal - Lajes Field - Qatar - Al Udeid Air Base - Saudi Arabia - 64th Air Expeditionary Group - Singapore - Paya Lebar Air Base - South Korea - United States Forces Korea - Spain - Morón Air Base; Naval Station Rota - Turkey - Incirlik Air Base; Izmir Air Station - United Arab Emirates - Al Dhafra Air Base; Port of Jebel Ali; Fujairah Naval Base - United Kingdom - RAF Alconbury; RAF Croughton; RAF Lakenheath; RAF Menwith Hill; RAF Mildenhall
Просмотров: 262634 Jeff Quitney
Supermarket Checkers: "The Front Line" 1965 Reader's Digest; Grocery Store Cashier Training
 
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Support this channel: https://www.patreon.com/jeffquitney Food & Beverage playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL12ED9F0F94A97DA0 more at http://food.quickfound.net "How to be an effective supermarket checker." Features former "International Checker of the Year" champions. Presented by Reader's Digest in cooperation with Super Market Institute. Originally a public domain film from the Library of Congress Prelinger Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supermarket Wikipedia license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ A supermarket, a large form of the traditional grocery store, is a self-service shop offering a wide variety of food and household products, organized into aisles. It is larger and has a wider selection than a traditional grocery store, but is smaller and more limited in the range of merchandise than a hypermarket or big-box market. The supermarket typically comprises meat, fresh produce, dairy, and baked goods aisles, along with shelf space reserved for canned and packaged goods as well as for various non-food items such as kitchenware, household cleaners, pharmacy products and pet supplies... In the early days of retailing, all products generally were fetched by an assistant from shelves behind the merchant's counter while customers waited in front of the counter and indicated the items they wanted. Also, most foods and merchandise did not come in individually wrapped consumer-sized packages, so an assistant had to measure out and wrap the precise amount desired by the consumer. This also offered opportunities for social interaction: many regarded this style of shopping as "a social occasion" and would often "pause for conversations with the staff or other customers." These practices were by nature very labor-intensive and therefore also quite expensive. The shopping process was slow, as the number of customers who could be attended to at one time was limited by the number of staff employed in the store. Shopping for groceries also often involved trips to multiple specialty shops, such as a greengrocer, butcher, bakery, fishmonger and dry goods store, in addition to a general store, while milk was delivered by a milkman. The concept of an inexpensive food market relying on large economies of scale was developed by Vincent Astor. He founded the Astor Market in 1915, investing $750,000 ($18 million in 2015 currency) of his fortune into a 165' by 125' corner of 95th and Broadway, Manhattan, creating, in effect, an open air mini-mall that sold meat, fruit, produce and flowers. The expectation was that customers would come from great distances ("miles around"), but in the end even attracting people from ten blocks away was difficult, and the market folded in 1917. The concept of a self-service grocery store was developed by entrepreneur Clarence Saunders and his Piggly Wiggly stores. His first store opened in 1916. Saunders was awarded a number of patents for the ideas he incorporated into his stores. The stores were a financial success and Saunders began to offer franchises. The Great Atlantic & Pacific Tea Company, which was established in 1859, was another successful early grocery store chain in Canada and the United States, and became common in North American cities in the 1920s. The general trend in since then has been to stock shelves at night so that customers, the following day, can obtain their own goods and bring them to the front of the store to pay for them. Although there is a higher risk of shoplifting, the costs of appropriate security measures ideally will be outweighed by reduced labor costs. Early self-service grocery stores did not sell fresh meats or produce. Combination stores that sold perishable items were developed in the 1920s. Historically, there was debate about the origin of the supermarket, with King Kullen and Ralphs of California having strong claims... It has been determined that the first true supermarket in the United States was opened by a former Kroger employee, Michael J. Cullen, on 4 August 1930, inside a 6,000-square-foot (560 m2) former garage in Jamaica, Queens in New York City. The store, King Kullen, operated under the slogan "Pile it high. Sell it low." At the time of Cullen's death in 1936, there were seventeen King Kullen stores in operation. Although Saunders had brought the world self-service, uniform stores and nationwide marketing, Cullen built on this idea by adding separate food departments, selling large volumes of food at discount prices and adding a parking lot...
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How Battleship Guns Work: "16 Inch Gun & Turret" 1955 US Navy Training Film MN-9321c; Iowa Class BBS
 
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Support this channel: https://www.patreon.com/jeffquitney Battleships, Destroyers... US Navy Vessels playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLC3B3291260B28346 US Navy Training Film playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLA40407C12E5E35A7 more at http://quickfound.net/links/military_news_and_links.html US Navy Training Film MN-9321c Major Caliber Guns & Turrets The 16/50 Gun & Turret Originally a public domain film from the US Navy, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/16_inch_(406_mm)/50_caliber_Mark_7_naval_gun Wikipedia license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ The 16"/50 caliber Mark 7 -- United States Naval Gun is the main armament of the Iowa-class battleships. These guns were 66 feet (20 m) long—50 times their 16-inch (406 mm) bore, or 50 calibers, from breechface to muzzle. Each gun weighed about 239,000 pounds (108,000 kg) without the breech, or 267,900 pounds (121,517 kg) with the breech. They fired projectiles weighing from 1,900 to 2,700 pounds (850 to 1,200 kg) at a maximum speed of 2,690 feet per second (820 m/s) with a range of up to 24 miles (39 km). At maximum range the projectile spent almost 1½ minutes in flight. Each turret required a crew of 94 men to operate. The turrets themselves cost US$1.4 million each, to which the cost of the guns had to be added. The turrets were "three-gun", not "triple", because each barrel could be elevated and fired independently. The ships could fire any combination of their guns, including a broadside of all nine. Considering the large mass of the ship, compared to the mass of the projectiles, the ships barely moved sideways at all, even when a full broadside was fired. With the damping effect of the water around the hull it seems that the pressure wave generated by the gunfire was felt much more than the very slight change in lateral velocity. The guns could be elevated from −5 degrees to +45 degrees, moving at up to 12 degrees per second. The turrets could rotate about 300 degrees at about 4 degrees per second and could even be fired back beyond the beam, which is sometimes called "over the shoulder". Within each turret, a red stripe on the wall of the turret, just inches from the railing, marked the boundary of the gun's recoil, providing the crew of each gun turret with a visual reference for the minimum safe distance range. Complementing the 16"/50 caliber Mark 7 gun was a fire control computer, in this case the Ford Instrument Company Mark 8 Range Keeper. This analog computer was used to direct the fire from the battleship's big guns, taking into account several factors such as the speed of the targeted ship, the time it takes for a projectile to travel, and air resistance to the shells fired at a target. At the time the Montana class was set to begin construction, the rangekeepers had gained the ability to use radar data to help target enemy ships and land-based targets. The results of this advance were telling: the rangekeeper was able to track and fire at targets at a greater range and with increased accuracy. This gave the US Navy a major advantage in World War II, as the Japanese did not develop radar or automated fire control to the level of the US Navy. The Mark 7 gun was originally intended to fire the relatively light 2,240-pound (1,020 kg) Mark 5 armor-piercing shell. However, the shell-handling system for these guns was redesigned to use the "super-heavy" 2,700-pound (1,200 kg) APC (Armor Piercing, Capped) Mark 8 shell before any of the Iowa-class battleships were laid down. The large caliber guns were designed to fire two different 16 in (406 mm) shells: an armor piercing round for anti-ship and anti-structure work, and a high explosive round designed for use against unarmored targets and shore bombardment... The propellant consists of small cylindrical grains of smokeless powder with an extremely high burning rate. A maximum charge consists of six silk bags, each filled with 110 pounds of propellant...
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Physics: Crystals 1958 Alan Holden - Bell Laboratories - PSSC Physical Science Study Committee
 
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Support this channel: https://www.patreon.com/jeffquitney Physical Science Study Committee Films (PSSC) playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL_hX5wLdhf_KuXqv0QzMoNQYgR_nBxETx Physics & Physical Sciences playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL_hX5wLdhf_JKIMNk88rKCkhpK73_qmHY "Explains how crystals are formed and why they are shaped as they are. Considers their actual growth under a microscope, how they may be grown, and the relation of these phenomena to the concept of atoms. From the PSSC Physics series. Blue Ribbon winner, American Film Festival." Your instructor is Alan Holden of Bell Laboratories. Originally a public domain film, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crystal Wikipedia license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents, such as atoms, molecules or ions, are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions. In addition, macroscopic single crystals are usually identifiable by their geometrical shape, consisting of flat faces with specific, characteristic orientations. The scientific study of crystals and crystal formation is known as crystallography. The process of crystal formation via mechanisms of crystal growth is called crystallization or solidification. The word crystal is derived from the Ancient Greek word κρύσταλλος (krustallos), meaning both “ice” and “rock crystal”, from κρύος (kruos), "icy cold, frost". Examples of large crystals include snowflakes, diamonds, and table salt. Most inorganic solids are not crystals but polycrystals, i.e. many microscopic crystals fused together into a single solid. Examples of polycrystals include most metals, rocks, ceramics, and ice. A third category of solids is amorphous solids, where the atoms have no periodic structure whatsoever. Examples of amorphous solids include glass, wax, and many plastics... The scientific definition of a "crystal" is based on the microscopic arrangement of atoms inside it, called the crystal structure. A crystal is a solid where the atoms form a periodic arrangement. (Quasicrystals are an exception, see below.) Not all solids are crystals. For example, when liquid water starts freezing, the phase change begins with small ice crystals that grow until they fuse, forming a polycrystalline structure. In the final block of ice, each of the small crystals (called "crystallites" or "grains") is a true crystal with a periodic arrangement of atoms, but the whole polycrystal does not have a periodic arrangement of atoms, because the periodic pattern is broken at the grain boundaries. Most macroscopic inorganic solids are polycrystalline, including almost all metals, ceramics, ice, rocks, etc. Solids that are neither crystalline nor polycrystalline, such as glass, are called amorphous solids, also called glassy, vitreous, or noncrystalline. These have no periodic order, even microscopically. There are distinct differences between crystalline solids and amorphous solids: most notably, the process of forming a glass does not release the latent heat of fusion, but forming a crystal does. A crystal structure (an arrangement of atoms in a crystal) is characterized by its unit cell, a small imaginary box containing one or more atoms in a specific spatial arrangement. The unit cells are stacked in three-dimensional space to form the crystal. The symmetry of a crystal is constrained by the requirement that the unit cells stack perfectly with no gaps. There are 219 possible crystal symmetries, called crystallographic space groups. These are grouped into 7 crystal systems, such as cubic crystal system (where the crystals may form cubes or rectangular boxes, such as halite shown at right) or hexagonal crystal system (where the crystals may form hexagons, such as ordinary water ice)...
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Don't Kill your Friends 1943 US Navy Training Film; Huntz Hall (Bowery Boys "Satch") as Dilbert
 
