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The Caissons Go Rolling Along circa 1942 US Office of Emergency Management World War II
 
02:56
more at http://quickfound.net "Sung by Robert Weede." World War II "music video" produced by the US Government, with footage mostly of jeeps and artillery. The lyrics for this version differ from all of the three versions cited at Wikipedia. NEW VERSION with improved video & sound: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4lH28OfEJXI Public domain film from the Prelinger Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Army_Goes_Rolling_Along "The Army Goes Rolling Along" is the official song of the United States Army and is typically called "The Army Song." The Caisson Song The song is based on the "Caisson Song" written by field artillery First Lieutenant (later Brigadier General) Edmund L. Gruber, Lieutenant William Bryden, and Lieutenant (later Major General) Robert Danford while stationed at Fort Stotsenburg in the Philippines in March 1908. The tune quickly became popular in field artillery units. In 1917 the Secretary of the Navy and army Lieutenant George Friedlander of the 306th Field Artillery asked John Philip Sousa to create a march using the "Caisson Song." Sousa changed the key, harmony, and rhythm and renamed it "U.S. Field Artillery." Sousa didn't know who had written the song and had been told that it dated back to the Civil War. Although an army magazine claims that Sousa passed on his royalties to Gruber, other sources state that Gruber became involved in a prolonged legal battle to recover the rights to music he had written and that had been lifted (unknowingly or not) by Sousa and widely sold by sheet music publishers who reaped profits while Gruber received nothing. The music became so popular that it was also used in radio ads by firms such as the Hoover Vacuum Company. Gruber lost his battle in the courts. They ruled that he had waited too long to complain and that his music was by that time in the public domain. "The Caisson Song" was never designated as the official U.S. Army song likely because the lyrics were too closely identified with the field artillery and not the entire army. The official song retains Gruber's music, but with re-written lyrics. Search for an Official Song As the Navy, Marine Corps, Air Force, and Coast Guard had already adopted official songs, the Army was eager to find a song of its own. In 1948, the Army conducted a contest to find an official song (Tom Lehrer claims to have submitted "It Makes a Fellow Proud to Be a Soldier" in this contest), but no entry received much popular support. In 1952, Secretary of the Army Frank Pace asked the music industry to submit songs and received over 800 submissions. "The Army's Always There" by Sam Stept won the contest, and an Army band performed it at President Dwight D. Eisenhower's inaugural parade on January 20, 1953. However, many thought that the tune was too similar to "I've Got a Lovely Bunch of Coconuts," so the army decided to keep Gruber's melody from the "Caisson Song" but with new lyrics. A submission of lyrics by Harold W. Arberg, a music advisor to the Adjutant General, was accepted. Secretary of the Army Wilber Marion Brucker dedicated the music on Veterans Day, November 11, 1956. The song is played at the conclusion of most U.S. Army ceremonies, and all soldiers are expected to stand at attention and sing... Caisson Song (1908, original version) The original lyrics are disputed and may not have been written down prior to 1918. Over hill over dale we will hit the dusty trail As the caissons go rolling along. Up and down, in and out, Countermarch and right about, And our caissons go rolling along. For it's hi-hi-hee in the Field Artillery, Shout out the number loud and strong. Till our final ride, It will always be our pride To keep those caissons a rolling along. (Keep them rolling - keep them rolling)* Keep those caissons a rolling along. (B-a-t-t-e-r-y H-a-l-t!)* Source: United States Field Artillery Association U.S. Field Artillery (1918) (Music by Gruber, arranged by Sousa, copyright and published by Carl Fischer) - Over hill, over dale, - We will hit the dusty trail, - And those Caissons go rolling along. - Up and down, in and out, - Counter march and left about, - And those Caissons go rolling along, - For it's high high he, - In the Field Artillery, - Shout out your "No" loud and strong, - For wher-e'er we go, - You will always know, - That those Caissons go rolling along... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Weede Robert Weede (February 22, 1903 -- July 9, 1972) was an American operatic baritone...
Просмотров: 176453 Jeff Quitney
A Step Saving Kitchen 1949 United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Color
 
13:31
more at http://kitchen.quickfound.net The USDA describes and demonstrates the results of their efforts to develop a modern "step-saving" kitchen. NEW VERSION with improved video & sound: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RF3JAY8Gyz4 Public domain film from the US National Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kitchen A kitchen is a room or part of a room used for cooking and food preparation. In the West, a modern residential kitchen is typically equipped with a stove, a sink with hot and cold running water, a refrigerator and kitchen cabinets arranged according to a modular design. Many households have a microwave oven, a dishwasher and other electric appliances. The main function of a kitchen is cooking or preparing food but it may also be used for dining, food storage, entertaining, dishwashing and laundry... History The evolution of the kitchen is linked to the invention of the cooking range or stove and the development of water infrastructure capable of supplying water to private homes. Until the 18th century, food was cooked over an open fire. Technical advances in heating food in the 18th and 19th centuries, changed the architecture of the kitchen. Before the advent of modern pipes, water was brought from an outdoor source such as wells, pumps or springs. Antiquity The houses in Ancient Greece were commonly of the atrium-type: the rooms were arranged around a central courtyard for women. In many such homes, a covered but otherwise open patio served as the kitchen. Homes of the wealthy had the kitchen as a separate room... In the Roman Empire, common folk in cities often had no kitchen of their own; they did their cooking in large public kitchens. Some had small mobile bronze stoves, on which a fire could be lit for cooking. Wealthy Romans had relatively well-equipped kitchens... Middle Ages Early medieval European longhouses had an open fire under the highest point of the building. The "kitchen area" was between the entrance and the fireplace. In wealthy homes there was typically more than one kitchen... In the larger homesteads of European nobles, the kitchen was sometimes in a separate sunken floor building to keep the main building, which served social and official purposes, free from indoor smoke. The first known stoves in Japan date from about the same time. The earliest findings are from the Kofun period (3rd to 6th century). These stoves, called kamado, were typically made of clay and mortar; they were fired with wood or charcoal through a hole in the front and had a hole in the top, into which a pot could be hanged by its rim. This type of stove remained in use for centuries to come... Colonial America... Technological advances during industrialization brought major changes to the kitchen. Iron stoves, which enclosed the fire completely and were more efficient, appeared. Early models included the Franklin stove around 1740, which was a furnace stove intended for heating, not for cooking. Benjamin Thompson in England designed his "Rumford stove" around 1800. This stove was much more energy efficient than earlier stoves; it used one fire to heat several pots, which were hung into holes on top of the stove and were thus heated from all sides instead of just from the bottom. However, his stove was designed for large kitchens; it was too big for domestic use. The "Oberlin stove" was a refinement of the technique that resulted in a size reduction; it was patented in the U.S. in 1834 and became a commercial success with some 90,000 units sold over the next 30 years. These stoves were still fired with wood or coal. Although the first gas street lamps were installed in Paris, London, and Berlin at the beginning of the 1820s and the first U.S. patent on a gas stove was granted in 1825, it was not until the late 19th century that using gas for lighting and cooking became commonplace in urban areas... The Hoosier Manufacturing Co. of Indiana adapted an existing furniture piece, the baker's cabinet, which had a similar structure of a table top with some cabinets above it (and frequently flour bins beneath) to solve the storage problem. By rearranging the parts and taking advantage of (then) modern metal working, they were able to produce a well-organized, compact cabinet which answered the home cook's needs for storage and working space. A distinctive feature of the Hoosier cabinet is its accessories. As originally supplied, they were equipped with various racks and other hardware to hold and organize spices and various staples...