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Support this channel: https://www.patreon.com/jeffquitney US Navy Training Film playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLA40407C12E5E35A7 Pilot Training Film playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLCA6387BA013F9A4D more at http://scitech.quickfound.net/aviation_news_and_search.html "Dilbert fearlessly provides a string of negative examples of what not to do during aerial gunnery practice." Starring Huntz Hall ("Sach" of the Bowery Boys and Dead End Kids) as Dilbert, a character created by Robert C. Osborn. US Navy training film MN-84d Originally a public domain film from the US Navy, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_C._Osborn Wikipedia license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ ...World War II: the Dilbert Years Osborn enlisted when World War II began, hoping to become a U.S. Navy pilot. However, the Navy apparently decided that he would be better employed with his hand wrapped around a pen rather than around a joystick: he was soon learning, then applying the art of "speed drawing", under the command of the photographer Edward Steichen in a special information unit in which pilot training manuals were produced. Osborn began drawing cartoons of a pilot who was hapless, arrogant, ignorant and perpetually blundering in ways that put himself and his crew at unnecessary risk. The name of this character was "Dilbert the Pilot", and "Dilbert" was soon to become a slang term used to refer to "sailor who is a foul-up or a screwball." Scott Adams credits Osborn as an indirect source of inspiration for the main character in his own Dilbert cartoons. It is not certain how many drawings Osborn produced for Navy manuals; estimates range from 2,000 to 40,000. His Dilbert was used in numerous educational posters for Navy pilots, appeared in the New York Times and Life magazine; for a while, "dilbert" became a synonym for "blunder" for Navy pilots... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Huntz_Hall Henry Richard "Huntz" Hall (August 15, 1920--January 30, 1999) was an American radio, theatrical, and motion picture performer noted primarily for his roles in the "Dead End Kids" movies, such as Angels with Dirty Faces (1938), which gave way to the "The Bowery Boys" movie franchise, a prolific and highly successful series of comedies in the 1940s and 1950s. Henry Richard Hall was born in 1920 in New York City to Joseph Patrick Hall, an Irish immigrant air-conditioner repairman, and his wife Mary Ellen Mullen. The 14th of 16 children, he was nicknamed "Huntz" because of his Teutonic-looking nose. Hall attended Catholic schools and started performing on radio at age 5. He appeared on Broadway in the 1935 production of Dead End, a play written and directed by Sidney Kingsley. Hall was then cast along with the other Dead End Kids in the 1937 film Dead End, directed by William Wyler and starring Humphrey Bogart. Hall later played the increasingly buffoonish Horace DeBussy "Sach" Jones in 48 "Bowery Boys" films, gaining top billing when his longtime partner, Leo Gorcey, left the series in 1956. He also appeared in other films, including his portrayal of Private Carraway in the war film, A Walk in the Sun, in 1945. By 1976, Hall drove a brand-new Rolls-Royce, thanks to his offshore oil well investments... Death Hall died from congestive heart failure on January 30, 1999 at the age of 79 in North Hollywood, California. He was interred in a niche at All Saints Episcopal Church in Pasadena, California... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Friendly_fire Friendly fire is inadvertent firing towards one's own or otherwise friendly forces while attempting to engage enemy forces, particularly where this results in injury or death. A death resulting from a negligent discharge is not considered friendly fire. Neither is murder, whether premeditated or in the heat of the moment, nor is deliberate firing on one's own troops for disciplinary reasons, as in these cases there is no intent to harm the enemy. Similarly, inadvertent harm to non-combatants or structures, usually referred to as collateral damage, is also not considered to be friendly fire. The term friendly fire was originally adopted by the United States military. Many North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) military refer to these incidents as blue on blue, which derives from military exercises where NATO forces were identified by blue pennants, hence "blue", and units representing Warsaw Pact forces were identified by orange pennants. Another term for such incidents is fratricide, a word that originally refers to the act of a person killing their brother...
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84 mph Truck Crash into 690 Ton Concrete Block: Nuclear Waste Cask Crash Tests 1978 DOE Sandia
 
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Support this channel: https://www.patreon.com/jeffquitney Nuclear & Radioactive playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL4CD7F0970A5F16AB more at: http://scitech.quickfound.net Radioactive waste transportation safety tests conducted by Sandia National Laboratories in 1977 and 1978. A truck carrying a 22 ton nuclear waste flask (aka cask) crashes head on into a 690 ton concrete block at 60 miles per hour. After cleanup, the same cask is impacted into the block at 84 miles per hour. 3rd test: a locomotive crashes into a truck holding a 25 ton radioactive waste cask at 81 miles per hour. Final test: a 74 ton nuclear waste cask aboard a cask rail car impacts the concrete block at 81 mph, then is burned by a pool of jet fuel for 90 minutes, during which temps exceeded 1400 degrees F. What is not mentioned is the possibility of a nuclear waste cask truck impacting another truck traveling at 60+ mph in the opposite direction making the combined velocity 120+ mph. Originally a public domain film slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_flask Wikipedia license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ A nuclear flask is a shipping container that is used to transport active nuclear materials between nuclear power station and spent fuel reprocessing facilities. Each shipping container is designed to maintain its integrity under normal transportation conditions and during hypothetical accident conditions. They must protect their contents against damage from the outside world, such as impact or fire. They must also contain their contents from leakage, both for physical leakage and for radiological shielding. Spent nuclear fuel shipping casks are used to transport spent nuclear fuel used in nuclear power plants and research reactors to disposal sites such as the nuclear reprocessing center at COGEMA La Hague site... In the United States, the acceptability of the design of each cask is judged against Title 10, Part 71, of the Code of Federal Regulations (other nations' shipping casks, possibly excluding Russia's, are designed and tested to similar standards (International Atomic Energy Agency "Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material" No. TS-R-1)). The designs must demonstrate (possibly by computer modelling) protection against radiological release to the environment under all four of the following hypothetical accident conditions, designed to encompass 99% of all accidents: - A 9-meter (30 ft) free fall onto an unyielding surface - A puncture test allowing the container to free-fall 1 meter (about 39 inches) onto a steel rod 15 centimeters (about 6 inches) in diameter - A 30-minute, all-engulfing fire at 800 degrees Celsius (1475 degrees Fahrenheit) - An 8-hour immersion under 0.9 meter (3 ft) of water. - Further, an undamaged package must be subjected to a one-hour immersion under 200 meters (655 ft) of water. In addition, between 1975 and 1977 Sandia National Laboratories conducted full-scale crash tests on spent nuclear fuel shipping casks. Although the casks were damaged, none would have leaked... Since 1965, approximately 3,000 shipments of spent nuclear fuel have been transported safely over the U.S.'s highways, waterways, and railroads. Baltimore train tunnel fire On July 18, 2001, a freight train carrying hazardous (non-nuclear) materials derailed and caught fire while passing through the Howard Street railroad tunnel in downtown Baltimore, Maryland, United States. The fire burned for 3 days, with temperatures as high as 1000 °C (1800 °F). Since the casks are designed for a 30-minute fire at 800 °C (1475 °F), several reports have been made regarding the inability of the casks to survive... State of Nevada The State of Nevada, USA, released a report entitled, "Implications of the Baltimore Rail Tunnel Fire for Full-Scale Testing of Shipping Casks" on February 25, 2003. In the report, they said a hypothetical spent nuclear fuel accident based on the Baltimore fire: - "Concluded steel-lead-steel cask would have failed after 6.3 hours; monolithic steel cask would have failed after 11-12.5 hours." - "Contaminated Area: 32 square miles (82 km2)" - "Latent cancer fatalities: 4,000-28,000 over 50 years (200-1,400 during first year)" - "Cleanup cost: $13.7 Billion (2001 Dollars)"...
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Soybeans for Farm and Industry ~ 1940 International Harvester; Soya Bean Cultivation & Uses
 
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Support this channel: https://www.patreon.com/jeffquitney Agriculture: Farming, Ranching playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL897E774CDB19F283 more at http://quickfound.net/links/agriculture_news_and_links.html Unfortunately this film is incomplete, but the nine minutes plus here are quite good. Originally a public domain film from the Library of Congress Prelinger Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soybean Wikipedia license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ The soybean (U.S.) or soya bean (UK) (Glycine max) is a species of legume native to East Asia, widely grown for its edible bean which has numerous uses. The plant is classed as an oilseed rather than a pulse by the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO). Fat-free (defatted) soybean meal is a significant and cheap source of protein for animal feeds and many prepackaged meals; soy vegetable oil is another product of processing the soybean crop. For example, soybean products such as textured vegetable protein (TVP) are ingredients in many meat and dairy analogues. Soybeans produce significantly more protein per acre than most other uses of land. Traditional nonfermented food uses of soybeans include soy milk, and from the latter tofu and tofu skin. Fermented foods include soy sauce, fermented bean paste, natto, and tempeh, among others. The oil is used in many industrial applications. The main producers of soy are the United States (35%), Brazil (27%), Argentina (19%), China (6%) and India (4%). Today, the United States is also the world's largest consumer of soybeans, with an average annual consumption of 45,313 TMT. The beans contain significant amounts of phytic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, and isoflavones... Soy varies in growth and habit. The height of the plant varies from below 20 cm (7.9 in) up to 2 metres (6.6 ft)... Together, soybean oil and protein content account for about 60% of dry soybeans by weight; protein at 40% and oil at 20%. The remainder consists of 35% carbohydrate and about 5% ash. Soybean cultivars comprise approximately 8% seed coat or hull, 90% cotyledons and 2% hypocotyl axis or germ. Most soy protein is a relatively heat-stable storage protein. This heat stability enables soy food products requiring high temperature cooking, such as tofu, soy milk and textured vegetable protein (soy flour) to be made... For human consumption, soybeans must be cooked with "wet" heat to destroy the trypsin inhibitors (serine protease inhibitors). Raw soybeans, including the immature green form, are toxic to humans, swine, chickens, and in fact, all monogastric animals. Soybeans are considered by many agencies to be a source of complete protein. A complete protein is one that contains significant amounts of all the essential amino acids that must be provided to the human body because of the body's inability to synthesize them. For this reason, soy is a good source of protein, amongst many others, for vegetarians and vegans or for people who want to reduce the amount of meat they eat... Soy protein is essentially identical to that of other legume seeds. Moreover, soybeans can produce at least twice as much protein per acre than any other major vegetable or grain crop besides hemp, five to 10 times more protein per acre than land set aside for grazing animals to make milk, and up to 15 times more protein per acre than land set aside for meat production... Cultivation is successful in climates with hot summers, with optimum growing conditions in mean temperatures of 20 to 30 °C (68 to 86 °F); temperatures of below 20 °C and over 40 °C (68 °F, 104 °F) retard growth significantly. They can grow in a wide range of soils, with optimum growth in moist alluvial soils with a good organic content. Soybeans, like most legumes, perform nitrogen fixation by establishing a symbiotic relationship with the bacterium Bradyrhizobium japonicum (syn. Rhizobium japonicum; Jordan 1982). For best results, though, an inoculum of the correct strain of bacteria should be mixed with the soybean (or any legume) seed before planting. Modern crop cultivars generally reach a height of around 1 m (3.3 ft), and take 80--120 days from sowing to harvesting. The U.S., Brazil, Argentina, China and India are the world's largest soybean producers and represent more than 90% of global soybean production. The U.S. produced 75 million tons of soybeans in 2000, of which more than one-third was exported. In the 2010--2011 production year, this figure is expected to be over 90 million tons. Other leading producers are Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay, China, and India...
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Fallout: When And How To Protect Yourself 1959 U S Office Of Civil Defense
 