Просмотров: 347278 Jeff Quitney
Auto Mechanics: Suspensions: "Over the Waves" 1938 Chevrolet Division General Motors
 
09:20
Auto Mechanics playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLCED11EACAE477F6C more at http://auto-parts.quickfound.net/ "How the Chevrolet suspension system smooths out a rough ride." Reupload of a previously uploaded film with improved video & sound. Public domain film from the Library of Congress Prelinger Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Suspension_(vehicle) Suspension is the term given to the system of springs, shock absorbers and linkages that connects a vehicle to its wheels. Suspension systems serve a dual purpose — contributing to the car's roadholding/handling and braking for good active safety and driving pleasure, and keeping vehicle occupants comfortable and reasonably well isolated from road noise, bumps, and vibrations,etc. These goals are generally at odds, so the tuning of suspensions involves finding the right compromise. It is important for the suspension to keep the road wheel in contact with the road surface as much as possible, because all the forces acting on the vehicle do so through the contact patches of the tires. The suspension also protects the vehicle itself and any cargo or luggage from damage and wear. The design of front and rear suspension of a car may be different... Leaf springs have been around since the early Egyptians. Ancient military engineers used leaf springs in the form of bows to power their siege engines, with little success at first. The use of leaf springs in catapults was later refined and made to work years later. Springs were not only made of metal, a sturdy tree branch could be used as a spring, such as with a bow. Horse drawn vehicles By the early 19th century, most British horse carriages were equipped with springs; wooden springs in the case of light one-horse vehicles to avoid taxation, and steel springs in larger vehicles. These were made of low-carbon steel and usually took the form of multiple layer leaf springs. The British steel springs were not well suited for use on America's rough roads of the time, and could even cause coaches to collapse if cornered too fast. In the 1820s, the Abbot Downing Company of Concord, New Hampshire developed a system whereby the bodies of stagecoaches were supported on leather straps called "thoroughbraces", which gave a swinging motion instead of the jolting up and down of a spring suspension (the stagecoach itself was sometimes called a "thoroughbrace"). Automobiles Henri Fournier on his uniquely dampened and racewinning 'Mors Machine', photo taken 1902 Automobiles were initially developed as self-propelled versions of horse drawn vehicles. However, horse drawn vehicles had been designed for relatively slow speeds and their suspension was not well suited to the higher speeds permitted by the internal combustion engine. In 1901 Mors of Germany first fitted an automobile with shock absorbers. With the advantage of a dampened suspension system on his 'Mors Machine', Henri Fournier won the prestigious Paris-to-Berlin race on the 20th of June 1901. Fournier's superior time was 11 hrs 46 min 10 sec, while the best competitor was Léonce Girardot in a Panhard with a time of 12 hrs 15 min 40 sec. In 1920, Leyland used torsion bars in a suspension system. In 1922, independent front suspension was pioneered on the Lancia Lambda and became more common in mass market cars from 1932... The spring rate (or suspension rate) is a component in setting the vehicle's ride height or its location in the suspension stroke. Vehicles which carry heavy loads will often have heavier springs to compensate for the additional weight that would otherwise collapse a vehicle to the bottom of its travel (stroke). Heavier springs are also used in performance applications where the loading conditions experienced are more extreme. Springs that are too hard or too soft cause the suspension to become ineffective because they fail to properly isolate the vehicle from the road... Wheel rate is the effective spring rate when measured at the wheel. This is as opposed to simply measuring the spring rate alone. Wheel rate is usually equal to or considerably less than the spring rate... Roll couple percentage is the effective wheel rate, in roll, of each axle of the vehicle as a ratio of the vehicle's total roll rate. Roll couple percentage is critical in accurately balancing the handling of a vehicle... Weight transfer during cornering, acceleration or braking is usually calculated per individual wheel and compared with the static weights for the same wheels...
Просмотров: 557523 Jeff Quitney
Car Transmissions & Synchromesh: "Spinning Levers" 1936 Chevrolet Auto Mechanics 10min
 
09:40
more at http://auto-parts.quickfound.net/ Auto mechanics playlist: http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLCED11EACAE477F6C '"The transmission in the modern motorcar -- the mechanism that makes it possible to have three forward speeds and a reverse -- is a series of levers, levers that spin." VS cartoon of Archimedes trying to move earth with a lever extending from the moon or another planet in outer space; CU cartoon of Archimedes says "Give me a lever long enough and I can move the world." CU disembodied hands using antique can opener to open a can of peaches; CU can open cutting through top of can. Two boys playing on a seesaw. CU pitch bar tool inserted between train wheel and track; man cranks large lever to move freight car along track; CU disembodied arm pumps lever lifting antique car off ground. VS man demonstrates basics of the lever using triangular piece as fulcrum and a long metal piece, man attaches 10 lbs. weight to one end of the bar and a 5 lbs. weight to the other end; man hangs various weights from both ends of the bar balancing the two by moving the fulcrum to various points along the bar; man demonstrates how a gear is constructed through numerous interlocking levers. VS stop-motion animation of two wheels with paddles added one by one turning wheels into paddle wheels and then into interlocking gears; cuts to more sophisticated gear; cuts to metal gears; VS CU different types of machine gears, worm gears, bevel gears, lopsided gears. Disembodied arm pieces together piece by piece a basic motor with various gear components; superimposed text appears labeling various parts; superimposed arrows identify different gears; motor begins to turn; cuts to CU car drives across frame; cuts back to crude motor; camera pans to Revolutions Per Minute dial which reads 100 rpm, camera pans to another RPM instrument dial which reads 30 rpm; CU crude model of gears in motor, superimposed arrows show flow of energy through the system. CU RPM instrument dial reads 60 rpm; CU churning gears of motor, superimposed arrows she flow of energy through gear system; VS man demonstrates on gears how shifting to various gears works. CU arrow point to 90 rpm on deal labeled Revolutions Per Minute; VS man demonstrating different gears. Great shot 4 lanes of cars stopped at stoplight on city street; Travel Bureau sign in background. CU disembodied hand in white glove shifts clutch of car; CU motor shifting gears; CU tire with Chevrolet hubcap begins to move; 1920s and 1930s cars stopped at traffic light begin to move; CU inside car woman shifts gears; car driving down tree-lined highway in possibly New York, what appears to be the Statue of Liberty is seen off in the distance. Woman enters drivers seat of Chevrolet, man waves start flag; car drives off down street; CU disembodied woman's foot on gas pedal beside break and clutch pedal with Chevrolet logos; CU speedometer shows car hitting 60 mph; CU woman downshifts; CU speedometer goes down to 35 mph; car stops at bottom of hill. CU sign along rugged road 'Steep Hill Use Second Gear"' NEW VERSION with improved video & sound: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=69TC-GLnfDQ Public domain film from the Library of Congress Prelinger Archive, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transmission_(mechanics) A machine consists of a power source and a power transmission system, which provides controlled application of the power. Merriam-Webster defines transmission as: an assembly of parts including the speed-changing gears and the propeller shaft by which the power is transmitted from an engine to a live axle. Often transmission refers simply to the gearbox that uses gears and gear trains to provide speed and torque conversions from a rotating power source to another device... Manual Manual transmission come in two basic types: - a simple but rugged sliding-mesh or unsynchronized / non-synchronous system, where straight-cut spur gear sets are spinning freely, and must be synchronized by the operator matching engine revs to road speed, to avoid noisy and damaging "gear clash", - and the now common constant-mesh gearboxes which can include non-synchronised, or synchronized / synchromesh systems, where typically diagonal cut helical (or sometimes either straight-cut, or double-helical) gear sets are constantly "meshed" together, and a dog clutch is used for changing gears. On synchromesh boxes, friction cones or "synchro-rings" are used in addition to the dog clutch to closely match the rotational speeds of the two sides of the (declutched) transmission before making a full mechanical engagement...
Просмотров: 1639806 Jeff Quitney
Private SNAFU "The Home Front" 1943 US Army Cartoon Mel Blanc, Frank Tashlin, World War II
 
04:25
more at http://quickfound.net/links/military_news_and_links.html "Private Snafu imagines the good times his family is having back home while he's stationed in the Arctic. Technical Fairy First Class shows that even his family is helping with the war effort - his dad building tanks, his mom planting a Victory Garden, Grandpa riveting battleships, and his girl joining the WAC's and even the family's horse is pitching in. This is one of 26 Private SNAFU ('Situation Normal, All Fouled Up) cartoons made by the US Army Signal Corps to educate and boost the morale the troops. Originally created by Theodore Geisel (Dr. Seuss) and Phil Eastman, most of the cartoons were produced by Warner Brothers Animation Studios - employing their animators, voice actors (primarily Mel Blanc) and Carl Stalling's music." Public domain film slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Private_Snafu Private Snafu is the title character of a series of black-and-white American instructional cartoon shorts produced between 1943 and 1945 during World War II. The character was created by director Frank Capra, chairman of the U.S. Army Air Force First Motion Picture Unit, and most were written by Theodor "Dr. Seuss" Geisel, Philip D. Eastman, and Munro Leaf. Although the United States Army gave Walt Disney the first crack at creating the cartoons, Leon Schlesinger of the Warner Bros. animation studio underbid Disney by two-thirds and won the contract. Disney had also demanded exclusive ownership of the character, and merchandising rights. Nel (2007) shows the goal was to help enlisted men with weak literacy skills learn through animated cartoons (and also supplementary comic books). They featured simple language, racy illustrations, no profanity, and subtle moralizing. Private Snafu did everything wrong, so that his negative example taught basic lessons about secrecy, disease prevention, and proper military protocols. Private Snafu cartoons were a military secret—for the armed forces only. Surveys to ascertain the soldiers' film favorites showed that the Snafu cartoons usually rated highest or second highest. Each cartoon was produced in six weeks, compared to the six months usually taken for short cartoons of the same kind... Most of the Private Snafu shorts are educational, and