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Support this channel: https://www.patreon.com/jeffquitney more at http://scitech.quickfound.net/ "Illustrates the cause and effects of radioactive fallout. Describes preparations which should be made to safeguard lives and protect food and water supplies. Animated." Originally a public domain film, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fallout_shelter Wikipedia license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ A fallout shelter is an enclosed space specially designed to protect occupants from radioactive debris or fallout resulting from a nuclear explosion. Many such shelters were constructed as civil defense measures during the Cold War. During a nuclear explosion, matter vaporized in the resulting fireball is exposed to neutrons from the explosion, absorbs them, and becomes radioactive. When this material condenses in the rain, it forms dust and light sandy materials that resembles ground pumice. The fallout emits alpha and beta particles, as well as gamma rays. Much of this highly radioactive material then falls to earth, subjecting anything within the line of sight to radiation, a significant hazard. A fallout shelter is designed to allow its occupants to minimize exposure to harmful fallout until radioactivity has decayed to a safer level. Although many shelters still exist, many even being used as museums, virtually all fallout shelters have been decommissioned since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991... Shielding A basic fallout shelter consists of shields that reduce gamma ray exposure by a factor of 1000. The required shielding can be accomplished with 10 times the amount of any quantity of material capable of cutting gamma ray effects in half. Shields that reduce gamma ray intensity by 50% (1/2) include 1 cm (0.4 inch) of lead, 6 cm (2.4 inches) of concrete, 9 cm (3.6 inches) of packed dirt or 150 m (500 ft) of air. When multiple thicknesses are built, the shielding multiplies. Thus, a practical fallout shield is ten halving-thicknesses of packed dirt, reducing gamma rays by 1024 times. Usually, an expedient purpose-built fallout shelter is a trench; with a strong roof buried by c. 1 m (3 ft) of dirt. The two ends of the trench have ramps or entrances at right angles to the trench, so that gamma rays cannot enter (they can travel only in straight lines). To make the overburden waterproof (in case of rain), a plastic sheet should be buried a few inches below the surface and held down with rocks or bricks. Blast doors are designed to absorb the shock wave of a nuclear blast, bending and then returning to their original shape. Climate control Dry earth is a reasonably good thermal insulator, and over several weeks of habitation, a shelter will become too hot for comfort. The simplest form of effective fan to cool a shelter is a wide, heavy frame with flaps that swing in the shelter's doorway and can be swung from hinges on the ceiling. The flaps open in one direction and close in the other, pumping air. Attach a rope, and take turns swinging it. (This is a Kearny Air Pump, or KAP, named after the inventor.) Unfiltered air is safe, since the most dangerous fallout has the consistency of sand or finely ground pumice. Such large particles are not easily ingested into the soft tissues of the body, so extensive filters are not required. Any exposure to fine dust is far less hazardous than exposure to the gamma from the fallout outside the shelter. Dust fine enough to pass the entrance will probably pass through the shelter. Collective NBC protection system Usually blast protection valves are installed at the air-inlet and air outlet to prevent the penetration of blast waves caused by explosions outside of the shelter. A positive pressure (overpressure) is created in the shelter by pulling filtered air into the protected area. The air is filtered by the means of NBC-filters (NBC = Nuclear, Biological and Chemical filters)...
Просмотров: 150555 Jeff Quitney
Aerobatics & Spin Recovery: "The Inverted Spin" 1943 US Navy Pilot Training Film
 
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more at: http://scitech.quickfound.net/aviation_news_and_search.html The Inverted Spin - Intermediate Acrobatics Part VII. "Points out the difference between an accidental spin and an inverted spin; and demonstrates the procedure of executing an inverted spin." US Navy flight training film MN-1325f. Public domain film from the US Navy, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spin_(aerodynamics) A spin is a special category of stall resulting in autorotation about the vertical axis and a shallow, rotating, downward path. Spins can be entered intentionally or unintentionally, from any flight attitude if the aircraft has sufficient yaw while at the stall point. In a normal spin, the wing on the inside of the turn is stalled while the outside wing remains flying; it is possible for both wings to be stalled but the angle of attack of each wing, and consequently its lift and drag, will be different. Either situation causes the aircraft to autorotate (yaw) toward the stalled wing due to its higher drag and loss of lift. Spins are characterized by high angle of attack, an airspeed below the stall on at least one wing and a shallow descent. Recovery may require a specific and counterintuitive set of actions in order to avoid a crash. A spin differs from a spiral dive in which neither wing is stalled and which is characterized by a low angle of attack and high airspeed. A spiral dive is not a type of spin because neither wing is stalled. In a spiral dive, the aircraft will respond conventionally to the pilot's inputs to the flight controls and recovery from a spiral dive requires a different set of actions from those required to recover from a spin. In the early years of flight, a spin was frequently referred to as a "tailspin"... Entry and recovery Some aircraft cannot be recovered from a spin using only their own flight control surfaces and must not be allowed to enter a spin under any circumstances... Spin-entry procedures vary with the type and model of aircraft being flown but there are general procedures applicable to most aircraft. These include reducing power to idle and simultaneously raising the nose in order to induce an upright stall. Then, as the aircraft approaches stall, apply full rudder in the desired spin direction while holding full back-elevator pressure for an upright spin. Sometimes a roll input is applied in the direction opposite of the rudder (i.e., a cross-control). If the aircraft manufacturer provides a specific procedure for spin recovery, that procedure must be used. Otherwise, to recover from an upright spin, the following generic procedure may be used: Power is first reduced to idle and the ailerons are neutralized. Then, full opposite rudder (that is, against the yaw) is added and held to counteract the spin rotation, and the elevator control is moved briskly forward to reduce the angle of attack below the critical angle. Depending on the airplane and the type of spin, the elevator action could be a minimal input before rotation ceases, or in other cases the elevator control may have to be moved to its full forward position to effect recovery from the upright spin. Once the rotation has stopped, the rudder must be neutralized and the airplane returned to level flight. This procedure is sometimes called PARE, for Power idle, Ailerons neutral, Rudder opposite the spin and held, and Elevator through neutral. The mnemonic "PARE" simply reinforces the tried-and-true NASA standard spin recovery actions—the very same actions first prescribed by NACA in 1936, verified by NASA during an intensive, decade-long spin test program overlapping the 1970s and '80s, and repeatedly recommended by the FAA and implemented by the majority of test pilots during certification spin-testing of light airplanes. Inverted spinning and erect or upright spinning are dynamically very similar and require essentially the same recovery process but use opposite elevator control. In an upright spin, both roll and yaw are in the same direction but that an inverted spin is composed of opposing roll and yaw. It is crucial that the yaw be countered to effect recovery. The visual field in a typical spin (as opposed to a flat spin) is heavily dominated by the perception of roll over yaw, which can lead to an incorrect and dangerous conclusion that a given inverted spin is actually an erect spin in the reverse yaw direction (leading to a recovery attempt in which pro-spin rudder is mistakenly applied and then further exacerbated by holding the incorrect elevator input)...
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Orion Spacecraft Cockpit Feature 2014 NASA Johnson Space Center
 
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more at http://scitech.quickfound.net/astro/orion_cev_news_and_links.html Astronaut Lee Morin describes the Orion spacecraft cockpit. Public domain film from the NASA, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass color correction & mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orion_(spacecraft) The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (Orion MPCV) is a spacecraft intended to carry a crew of up to four astronauts to destinations at or beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). Currently under development by NASA for launch on the Space Launch System, Orion is intended to facilitate human exploration of asteroids and of Mars, as well as to provide a means of delivering or retrieving crew or supplies from the ISS if needed. The MPCV was announced by NASA on May 24, 2011. Its design is based on the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle from the cancelled Constellation program... The MPCV's first test flight (uncrewed), known as Exploration Flight Test 1 (EFT-1), was launched atop a Delta IV Heavy rocket on December 5, 2014 on a flight lasting 4 hours and 24 minutes, landing at its target in the Pacific Ocean at 10:29 Central (delayed from the previous day due to technical and weather problems). The first mission to carry astronauts is not expected to take place until 2021 at the earliest... Crew module (CM) The Orion crew module (CM) is the reusable transportation capsule that provides a habitat for the crew, provides storage for consumables and research instruments, and serves as the docking port for crew transfers. The crew module is the only part of the MPCV that returns to Earth after each mission and is a 57.5° frustum shape, similar to that of the Apollo command module. As projected, the CM will be 5.02 meters (16 ft 6 in) in diameter and 3.3 meters (10 ft 10 in) in length, with a mass of about 8.5 metric tons (19,000 lb). It was manufactured by the Lockheed Martin Corporation. It will have more than 50% more volume than the Apollo capsule, which had an interior volume of 5.9 m3 (210 cu ft), and will carry four to six astronauts. After extensive study, NASA has selected the Avcoat ablator system for the Orion crew module. Avcoat, which is composed of silica fibers with a resin in a honeycomb made of fiberglass and phenolic resin, was previously used on the Apollo missions and on select areas of the space shuttle for early flights. Orion's CM will use advanced technologies, including: - "Glass cockpit" digital control systems derived from those of the Boeing 787 Dreamliner. - An "autodock" feature, like those of Russian Progress spacecraft and the European Automated Transfer Vehicle, with provision for the flight crew to take over in an emergency. Previous American spacecraft (Gemini, Apollo, and Space Shuttle) have all required manual piloting for docking. - Improved waste-management facilities, with a miniature camping-style toilet and the unisex "relief tube" used on the space shuttle (whose system was based on that used on Skylab) and the International Space Station (based on the Soyuz, Salyut, and Mir systems). This eliminates the use of the much-hated plastic "Apollo bags" used by the Apollo crews. - A nitrogen/oxygen (N2/O2) mixed atmosphere at either sea level (101.3 kPa or 14.69 psi) or slightly reduced (55.2 to 70.3 kPa or 8.01 to 10.20 psi) pressure. - Much more advanced computers than on previous crew vehicles. The CM will be constructed of the aluminium-lithium alloy used on the shuttle's external tank, and on the Delta IV and Atlas V rockets. The CM itself will be covered in the same Nomex felt-like thermal protection blankets used on parts on the shuttle not subject to critical heating, such as the payload bay doors. The reusable recovery parachutes will be based on the parachutes used on both the Apollo spacecraft and the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Boosters, and will also use the same Nomex cloth for construction. Water landings will be the exclusive means of recovery for the Orion CM. To allow Orion to mate with other vehicles it will be equipped with the NASA Docking System... Its designers claim that the MPCV is designed to be 10 times safer during ascent and reentry than the Space Shuttle. The CM is designed to be refurbished and reused...
Просмотров: 65744 Jeff Quitney
1950 Chevy Body by Fisher: "The Inside Story" 1950 Chevrolet Division, General Motors
 