although the War Department had to approve the storyboards, the Warner directors were allowed great latitude in order to keep the cartoons entertaining... The Snafu shorts are notable because they were produced during the Golden Age of Warner Bros. animation. Directors such as Chuck Jones, Friz Freleng, Bob Clampett, and Frank Tashlin worked on them, and their characteristic styles are in top form. P. D. Eastman was a writer and storyboard artist for the Snafu shorts. Voice characterizations were provided by the celebrated Mel Blanc (Private Snafu's voice was similar to Blanc's Bugs Bunny characterization, and Bugs himself actually made cameos in the Snafu episodes Gas and Three Brothers). Toward the end of the war, other studios began producing Snafu shorts as well (the Army accused Schlesinger of padding his bills), though some of these never made it to celluloid before the war ended. The Snafu films are also partly responsible for keeping the animation studios open during the war—by producing such training films, the studios were declared an essential industry. After the war, the Snafu cartoons went largely forgotten. Prints eventually wound up in the hands of collectors, and these form the basis for The Complete, Uncensored Private Snafu, a VHS and DVD collection from Bosko Video...
Просмотров: 1581117 Jeff Quitney
Auto Mechanics: Brakes: "Facts on Friction" 1934 General Motors
 
09:30
NEW VERSION with improved video & sound: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cJTmx_cxS30 more at http://auto-parts.quickfound.net/ Public domain film from the Library of Congress Prelinger Archive, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drum_brake A drum brake is a brake in which the friction is caused by a set of shoes or pads that press against a rotating drum-shaped part called a brake drum. The term "drum brake" usually means a brake in which shoes press on the inner surface of the drum. When shoes press on the outside of the drum, it is usually called a clasp brake. Where the drum is pinched between two shoes, similar to a conventional disk brake, it is sometimes called a "pinch drum brake", although such brakes are relatively rare. A related type of brake uses a flexible belt or "band" wrapping around the outside of a drum, called a band brake. History The modern automobile drum brake was invented in 1902 by Louis Renault, though a less-sophisticated drum brake had been used by Maybach a year earlier. In the first drum brakes, the shoes were mechanically operated with levers and rods or cables. From the mid-1930s the shoes were operated with oil pressure in a small wheel cylinder and pistons (as in the picture), though some vehicles continued with purely-mechanical systems for decades. Some designs have two wheel cylinders. The shoes in drum brakes are subject to wear and the brakes needed to be adjusted regularly until the introduction of self-adjusting drum brakes in the 1950s. In the 1960s and 1970s brake drums on the front wheels of cars were gradually replaced with disc brakes and now practically all cars use disc brakes on the front wheels, with many offering disc brakes on all wheels. However, drum brakes are still often used for handbrakes as it has proven very difficult to design a disc brake suitable for holding a car when it is not in use. Moreover, it is very easy to fit a drum handbrake inside a disc brake so that one unit serves as both service brake and handbrake. Early type brake shoes contained asbestos. When working on brake systems of older cars, care must be taken not to inhale any dust present in the brake assembly. The United States Federal Government began to regulate asbestos production, and brake manufacturers had to switch to non-asbestos linings. Owners initially complained of poor braking with the replacements; however, technology eventually advanced to compensate. A majority of daily-driven older vehicles have been fitted with asbestos-free linings. Many other countries also limit the use of asbestos in brakes. Some of the major components of the drum brake assembly are the back plate, the brake drum and shoe, the wheel cylinder, and various springs and pins. Back plate The back plate serves as the base on which all the components are assembled. It attaches to the axle and forms a solid surface for the wheel cylinder, brake shoes and assorted hardware. Since all the braking operations exert pressure on the back plate, it needs to be very strong and wear-resistant. Levers for emergency or parking brakes, and automatic brake-shoe adjuster were also added in recent years. Brake drum The brake drum is generally made of a special type of cast iron which is heat-conductive and wear-resistant. It is positioned very close to the brake shoe without actually touching it, and rotates with the wheel and axle... Wheel cylinder One wheel cylinder is used for each wheel. Two pistons operate the shoes, one at each end of the wheel cylinder. When hydraulic pressure from the master cylinder acts upon the piston cup, the pistons are pushed toward the shoes, forcing them against the drum. When the brakes are not being applied, the piston is returned to its original position by the force of the brake shoe return springs... Brake shoe Brake shoes are typically made of two pieces of sheet steel welded together. The friction material is either rivetted to the lining table or attached with adhesive. The crescent-shaped piece is called the Web and contains holes and slots in different shapes for return springs, hold-down hardware, parking brake linkage and self-adjusting components. All the application force of the wheel cylinder is applied through the web to the lining table and brake lining. The edge of the lining table generally has three "V"-shaped notches or tabs on each side called nibs. The nibs rest against the support pads of the backing plate to which the shoes are installed...