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Auto Mechanics playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLCED11EACAE477F6C more at http://cars.quickfound.net/ "Includes: 1950 Chevrolet assembly line footage (EXCELLENT)..." Reupload of a previously uploaded film with improved video & sound. Public domain film from the Library of Congress Prelinger Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chevrolet_Bel_Air The Chevrolet Bel Air is a full-size automobile that was produced by the Chevrolet division of General Motors for the 1950--1975 model years. Hardtops in the Chevrolet Deluxe Styleline model range were designated with the Bel Air name from 1950 to 1952, but it was not a distinct series of its own until the 1953 model year. Bel Air production continued in Canada for its home market only through the 1981 model year. In 1950, Chevrolet came up with a revolutionary style that would set a pattern for decades. The Bel Air Hardtop (on the DeLuxe line) was styled as a convertible with a non-detachable solid roof. Models like this had been around since the 1920s, including early Chevrolets, with no degree of success. But the newly revised idea, sweeping the GM line from Chevrolet to Cadillac, had finally found its era. First year production reached only 76,662 as buyers cautiously tested the revised concept. The car cost $1,741 and weighed 3,225 lb (1,463 kg). Front suspension was independent, named "knee-action" In 1953 Chevrolet renamed its series and the Bel Air name was applied to the premium model range. Two lower series, the 150 and 210, also emerged. The 1953 Chevrolet was advertised as "Entirely new through and through," due to the restyled body panels, front and rear ends. However, essentially these Chevrolets had the same frame and mechanicals as the 1949-52 cars. The Bel Air series featured a wide chrome strip of molding from the rear fender bulge, to the rear bumper. The inside of this stripe was painted a coordinating color with the outside body color, and "Bel Air" scripts were added inside the strip. Lesser models had no model designation anywhere on the car, only having a Chevy crest on the hood and trunk. 1953 was the first year for a curved, one-piece windshield. Bel Air interiors had a massive expanse of chrome across the lower part of the dashboard, along with a de luxe Bel Air steering wheel with full chrome horn ring. Carpeting and full wheel covers rounded out Bel Air standard equipment. For 1954, the Bel Air stayed essentially the same, except for a revised grille and taillights. During these years, there were two engine choices, depending on the transmission ordered. Both engines were "Blue Flame" inline six cylinder OHV engines, featuring hydraulic valve lifters and aluminum pistons. The 115 hp (86 kW) engine was standard on stickshift models, with solid lifters and splash plus pressure lubrication. Powerglide cars got a 125 hp (93 kW) version which had hydraulic lifters and full pressure lubrication. In 1953-54, Bel Airs could be ordered in convertible, hardtop coupe, 2- and 4-door sedans, and, for 1954, the Beauville station wagon which featured woodgrain trim around the side windows. Power steering was optional for 1953; 1954 added power brakes, power seat positioner and power front windows. 1954 cars with stick shift used the 1953 Powerglide engine...
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X-29: Experiment in Flight NASA Forward Swept Wing Aircraft
 
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Support this channel: https://www.patreon.com/jeffquitney more at http://scitech.quickfound.net/ "This document examines the goals and accomplishments of the forward sweep-winged X-29." also see (a few years earlier): X-29 Research Aircraft https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9Ox277n3wIg Originally a public domain film from NASA, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grumman_X-29 Wikipedia license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ The Grumman X-29 was an experimental aircraft that tested a forward-swept wing, canard control surfaces, and other novel aircraft technologies. The aerodynamic instability of this arrangement increased agility but required the use of computerized fly-by-wire control. Composite materials were used to control the aeroelastic divergent twisting experienced by forward-swept wings, also reducing the weight. Developed by Grumman, the X-29 first flew in 1984 and two X-29s were flight tested over the next decade... Design and development Two X-29As were built by Grumman from two existing Northrop F-5A Freedom Fighter airframes (63-8372 became 82-0003 and 65-10573 became 82-0049) after the proposal had been chosen over a competing one involving a General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon. The X-29 design made use of the forward fuselage and nose landing gear from the F-5As with the control surface actuators and main landing gear from the F-16. The technological advancement that made the X-29 a plausible design was the use of carbon-fiber composites. The wings of the X-29, made partly of graphite epoxy, were swept at more than 33 degrees forward. The Grumman internal designation for the X-29 was "Grumman Model 712" or "G-712". The X-29A demonstrated high maneuvering and control in flight testing. A maximum angle of attack of 67° was reached. The configuration, combined with a center of gravity well aft of the aerodynamic center, made the craft inherently unstable. Stability was provided by the computerized flight control system making 40 corrections per second. The flight control system was made up of three redundant digital computers backed up by three redundant analog computers; any of the three could fly it on its own, but the redundancy allowed them to check for errors. Each of the three would "vote" on their measurements, so that if any one was malfunctioning it could be detected. It was estimated that a total failure of the system was as unlikely as a mechanical failure in an airplane with a conventional arrangement. Aeroelastic considerations In a forward swept wing configuration, the aerodynamic lift produces a twisting force which rotates the wing leading edge upward. This results in a higher angle of attack, which increases lift, twisting the wing further. This aeroelastic divergence can quickly lead to structural failure. With conventional metallic construction, a torsionally very stiff wing would be required to resist twisting; stiffening the wing adds weight, which may make the design unfeasible. The X-29 design made use of the anisotropic elastic coupling between bending and twisting of the carbon fiber composite material to address this aeroelastic effect. Rather than using a very stiff wing, which would carry a weight penalty even with the relatively light-weight composite, the X-29 used a laminate which produced coupling between bending and torsion. As lift increases, bending loads force the wing tips to bend upward. Torsion loads attempt to twist the wing to higher angles of attack, but the coupling resists the loads, twisting the leading edge downward reducing wing angle of attack and lift. With lift reduced, the loads are reduced and divergence is avoided. Operational history The first X-29 was taken aloft on 14 December 1984 from Edwards AFB with Grumman's Chief Test Pilot Chuck Sewell at the controls. With that flight, the X-29 became the second jet-powered aircraft to fly with forward swept wings (with the Nazi Germany-era Junkers Ju 287, which first flew in 1944, being the first)... The NASA test program continued from 1984 to 1991...
Просмотров: 205947 Jeff Quitney
How to Succeed with Brunettes 1967 US Navy Dating Etiquette Training Film MN-10283C
 
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Support this channel: https://www.patreon.com/jeffquitney Dating, Courtship, Marriage, Romance, Social Skills... playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL_hX5wLdhf_KJYnRm8-wfh5eE1-BEbARj US Navy Training Film playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLA40407C12E5E35A7 more at http://quickfound.net Demonstrates proper dating etiquette for US Navy officers, at first by showing what NOT to do. US Navy Training Film MN-10283C Originally a public domain film from the US National Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dating Wikipedia license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ Dating as an institution is a relatively recent phenomenon which has mainly emerged in the last few centuries. From the standpoint of anthropology and sociology, dating is linked with other institutions such as marriage and the family which have also been changing rapidly and which have been subject to many forces, including advances in technology and medicine. As humans have evolved from the hunter-gatherers into civilized societies and more recently into modern societies, there have been substantial changes in the relationship between men and women, with perhaps the only biological constant being that both adult women and men must have sexual intercourse for human procreation to happen... Generally, during much of recorded history of humans in civilization, and into the Middle Ages in Europe, weddings were seen as business arrangements between families, while romance was something that happened outside of marriage discreetly, such as covert meetings... A few centuries ago, dating was sometimes described as a "courtship ritual where young women entertained gentleman callers, usually in the home, under the watchful eye of a chaperone,"[8] but increasingly, in many Western countries, it became a self-initiated activity with two young people going out as a couple in public together... In the twentieth century, dating was sometimes seen as a precursor to marriage but it could also be considered as an end-in-itself, that is, an informal social activity akin to friendship. It generally happened in that portion of a person's life before the age of marriage..
Просмотров: 288372 Jeff Quitney
Ballistics: " Fundamentals of Ballistics" 1948 US Army Training Film TF9-1512
 
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Support this channel: https://www.patreon.com/jeffquitney US Army Training Film playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL0C7C6CCF1C0DEBB3 Small Arms playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL22A5611941174745 more at http://quickfound.net/links/military_news_and_links.html "PRINCIPLES OF PHYSICS INVOLVED IN DESIGN AND FUNCTIONING OF WEAPONS AND AMMUNITION, WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO THEIR ARTILLERY APPLICATION." US Army training film TF9-1512 Originally a public domain film from the US National Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ballistics Wikipedia license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ Ballistics (gr. βάλλειν ('ba'llein'), "throw") is the science of mechanics that deals with the flight, behavior, and effects of projectiles, especially bullets, gravity bombs, rockets, or the like; the science or art of designing and accelerating projectiles so as to achieve a desired performance. A ballistic body is a body which is free to move, behave, and be modified in appearance, contour, or texture by ambient conditions, substances, or forces, as by the pressure of gases in a gun or propulsive nozzle, by rifling in a barrel, by gravity, by temperature, or by air particles. A ballistic missile is a missile only guided during the relatively brief initial powered phase of flight, whose course is subsequently governed by the laws of classical mechanics. Modern inter-continental ballistic missiles (ICBMs), contain a maneuverable orbiting bus that positions and releases ballistic warheads in space using celestial navigation. Gun ballistics Gun ballistics is the work of projectiles from the time of shooting to the time of impact with the target. Gun ballistics is often broken down into the following four categories, which contain detailed information on each category: Internal ballistics (sometimes called interior ballistics): the study of the processes originally accelerating the projectile, for example the passage of a bullet through the barrel of a rifle. Transition ballistics (sometimes called intermediate ballistics): the study of the projectile's behavior when it leaves the barrel and the pressure behind the projectile is equalized. External ballistics (sometimes called exterior ballistics): the study of the passage of the projectile through a medium, most commonly earth's atmosphere. Terminal ballistics: the study of the interaction of a projectile with its target, whether that be flesh (for a hunting bullet), steel (for an anti-tank round), or even furnace slag (for an industrial slag disruptor). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internal_ballistics Internal ballistics, a subfield of ballistics, is the study of a projectile's motion from the time its propellant's igniter is initiated until it exits the gun barrel. The study of internal ballistics is important to designers and users of firearms of all types, from small-bore Olympic rifles and pistols, to high-tech artillery. Hatcher breaks the duration of interior ballistics into 3 parts: - Lock time, the time from sear release until the primer is struck - Ignition time, the time from when the primer is struck until the projectile starts to move - Barrel time, the time from when the projectile starts to move until exits the barrel. These times have significance for accuracy. If the weapon is moving, then a shorter lock time minimizes the effect of that motion. The consistency of the ignition and barrel times affect and relate to the muzzle velocity. There are many processes that are significant. The source of energy is the burning propellant. It generates hot gases that raise the chamber pressure. That pressure pushes on the base of the projectile, and causes the projectile to accelerate. The chamber pressure depends on many factors. The amount of propellant that has burned, the temperature of the gases, and the volume of the chamber. The burn rate of the propellant depends not only chemical makeup, but also the shape of the propellant grains. The temperature depends not only on the energy released, but also the heat lost to the sides of the barrel and chamber. The volume of the chamber is continuously changing: as the propellant burns, there is more volume for the gas to occupy. As the projectile travels down the barrel, the volume behind the projectile also increases...
Просмотров: 181756 Jeff Quitney
How to Dogfight in Jets: Air Combat Maneuvering: Flight Tactics 1960 USAF Training Film
 
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Support this channel: https://www.patreon.com/jeffquitney more at http://scitech.quickfound.net/aviation_news_and_search.html "The basic tactical unit of air combat maneuvering is the two fighter element..." US Air Force Training Film TF-1 5256B Originally a public domain film, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). There is a broadband hum in the vocal frequencies of this film which I cannot completely remove. USAF Training Film playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL8F26D920AA815835 Pilot Training playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLCA6387BA013F9A4D http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Air_combat_manoeuvring Wikipedia license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ Air combat manoeuvring (also spelled: air combat maneuvering, or ACM) is the art of manoeuvring a combat aircraft in order to attain a position from which an attack can be made on another aircraft. It relies on offensive and defensive basic fighter manoeuvring (BFM) in order to gain an advantage over an aerial opponent... There are five main things which a pilot must remain conscious of when contemplating an aerial engagement, of which, getting and keeping sight is the most important. In Southeast Asia, over 85% of all kills are attributed to the attacker spotting and shooting the defender without ever being seen. Structural limitations of both the attacking and defending fighters must be taken into account, such as thrust-to-weight ratio, wing loading, and the "corner speed" (the maximum/minimum speed at which the aircraft can attain the best turning performance). Variable limitations must also be considered, such as turn radius, turn rate, and the specific energy of the aircraft. Position of aircraft must quickly be assessed, including direction, angle off tail (the angle between flight paths),[7] and closing speed. Also, the pilot must be aware of his wingman’s position, and maintain good communication. A pilot in combat attempts to conserve his aircraft’s energy through carefully timed and executed manoeuvres. By using such manoeuvres, a pilot will often make trade offs between the fighter’s potential energy (altitude), and kinetic energy (airspeed), to maintain the energy-to-weight ratio of the aircraft, or the "specific energy".[6] A manoeuvre such as the "low yo-yo" trades altitude for airspeed to gain closure on an enemy, and to decrease turn radius. The opposite manoeuvre, a "high yo-yo", trades speed for height, literally storing energy in "the altitude bank", which allows a fast moving attacker to slow his closing speed. An attacker is confronted with three possible ways to pursue an enemy, all of which are vital during chase. "Lag pursuit" happens in a turn when the nose of the attacker’s aircraft points behind an enemy’s tail. Lag pursuit allows an attacker to increase or maintain range without overshooting. "Lead pursuit" in a turn occurs when the nose of the attacking aircraft points ahead of the enemy. Lead pursuit is used to decrease the distance between aircraft, and during gun attacks where the cannons must be aimed, not at where the defender is, but where he will be when the bullets get there. "Pure pursuit" happens when the nose of the attacker points directly at the defender. Pure pursuit is when most missiles will be fired, and is the hardest position to maintain. These are known as pursuit curves... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USAF_Weapons_School The USAF Weapons School is a unit of the United States Air Force, assigned to the 57th Wing. It is stationed at Nellis AFB, Nevada...
Просмотров: 161812 Jeff Quitney
1949 Ford Design and Development: "The Human Bridge" 1949 Ford Motor Company
 
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Automobile Transportation playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL_hX5wLdhf_Ko5IvhQnWzOIJg_yfo2gGR more at http://cars.quickfound.net/ "Traces the birth of the 1949 Ford from the drawing board to the roads of the world, showing different stages of automobile design and manufacturing..." Unfortunately only the first half of this film is available, but it is quite good. Reupload of a previously uploaded film with improved video & sound. Public domain film from the Library of Congress Prelinger Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1949_Ford After sticking with its well-received previous model through model year 1948, Ford completely redesigned its namesake car for 1949. Save for its drivetrain, this was an all-new car in every way, with a modern ladder frame now supporting a coil spring suspension in front and longitudinal semi-elliptical springs in back. The engine was moved forward to make more room in the passenger compartment and the antiquated torque tube was replaced by a modern drive shaft. Ford's popular 226 CID (3.7 L) L-head straight-6 and 239 CID (3.9 L) Flathead V8 remained, now rated at 90 hp (67 kW) and 100 hp (75 kW), respectively. The 1949 models debuted at a gala at the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel in New York City in June 1948, with a carousel of the new Fords complemented by a revolving demonstration of the new chassis. The new integrated steel structure was advertised as a "lifeguard body", and even the woody wagon was steel at heart. The convertible frame had an "X member" for structural rigidity. From a customer's perspective, the old Custom, De Luxe, and Super De Luxe lines were replaced by new Standard and Custom trims and the cars gained a modern look with completely integrated rear fenders and just a hint of a fender in front. The new styling approach was also evident in the 1949 Mercury Eight and the all-new Lincoln Cosmopolitan... 1950 saw a new Crestliner "sports sedan" — a 2-door sedan with 2-tone paint intended to battle Chevrolet's popular hardtop sedans of 1950. Another new name was Country Squire, which referred to the 2-door wood-sided station wagon. All wagons received flat-folding middle seats at mid-year, an innovation that would reappear in the minivans of the 1990s. The 1949 and 1950 styling was similar, with a single central "bullet" in the frowning chrome grille. In the center there was a red space that had either a 6 or 8 depending if the car had the six-cylinder engine or the V8. The trim lines were renamed as well, with "Standard" becoming "Deluxe" and "Custom" renamed "Custom Deluxe". In 1950, Ford also manufactured a lesser known Business Coupe... The 1951 Fords featured an optional Ford-O-Matic automatic transmission for the first time...
Просмотров: 65027 Jeff Quitney
Medium Bombardment And Attack Aviation 1945 USAAF Far East Air Forces (FEAF) TF1-3737
 
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World War II playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL3E5ED4749AE3CD2C More at http://scitech.quickfound.net/aviation_news_and_search.html Far East Air Forces Indoctrination Film No. 2 Medium Bombardment And Attack Aviation Photographed by 5th and 6th Combat Camera Units 'This film focuses its sights on the planes used in the Southwest Pacific operation against Japanese air forces; specifically on the A-20 and B-25 planes. Scenes show how advanced engineering aimed at stretching the airplane's range, while piling on guns.' National Archives Identifier: 6050237 US Army Air Forces (USAAF) training film TF1-3737 Originally a public domain film from the US National Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Far_East_Air_Force_(United_States) Wikipedia license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ The Far East Air Force (FEAF) was the military aviation organization of the United States Army in the Philippines just prior to and at the beginning of World War II. Formed on 16 November 1941, FEAF was the predecessor of the Fifth Air Force of the United States Army Air Forces and the United States Air Force. Initially the Far East Air Force also included aircraft and personnel of the Philippine Army Air Corps. Outnumbered operationally more than three-to-one by aircraft of the Japanese Navy and Army, FEAF was largely destroyed during the Philippines Campaign of 1941–42. When 14 surviving B-17 Flying Fortresses and 143 personnel of the heavy bombardment force were withdrawn from Mindanao to Darwin, Australia in the third week of December 1941, Headquarters FEAF followed it within days. The B-17s were the only combat aircraft of the FEAF to escape capture or destruction. FEAF, with only 16 Curtiss P-40s and 4 Seversky P-35 fighters remaining of its original combat force, was broken up as an air organization and moved by units into Bataan 24–25 December. 49 of the original 165 pursuit pilots of FEAF's 24th Pursuit Group were also evacuated during the campaign, but of non-flying personnel, only one of 27 officers and 16 wounded enlisted men escaped the Philippines. Nearly all ground and flying personnel were employed as infantry at some point during their time on Bataan, where most surrendered on 9 April 1942. The surviving personnel and a small number of aircraft received from the United States were re-organized in Australia in January 1942, and on 5 February 1942 redesignated as "5 Air Force". With most of its aircraft based in Java, the FEAF was nearly destroyed a second time trying to stem the tide of Japanese advances southward... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Douglas_A-20_Havoc The Douglas A-20 Havoc (company designation DB-7) is a United States attack, light bomber, intruder, and reconnaissance aircraft of World War II. It served with several Allied air forces, principally the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF), the Soviet Air Forces (VVS), Soviet Naval Aviation (AVMF), and the Royal Air Force (RAF) of the United Kingdom. Soviet units received more than one in three (2,908 aircraft) of the DB-7s ultimately built. It was also used by the air forces of Australia, South Africa, France, and the Netherlands during the war, and by Brazil afterwards. In British Commonwealth air forces, bomber/attack variants of the DB-7 were usually known by the service name Boston, while night fighter and intruder variants were usually known as Havoc. An exception to this was the Royal Australian Air Force, which referred to all variants of the DB-7 by the name Boston. The USAAF referred to night fighter variants as P-70... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/North_American_B-25_Mitchell The North American B-25 Mitchell is an American twin-engine, medium bomber manufactured by North American Aviation (NAA). The design was named in honor of Major General William "Billy" Mitchell, a pioneer of U.S. military aviation. Used by many Allied air forces, the B-25 served in every theater of World War II and after the war ended many remained in service, operating across four decades. Produced in numerous variants, nearly 10,000 Mitchells rolled from NAA factories. These included a few limited models, such as the United States Marine Corps' PBJ-1 patrol bomber and the United States Army Air Forces' F-10 reconnaissance aircraft and AT-24 trainers...
Просмотров: 3538 Jeff Quitney
How Boilers Work 1955 US Navy; Steam Cycle & Destroyer Escort Boiler Operation
 