Просмотров: 213812 Jeff Quitney
Autobahn Landing 1984 US Air Force; Tests of German Highways as Emergency Airport Runways
 
01:40
Aircraft playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL23A1203602337689 more at http://quickfound.net 'AUTOBAHN LANDING: SEGMENTS OF HIGH SPEED FREEWAY SYSTEM IN WEST GERMANY WERE RECENTLY CONNECTED TO EMERGENCY AIRSTRIPS. CLIP SHOWS LANDINGS & TAKEOFFS ON NEW STRIP IN SIMULATED EMERGENCY SITUATIONS. SHOWS PORTABLE FACILITIES, I.E. CONTROL TOWER, FIRE & AMBULANCE SERVICE, REFUELING & RADAR EQUIPMENT.' Originally a public domain film from the US National Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Autobahn Wikipedia license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ The Autobahn (German: Autobahn IPA: [ˈʔaʊtoˌba:n] (About this sound listen), plural Autobahnen) is the federal controlled-access highway system in Germany. The official German term is Bundesautobahn (plural Bundesautobahnen, abbreviated BAB), which translates as "federal motorway". The literal meaning of the word Bundesautobahn is "Federal Auto(mobile) Track". German autobahns have no federally mandated speed limit for some classes of vehicles. However, limits are posted (and enforced) in areas that are urbanized, substandard, accident-prone, or under construction. On speed-unrestricted stretches, an advisory speed limit (Richtgeschwindigkeit) of 130 kilometres per hour (81 mph) applies. While going faster is not illegal as such in the absence of a speed limit, it can cause an increased liability in the case of an accident; courts have ruled that an "ideal driver" who is exempt from absolute liability for "inevitable" tort under the law would not exceed Richtgeschwindigkeit. A 2008 estimate reported that 52% of the autobahn network had only the advisory speed limit, 15% had temporary speed limits due to weather or traffic conditions, and 33% had permanent speed limits. Measurements from the German State of Brandenburg in 2006 showed average speeds of 142 km/h (88 mph) on a 6-lane section of autobahn in free-flowing conditions. Germany's autobahn network has a total length of about 12,996 kilometres (8,075 mi) in 2017, which ranks it among the most dense and longest controlled-access systems in the world. Longer similar systems can be found in the United States (77,017 kilometres (47,856 mi))[citation needed] and in China (123,000 kilometres (76,000 mi)). However both the U.S. and China have an area nearly 30 times bigger than Germany, which demonstrates the high density of Germany's highway system...