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US Navy Training Film playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLA40407C12E5E35A7 more at http://hardware.quickfound.net/ US Navy Training Film MN-9223a "Boilers and their Operation: How Boilers Work" "Practically all modern Naval ships of the Destroyer class or larger are powered by steam. Steam made in the ship's own steam plant propels the ship, generates electricity, and powers auxiliary machinery..." Produced for the US Navy by Reid H. Ray Film Industries. Public domain film from the US Navy, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boiler_(power_generation) Wikipedia license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ A boiler or steam generator is a device used to create steam by applying heat energy to water. Although the definitions are somewhat flexible, it can be said that older steam generators were commonly termed boilers and worked at low to medium pressure (7–2,000 kPa or 1–290 psi) but, at pressures above this, it is more usual to speak of a steam generator. A boiler or steam generator is used wherever a source of steam is required. The form and size depends on the application: mobile steam engines such as steam locomotives, portable engines and steam-powered road vehicles typically use a smaller boiler that forms an integral part of the vehicle; stationary steam engines, industrial installations and power stations will usually have a larger separate steam generating facility connected to the point-of-use by piping. A notable exception is the steam-powered fireless locomotive, where separately-generated steam is transferred to a receiver (tank) on the locomotive... The steam generator or boiler is an integral component of a steam engine when considered as a prime mover. However it needs be treated separately, as to some extent a variety of generator types can be combined with a variety of engine units. A boiler incorporates a firebox or furnace in order to burn the fuel and generate heat. The generated heat is transferred to water to make steam, the process of boiling. This produces saturated steam at a rate which can vary according to the pressure above the boiling water. The higher the furnace temperature, the faster the steam production. The saturated steam thus produced can then either be used immediately to produce power via a turbine and alternator, or else may be further superheated to a higher temperature; this notably reduces suspended water content making a given volume of steam produce more work and creates a greater temperature gradient, which helps reduce the potential to form condensation. Any remaining heat in the combustion gases can then either be evacuated or made to pass through an economiser, the role of which is to warm the feed water before it reaches the boiler...
Просмотров: 39322 Jeff Quitney
Aerodynamics: Airfoil Camber, Flaps, Slots-Slats & Drag: "Smoke Lifts" circa 1938 NACA Langley
 
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Support this channel: https://www.patreon.com/jeffquitney more at http://scitech.quickfound.net "1930s test conducted at NASA Langley Research Center's 6 by 19 inch Transonic Tunnel during its NACA era." Public domain film from NASA, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and mild video noise reduction applied. The film was silent. I have added music created by myself using the Reaper Digital Audio Workstation and the Proteus VX VST instrument plugin. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Camber_(aerodynamics) In aeronautics and aeronautical engineering, camber is the asymmetry between the top and the bottom surfaces of an aerofoil. An aerofoil that is not cambered is called a symmetric aerofoil. The benefits of camber, in contrast to symmetric aerofoils, were discovered and first utilized by Sir George Cayley in the early 19th century... Overview Camber is usually designed into an aerofoil to increase the maximum lift coefficient. This minimises the stalling speed of aircraft using the aerofoil. Aircraft with wings based on cambered aerofoils usually have lower stalling speeds than similar aircraft with wings based on symmetric aerofoils. An aircraft designer may also reduce the camber of the outboard section of the wings to increase the critical angle of attack (stall angle) at the wing tips. When the wing approaches the stall angle this will ensure that the wing root stalls before the tip, giving the aircraft resistance to spinning and maintaining aileron effectiveness close to the stall. Some recent designs use negative camber. One such design is called the supercritical aerofoil. It is used for near-supersonic flight, and produces a higher lift to drag ratio at near supersonic flight than traditional aerofoils. Supercritical aerofoils employ a flattened upper surface, highly cambered (curved) aft section, and greater leading edge radius as compared to traditional aerofoil shapes. These changes delay the onset of wave drag... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flap_(aircraft) Flaps are hinged surfaces mounted on the trailing edges of the wings of a fixed-wing aircraft to reduce the speed at which an aircraft can be safely flown and to increase the angle of descent for landing. They shorten takeoff and landing distances. Flaps do this by lowering the stall speed and increasing the drag. Extending flaps increases the camber or curvature of the wing, raising the maximum lift coefficient—or the lift a wing can generate. This allows the aircraft to generate as much lift but at a lower speed, reducing the stalling speed of the aircraft, or the minimum speed at which the aircraft will maintain flight. Extending flaps increases drag which can be beneficial during approach and landing because it slows the aircraft. On some aircraft, a useful side effect of flap deployment is a decrease in aircraft pitch angle which improves the pilot's view of the runway over the nose of the aircraft during landing. However the flaps may also cause pitch-up, depending on the type of flap and the location of the wing. There are many different types of flaps used... The Fowler, Fairey-Youngman and Gouge types of flap increase the planform area of the wing in addition to changing the camber. The larger lifting surface reduces wing loading and allows the aircraft to generate the required lift at a lower speed and reduces stalling speed... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leading_edge_slot A leading edge slot is a fixed aerodynamic feature of the wing of some aircraft to reduce the stall speed and promote good low-speed handling qualities. A leading edge slot is a span-wise gap in each wing, allowing air to flow from below the wing to its upper surface. In this manner they allow flight at higher angles of attack and thus reduce the stall speed... Purpose and development At an angle of attack above about 15° many airfoils enter the stall. Modification of such an airfoil with a fixed leading edge slot can increase the stalling angle to between 22° and 25°. Slots were first developed by Handley Page in 1919 and the first aircraft to fly with them was the experimental H.P.17, a modified Airco DH.9A. The first aircraft fitted with controllable slots was the Handley Page H.P.20. Licensing the design became one of Handley Page's major sources of income in the 1920s. Similar, but retractable, leading edge devices are called slats. When the slat opens, it creates a slot between the slat and the remainder of the wing; retracted, the drag is reduced. A fixed leading edge slot can increase the maximum lift coefficient of an airfoil section by 40%. In conjunction with a slat, the increase in maximum lift coefficient can be 50% or even 60%... Unlike trailing edge flaps, leading edge slots do not increase the lift coefficient at zero angle of attack since they do not alter the camber.
Просмотров: 751597 Jeff Quitney
Electronics: Introduction to LC Oscillators circa 1974 US Air Force Training Film
 
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Support this channel: https://www.patreon.com/jeffquitney more at: http://scitech.quickfound.net "In an LC oscillator circuit, the filter is a tuned circuit consisting of an inductor (L) and capacitor (C) connected together." US Air Force Training Film TVK 30-536 Electronics playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLAA9B0175C3E15B47 Originally a public domain film from the US National Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electronic_oscillator Wikipedia license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ An electronic oscillator is an electronic circuit that produces a periodic, oscillating electronic signal, often a sine wave or a square wave. Oscillators convert direct current (DC) from a power supply to an alternating current signal. They are widely used in many electronic devices. Common examples of signals generated by oscillators include signals broadcast by radio and television transmitters, clock signals that regulate computers and quartz clocks, and the sounds produced by electronic beepers and video games. Oscillators are often characterized by the frequency of their output signal: A low-frequency oscillator (LFO) is an electronic oscillator that generates a frequency below ≈20 Hz. This term is typically used in the field of audio synthesizers, to distinguish it from an audio frequency oscillator. An audio oscillator produces frequencies in the audio range, about 16 Hz to 20 kHz. An RF oscillator produces signals in the radio frequency (RF) range of about 100 kHz to 100 GHz. Oscillators designed to produce a high-power AC output from a DC supply are usually called inverters. There are two main types of electronic oscillator: the linear or harmonic oscillator and the nonlinear or relaxation oscillator... Harmonic oscillator The harmonic, or linear, oscillator produces a sinusoidal output. There are two types: Feedback oscillator The most common form of linear oscillator is an electronic amplifier such as a transistor or op amp connected in a feedback loop with its output fed back into its input through a frequency selective electronic filter to provide positive feedback. When the power supply to the amplifier is first switched on, electronic noise in the circuit provides a signal to get oscillations started. The noise travels around the loop and is amplified and filtered until very quickly it becomes a sine wave at a single frequency. Feedback oscillator circuits can be classified according to the type of frequency selective filter they use in the feedback loop: In an RC oscillator circuit, the filter is a network of resistors and capacitors. RC oscillators are mostly used to generate lower frequencies, for example in the audio range. Common types of RC oscillator circuits are the phase shift oscillator and the Wien bridge oscillator. In an LC oscillator circuit, the filter is a tuned circuit (often called a tank circuit; the tuned circuit is a resonator) consisting of an inductor (L) and capacitor (C) connected together. Charge flows back and forth between the capacitor's plates through the inductor, so the tuned circuit can store electrical energy oscillating at its resonant frequency. There are small losses in the tank circuit, but the amplifier compensates for those losses and supplies the power for the output signal. LC oscillators are often used at radio frequencies, when a tunable frequency source is necessary, such as in signal generators, tunable radio transmitters and the local oscillators in radio receivers. Typical LC oscillator circuits are the Hartley, Colpitts and Clapp circuits. In a crystal oscillator circuit the filter is a piezoelectric crystal (commonly a quartz crystal). The crystal mechanically vibrates as a resonator, and its frequency of vibration determines the oscillation frequency. Crystals have very high Q-factor and also better temperature stability than tuned circuits, so crystal oscillators have much better frequency stability than LC or RC oscillators. Crystal oscillators are the most common type of linear oscillator, used to stabilize the frequency of most radio transmitters, and to generate the clock signal in computers and quartz clocks. Crystal oscillators often use the same circuits as LC oscillators, with the crystal replacing the tuned circuit; the Pierce oscillator circuit is also commonly used. Quartz crystals are generally limited to frequencies of 30 MHz or below. Other types of resonator, dielectric resonators and surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices, are used to control higher frequency oscillators, up into the microwave range...
Просмотров: 198551 Jeff Quitney
Gear Shift "Vacuum Control" 1938 Chevrolet Division, General Motors
 
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Support this channel: https://www.patreon.com/jeffquitney more at http://auto-parts.quickfound.net/ "AN EXPLANATION OF THE PRINCIPLE OF THE NEW VACUUM GEARSHIFT, AND HOW IT CONTRIBUTES TO COMFORT, EASE OF DRIVING, & SAFETY." Originally a public domain film from the Library of Congress Prelinger Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). 1938 Chevrolet Specifications for Passenger Cars: http://chevy.oldcarmanualproject.com/chevyresto/38specs00.htm http://auto.howstuffworks.com/1938-chevrolet-master-and-master-deluxe.htm The 1938 Chevrolet Master and Master DeLuxe were saddled with the unimaginative advertising slogan "The Car that is Complete." It was a year of refinement, for only minor modifications differentiated the 1938 Chevys from their 1937 counterparts. The 1938 Chevrolet Master and Master DeLuxe did get a smart new grille designed by Franklin Q. Hershey, a recent arrival from Pontiac. It featured horizontal, rather than vertical bars. Otherwise, styling was unchanged. The engine was fitted with heavier valve springs, and the rear tread was widened by two inches, presumably for greater stability. Once again, the Chevrolet Master and Master DeLuxe offered 12 models, six in the Master series and six in the Master DeLuxe. Coach and sedan sales very nearly fell off the charts, as buyers defected to the Town Sedan and Sport Sedan models, both offering the convenience of built-in trunks for just a few extra dollars. Prices were raised by as much as 41/2 percent, which may have been a tactical error; the nation's economy was in the grip of a severe recession and sales plummeted by about 43.5 percent. Even so, Chevrolet was able to increase its lead over Ford...
Просмотров: 194102 Jeff Quitney
Turboprop Turboshaft Engines Introduction 1959 US Navy Training Film; Allison T-56 Turboprop Engine
 
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Support this channel: https://www.patreon.com/jeffquitney US Navy Training Film playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLA40407C12E5E35A7 Technology Miscellany playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL1A5AECE797B4D332 Aircraft playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL23A1203602337689 more at http://scitech.quickfound.net/aviation_news_and_search.html Training film for US Navy maintenance technicians on turboprop and turboshaft engines. Produced for the USN by DeFrenes Company. United States Navy Training film MN-8812a Originally a public domain film from the US National Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). There is a broadband hum in the vocal frequencies of this film which I cannot completely remove. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allison_T56 Wikipedia license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ The Allison T56 is a single-shaft, modular design military turboprop with a 14-stage axial flow compressor driven by a four-stage turbine. It was originally developed by the Allison Engine Company for the Lockheed C-130 Hercules transport entering production in 1954. It is now produced under Rolls-Royce, which acquired Allison in 1995. The commercial version is designated 501-D. With an unusually long production run, over 18,000 engines have been produced since 1954, logging over 200 million flying hours... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turboprop A turboprop engine is a turbine engine that drives an aircraft propeller. In contrast to a turbojet, the engine's exhaust gases do not contain enough energy to create significant thrust, since almost all of the engine's power is used to drive the propeller. In its simplest form a turboprop consists of an intake, compressor, combustor, turbine, and a propelling nozzle. Air is drawn into the intake and compressed by the compressor. Fuel is then added to the compressed air in the combustor, where the fuel-air mixture then combusts. The hot combustion gases expand through the turbine. Some of the power generated by the turbine is used to drive the compressor. The rest is transmitted through the reduction gearing to the propeller. Further expansion of the gases occurs in the propelling nozzle, where the gases exhaust to atmospheric pressure. The propelling nozzle provides a relatively small proportion of the thrust generated by a turboprop... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turboshaft A turboshaft engine is a form of gas turbine which is optimized to produce shaft power rather than jet thrust. In concept, turboshaft engines are very similar to turbojets, with additional turbine expansion to extract heat energy from the exhaust and convert it into output shaft power. They are even more similar to turboprops, with only minor differences, and a single engine is often sold in both forms. Turboshaft engines are commonly used in applications that require a sustained high power output, high reliability, small size, and light weight. These include helicopters, auxiliary power units, boats and ships, tanks, hovercraft, and stationary equipment...
Просмотров: 52090 Jeff Quitney
Airplane Propellers: Principles and Types 1941 US Army Air Corps Pilot Training Film
 
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Pilot Training Film playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLCA6387BA013F9A4D USAF Training Film playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL8F26D920AA815835 more at http://scitech.quickfound.net/aviation_news_and_search.html "Until the days of supersonic speed and jet propulsion of rocket ships, the propeller is a relatively efficient method of moving our airplanes through the air up to speeds of 5 to 6 hundred miles per hour. In general, the size of a propeller is dependent upon the power of the engine..." US Army Air Corps Pilot Training Film TF1-246 Originally a public domain film from the US Army Air Corps, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Propeller_(aeronautics) Wikipedia license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ An aircraft propeller, or airscrew, converts rotary motion from an engine or other mechanical power source, to provide propulsive force. It comprises a rotating power-driven hub, to which are attached several radial airfoil-section blades such that the whole assembly rotates about a longitudinal axis. The blade pitch may be fixed, manually variable to a few set positions, or of the automatically-variable "constant-speed" type. The propeller attaches to the power source's driveshaft either directly or, especially on larger designs, through reduction gearing. Most early aircraft propellers were carved by hand from solid or laminated wood, while metal construction later became popular. More recently, composite materials are becoming increasingly used. Propellers are only suitable for use at subsonic airspeeds up to around 480 mph (770 km/h), as above this speed the blade tip speed begins to go supersonic, with the consequent shockwaves causing high drag and other mechanical difficulties... The earliest references for vertical flight came from China. Since around 400 BC, Chinese children have played with bamboo flying toys. This bamboo-copter is spun by rolling a stick attached to a rotor between ones hands. The spinning creates lift, and the toy flies when released. The 4th-century AD Daoist book Baopuzi by Ge Hong (抱朴子 "Master who Embraces Simplicity") reportedly describes some of the ideas inherent to rotary wing aircraft. Designs similar to the Chinese helicopter toy appeared in Renaissance paintings and other works... Theory and design of aircraft propellers A well-designed propeller typically has an efficiency of around 80% when operating in the best regime. The efficiency of the propeller is influenced by the angle of attack (α). This is defined as α = Φ - θ, where θ is the helix angle (the angle between the resultant relative velocity and the blade rotation direction) and Φ is the blade pitch angle. Very small pitch and helix angles give a good performance against resistance but provide little thrust, while larger angles have the opposite effect. The best helix angle is when the blade is acting as a wing producing much more lift than drag. Angle of attack is similar to advance ratio, for propellers...
Просмотров: 34477 Jeff Quitney
Jetsons Before "The Jetsons": "Your Safety First" 1956 Automobile Manufacturers Association
 
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Support this channel: https://www.patreon.com/jeffquitney Animation, Cartoons, Art, Artists & Arts Miscellany playlist... https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL7FAC5AA4A21B10C0 Automobile Transportation playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL_hX5wLdhf_Ko5IvhQnWzOIJg_yfo2gGR more at http://quickfound.net/ A cartoon look back at the history of safer cars from the Jetson-like world of "Futureville," The date on a newspaper in this animation is October 5, 2000 (headline: "Mars Sets Off New Q-Bomb"). Produced by John Sutherland. Originally a public domain film from the Library of Congress Prelinger Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Automobile_Manufacturers_Association Wikipedia license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ The Automobile Manufacturers Association was a trade group of automobile manufacturers which operated under various names in the United States from 1911 to 1999. A different group called the Automobile Manufacturers' Association was active in the very early 1900s, but then dissolved. Another early group was the Association of Licensed Automobile Manufacturers, formed in 1903 and which was involved in licensing and collecting royalties from the George Baldwin Selden engine patent. Henry Ford effectively defeated the patent in court in 1911 and the Association of Licensed Automobile Manufacturers dissolved. However, the same manufacturers regrouped later in 1911 and formed the Automobile Board of Trade. In 1913, this became the National Automobile Chamber of Commerce. In 1934, this group renamed itself to the Automobile Manufacturers Association. This was the name the group had the longest and became the best known by. It focused upon establishing a code for fair competition. In 1939, it moved its headquarters from New York City, where it had been close to bankers, to Detroit, where the manufacturers were all based. The organization had a budget of $1 million at the time. During the early stages of World War II, the association played a role in adapting American automotive manufacturing capabilities towards arms production efforts, especially regarding large aircraft engines. Within hours of the December 7, 1941 attack on Pearl Harbor, the association invited all companies in the larger automotive industry, regardless of whether they were association members, to join a new cooperative undertaking, the Automotive Council for War Production. Some 654 manufacturing companies joined, and produced nearly $29 billion in output, including tremendous numbers of motorized vehicles, tanks, engines, and other products for the Allied military forces. Between a fifth and a quarter of all U.S. wartime production was accounted for by the automotive industry. In 1950, the association published the book, Freedom's Arsenal: The Story of the Automotive Council for War Production, to document this achievement. In August 1972, the group changed its name to the Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association, to reflect the growing importance of truck makers... In late 1992, the group expelled Honda, Volvo, and heavy truck makers and changed its name to the American Automobile Manufacturers Association... The American Automobile Manufacturers Association was... phased out in January 1999, and a new and different successor group, the Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers, was formed that included a large number of foreign-owned manufacturers... http://articles.latimes.com/2001/feb/27/local/me-30915 John Sutherland; Acclaimed for Artistry of His Industrial Films Obituaries February 27, 2001|ELAINE WOO | TIMES STAFF WRITER John Elliot Sutherland, an award-winning industrial and educational filmmaker whose subjects ranged from cancer and chemistry to General Electric and the New York Stock Exchange, has died. He was 90, and died Feb. 17 in Van Nuys after a short illness, according to his son, Eric, of Chicago. Sutherland began making live-action training films for the military during World War II. His success in that led to the formation of John Sutherland Productions in Los Angeles, which concentrated on documentaries and industrial films during the 1950s and 1960s. He produced about 20 movies a year, such as "A Is for Atom" for General Electric...
Просмотров: 211097 Jeff Quitney
Mars Phoenix Animation 2008 NASA-Jet Propulsion Laboratory; JQ Music
 
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more at http://scitech.quickfound.net/astro/mars_news.html Shows Mars Phoenix lander launch, separation, arrival at Mars, aerobraking, landing, and scooping up a sample from the Martian surface. Public domain film from NASA, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and mild video noise reduction applied. The film was silent (except for sound effects). I have added music created by myself using the Reaper Digital Audio Workstation and the Independence and Proteus VX VST instrument plugins. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phoenix_(spacecraft) Phoenix was a robotic spacecraft on a space exploration mission on Mars under the Mars Scout Program. The Phoenix lander descended on Mars on May 25, 2008. Mission scientists used instruments aboard the lander to search for environments suitable for microbial life on Mars, and to research the history of water there. The total mission cost was about US $386 million, which includes cost of the launch. The multi-agency program was headed by the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory at the University of Arizona, under the direction of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The program was a partnership of universities in the United States, Canada, Switzerland, Denmark, Germany, the United Kingdom, NASA, the Canadian Space Agency, the Finnish Meteorological Institute, Lockheed Martin Space Systems, MacDonald Dettwiler & Associates (MDA) and other aerospace companies. It was the first mission to Mars led by a public university in NASA history. It was led directly from the University of Arizona's campus in Tucson, with project management at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif., and project development at Lockheed Martin in Denver, Colorado. The operational funding for the mission extended through November 10, 2008. Phoenix was NASA's sixth successful landing out of seven attempts and was the first successful landing in a Martian polar region. The lander completed its mission in August 2008, and made a last brief communication with Earth on November 2 as available solar power dropped with the Martian winter. The mission was declared concluded on November 10, 2008, after engineers were unable to re-contact the craft. After unsuccessful attempts to contact the lander by the Mars Odyssey orbiter up to and past the Martian summer solstice on May 12, 2010, JPL declared the lander to be dead. The program was considered a success because it completed all planned science experiments and observations... Phoenix carried improved versions of University of Arizona panoramic cameras and volatiles-analysis instrument from the ill-fated Mars Polar Lander, as well as experiments that had been built for the canceled Mars Surveyor 2001 Lander, including a JPL trench-digging robot arm, a set of wet chemistry laboratories, and optical and atomic force microscopes. The science payload also includes a descent imager and a suite of meteorological instruments...
Просмотров: 17617 Jeff Quitney
Nutrition: Our Food and Our Health 1947 US Army Training Film
 
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more at http://food.quickfound.net US Army Training Film TF8-1476 Public domain film from the US National Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nutrition Nutrition (also called nourishment or aliment) is the provision, to cells and organisms, of the materials necessary (in the form of food) to support life. Many common health problems can be prevented or alleviated with a healthy diet. The diet of an organism is what it eats, which is largely determined by the perceived palatability of foods. Dietitians are health professionals who specialize in human nutrition, meal planning, economics, and preparation. They are trained to provide safe, evidence-based dietary advice and management to individuals (in health and disease), as well as to institutions. Clinical nutritionists are health professionals who focus more specifically on the role of nutrition in chronic disease, including possible prevention or remediation by addressing nutritional deficiencies before resorting to drugs. While government regulation of the use of this professional title is less universal than for "dietician", the field is supported by many high-level academic programs, up to and including the Doctoral level, and has its own voluntary certification board, professional associations, and peer-reviewed journals, e.g. the American Society for Nutrition, Nutrition Society of India, Food Scientists and Nutritionists Association India, Indian Dietetic Association and the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. A poor diet may have an injurious impact on health, causing deficiency diseases such as scurvy and kwashiorkor; health-threatening conditions like obesity and metabolic syndrome; and such common chronic systemic diseases as cardiovascular disease, diabetes and osteoporosis... Overview Nutritional science investigates the metabolic and physiological responses of the body to diet. With advances in the fields of molecular biology, biochemistry, nutritional immunology, molecular medicine and genetics, the study of nutrition is increasingly concerned with metabolism and metabolic pathways: the sequences of biochemical steps through which substances in living things change from one form to another. Carnivore and herbivore diets are contrasting, with basic nitrogen and carbon proportions being at varying levels in particular foods. Carnivores consume more nitrogen than carbon while herbivores consume less nitrogen than carbon, when an equal quantity is measured. The human body contains chemical compounds, such as water, carbohydrates (sugar, starch, and fiber), amino acids (in proteins), fatty acids (in lipids), and nucleic acids (DNA and RNA). These compounds in turn consist of elements such as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium, iron, zinc, magnesium, manganese, and so on. All of these chemical compounds and elements occur in various forms and combinations (e.g. hormones, vitamins, phospholipids, hydroxyapatite), both in the human body and in the plant and animal organisms that humans eat. The human body consists of elements and compounds ingested, digested, absorbed, and circulated through the bloodstream to feed the cells of the body. Except in the unborn fetus, the digestive system is the first system involved. In a typical adult, about seven liters of digestive juices enter the digestive tract. These digestive juices break chemical bonds in ingested molecules, and modify their conformations and energy states. Though some molecules are absorbed into the bloodstream unchanged, digestive processes release them from the matrix of foods...
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Kingsbury Thrust Bearings 1957 US Navy Training Film; Michell/Kingsbury Tilting-pad Fluid Bearings
 
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US Navy Training Film playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLA40407C12E5E35A7 more at http://quickfound.net/ "...On a carrier of this size, just one propeller may transmit a thrust of more than half a million pounds along its shaft... Bearings of special design are required to transmit tremendous running thrust loads directly to the hull of the ship... Various other types of machinery aboard ship present the same tough problem..." Demonstrates the principle of the Kingsbury thrust bearing. US Navy Training Film MN-8478 Produced for the US Navy by Pelican Films. Originally a public domain film from the US Navy, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thrust_bearing Wikipedia license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ A thrust bearing is a particular type of rotary bearing. Like other bearings they permit rotation between parts, but they are designed to support a predominately axial load. Thrust bearings come in several varieties. Thrust ball bearings, composed of bearing balls supported in a ring, can be used in low thrust applications where there is little axial load. - Cylindrical thrust roller bearings consist of small cylindrical rollers arranged flat with their axes pointing to the axis of the bearing. They give very good carrying capacity and are cheap, but tend to wear due to the differences in radial speed and friction which is higher than with ball bearings. - Tapered roller thrust bearings consist of small tapered rollers arranged so that their axes all converge at a point on the axis of the bearing. The length of the roller and the diameter of the wide and the narrow ends and the angle of rollers need to be carefully calculated to provide the correct taper so that each end of the roller rolls smoothly on the bearing face without skidding. These are the type most commonly used in automotive applications (to support the wheels of a motor car for example), where they are used in pairs to accommodate axial thrust in either direction, as well as radial loads. They can support greater thrust loads than the ball type due to the larger contact area, but are more expensive to manufacture. - Spherical roller thrust bearings use asymmetrical rollers of spherical shape, rolling inside a house washer with a raceway with spherical inner shape... - Fluid bearings, where the axial thrust is supported on a thin layer of pressurized liquid—these give low drag. - Magnetic bearings, where the axial thrust is supported on a magnetic field. This is used where very high speeds or very low drag is needed, for example the Zippe-type centrifuge. Thrust bearings are commonly used in automotive, marine, and aerospace applications. They are also used in the main and tail rotor blade grips of RC (radio controlled) helicopters. Thrust bearings are used in cars because the forward gears in modern car gearboxes use helical gears which, while aiding in smoothness and noise reduction, cause axial forces that need to be dealt with. Thrust bearings are also used with radio antenna masts to reduce the load on an antenna rotator. One specific thrust bearing in an automobile is the clutch "throw out" bearing, sometimes called the clutch release bearing... Fluid-film thrust bearings were invented by Albert Kingsbury, who discovered the principle in the course of bearing and lubrication investigations commencing in 1888 while a student. His first experimental bearing was tested in 1904. He filed for a patent in 1907, and it was granted in 1910. The first Kingsbury bearing in hydroelectric service, one of its major applications, was installed at the Holtwood Generating Station in 1912. It remains in full use today. Thrust bearings were independently invented by Australian engineer George Michell (pronounced Mitchell) who patented his invention in 1905. Fluid thrust bearings contain a number of sector-shaped pads, arranged in a circle around the shaft, and which are free to pivot. These create wedge-shaped regions of oil inside the bearing between the pads and a rotating disk, which support the applied thrust and eliminate metal-on-metal contact. Kingsbury and Michell's invention was notably applied to the thrust block in ships. The small size (one-tenth the size of old bearing designs), low friction and long life of Kingsbury and Michell's invention made possible the development of more powerful engines and propellers. They were used extensively in ships built during World War I, and have become the standard bearing used on turbine shafts in ships and power plants worldwide...
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Automatic Weapons: American vs. German 1943 War Department (US Army); World War II
 
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Support this channel: https://www.patreon.com/jeffquitney Firearms playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL22A5611941174745 more at http://quickfound.net/links/military_news_and_links.html "A comparison of American and German automatic weapons Accuracy vs. Firepower" War Department film FB-181 Reupload of a previously uploaded film with improved video & sound. Originally a public domain film from the US National Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/StG_44 Wikipedia license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ The StG 44 (Sturmgewehr 44, literally "storm (or assault) rifle (model of 19)44") was an assault rifle developed in Nazi Germany during World War II that was the first of its kind to see major deployment and is considered by many historians to be the first modern assault rifle It is also known under the designations MP 43 and MP 44 (Maschinenpistole 43, Maschinenpistole 44 respectively), which denote earlier development versions of the same weapon with some differences like a different butt end, muzzle nut, shape of the front sight base or with an unstepped barrel, all only visible with close inspection. MP 43, MP 44, and StG 44 were different designations for what was essentially the same rifle, with minor updates in production. The variety in nomenclatures resulted from the complicated bureaucracy in Nazi Germany. Developed from the Mkb 42(H) "machine carbine", the StG44 combined the characteristics of a carbine, submachine gun and automatic rifle. StG is an abbreviation of Sturmgewehr. The name was chosen for propaganda reasons and literally means "storm rifle" as in "to storm (i.e. "assault") an enemy position". After the adoption of the StG 44, the English translation "assault rifle" became the accepted designation for this type of infantry small arm. The rifle was chambered for the 7.92×33mm Kurz cartridge. This shorter version of the German standard (7.92x57mm) rifle round... had less range and power than the more powerful infantry rifles of the day, Wehrmacht studies had shown that most combat engagements occurred at less than 300 m, with the majority within 200 m... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thompson_submachine_gun The Thompson is an American submachine gun, invented by John T. Thompson in 1919, that became infamous during the Prohibition era. It was a common sight in the media of the time, being used by both law enforcement officers and criminals. The Thompson was also known informally as: the "Tommy Gun", "Trench Broom", "Trench Sweeper", "Chicago Typewriter", "Chicago Piano", "Chicago Style", and "The Chopper"... Development The Thompson Submachine Gun was developed by General John T. Thompson who originally envisioned an auto rifle (semi-automatic rifle) to replace the bolt action service rifles then in use. While searching for a way to allow such a weapon to operate safely without the complexity of a recoil or gas operated mechanism, Thompson came across a patent issued to John Bell Blish in 1915 based on adhesion of inclined metal surfaces under pressure. Thompson found a financial backer, Thomas F. Ryan, and started the Auto-Ordnance Company in 1916 for the purpose of developing his auto rifle. The principal designers were Theodore H. Eickhoff, Oscar V. Payne, and George E. Goll. By late 1917, the limits of the Blish Principle were discovered: rather than working as a locked breech, it functioned as a friction-delayed blowback action. It was found that the only cartridge currently in U.S. service suitable for use with the lock was the .45 ACP round. Thompson then envisioned a "one-man, hand-held machine gun" in .45 ACP as a "trench broom" for use in the on-going trench warfare of World War I. Payne designed the gun itself and its stick and drum magazines. The project was then titled "Annihilator I", and by 1918, most of the design issues had been resolved. However, the war ended before prototypes could be shipped to Europe. At an Auto-Ordnance board meeting in 1919 to discuss the marketing of the "Annihilator", with the war over, the weapon was officially renamed the "Thompson Submachine Gun". While other weapons had been developed shortly prior with similar objectives in mind, the Thompson was the first weapon to be labeled and marketed as a "submachine gun".... Early use The Thompson first entered production as the M1921. It was available to civilians, though its high price resulted in few sales. (A Thompson with one Type XX 20 shot "stick" magazine was priced at $200.00, at a time when a Ford automobile sold for $400.00.) ...
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