Просмотров: 39378 Jeff Quitney
Space Station Centrifuge Gravity Simulation 196x NASA color 3min
 
02:38
video for embedding at http://scitech.quickfound.net/ Space station artificial gravity is tested in a centrifuge of the type seen in "2001: A Space Odyssey" at NASA Langley Research Center. Two different rotation rates simulate one-tenth gravity (0.1 G, station rotating at about 4 rpm) and one-half gravity (0.5 G, station rotating at about 9 rpm). This is the same public domain video uploaded by NASA with letterboxing (black borders) removed and the aspect ratio corrected. Also, this particular NASA Langley video contained two other unrelated segments (comparison of walking and running Earth and lunar gravity, and lunar landing simulation in simulated lunar gravity) which I have uploaded separately. NASA, space program, astronaut, artificial gravity, centrifuge, simulation, Langley Research Center, space station
Просмотров: 92070 Jeff Quitney
Private SNAFU: Booby Traps 1944 US Army Training Film Cartoon, Mel Blanc, Bob Clampett
 
04:19
more at http://quickfound.net/links/military_news_and_links.html "Private Snafu learns about the hazards of enemy booby traps the hard way. This is one of 26 Private SNAFU ('Situation Normal, All Fouled Up) cartoons made by the US Army Signal Corps to educate and boost the morale the troops. Originally created by Theodore Geisel (Dr. Seuss) and Phil Eastman, most of the cartoons were produced by Warner Brothers Animation Studios - employing their animators, voice actors (primarily Mel Blanc) and Carl Stalling's music." NEW VERSION with improved video & sound: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vWNpnkW1sVk Public domain film slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). more Private Snafu: The Home Front http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vGmIhhMi8cg Spies http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WJn_aB4FjpI Snafuperman http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Op6-V5x8XHQ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Private_Snafu Private Snafu is the title character of a series of black-and-white American instructional cartoon shorts produced between 1943 and 1945 during World War II. The character was created by director Frank Capra, chairman of the U.S. Army Air Force First Motion Picture Unit, and most were written by Theodor "Dr. Seuss" Geisel, Philip D. Eastman, and Munro Leaf. Although the United States Army gave Walt Disney the first crack at creating the cartoons, Leon Schlesinger of the Warner Bros. animation studio underbid Disney by two-thirds and won the contract. Disney had also demanded exclusive ownership of the character, and merchandising rights. Nel (2007) shows the goal was to help enlisted men with weak literacy skills learn through animated cartoons (and also supplementary comic books). They featured simple language, racy illustrations, no profanity, and subtle moralizing. Private Snafu did everything wrong, so that his negative example taught basic lessons about secrecy, disease prevention, and proper military protocols. Private Snafu cartoons were a military secret—for the armed forces only. Surveys to ascertain the soldiers' film favorites showed that the Snafu cartoons usually rated highest or second highest. Each cartoon was produced in six weeks, compared to the six months usually taken for short cartoons of the same kind... Most of the Private Snafu shorts are educational, and although the War Department had to approve the storyboards, the Warner directors were allowed great latitude in order to keep the cartoons entertaining... The Snafu shorts are notable because they were produced during the Golden Age of Warner Bros. animation. Directors such as Chuck Jones, Friz Freleng, Bob Clampett, and Frank Tashlin worked on them, and their characteristic styles are in top form. P. D. Eastman was a writer and storyboard artist for the Snafu shorts. Voice characterizations were provided by the celebrated Mel Blanc (Private Snafu's voice was similar to Blanc's Bugs Bunny characterization, and Bugs himself actually made cameos in the Snafu episodes Gas and Three Brothers). Toward the end of the war, other studios began producing Snafu shorts as well (the Army accused Schlesinger of padding his bills), though some of these never made it to celluloid before the war ended. The Snafu films are also partly responsible for keeping the animation studios open during the war—by producing such training films, the studios were declared an essential industry. After the war, the Snafu cartoons went largely forgotten. Prints eventually wound up in the hands of collectors, and these form the basis for The Complete, Uncensored Private Snafu, a VHS and DVD collection from Bosko Video...
Просмотров: 298782 Jeff Quitney
Nuclear Reactor Meltdown: "SL-1 Accident Briefing Film Report" 1961 AEC Atomic Energy Commission
 
08:39
more at http://scitech.quickfound.net US Army experimental nuclear power reactor SL-1 underwent a steam explosion and meltdown on January 3, 1961, killing its three operators. This film re-enacts how the accident may have occurred. NEW VERSION with improved video & sound: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Mtfi-cNFRgU Film explaining what was done after the accident was discovered: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=otxLfg0apRs Public domain film from the Prelinger Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SL-1 The SL-1, or Stationary Low-Power Reactor Number One, was a United States Army experimental nuclear power reactor which underwent a steam explosion and meltdown on January 3, 1961, killing its three operators. The direct cause was the improper withdrawal of the central control rod, responsible for absorbing neutrons in the reactor core. The event is the only known fatal reactor incident in the United States. The incident released about 80 curies (3.0 TBq) of iodine-131, which was not considered significant due to its location in a remote desert of Idaho. About 1,100 curies (41 TBq) of fission products were released into the atmosphere. The facility, located at the National Reactor Testing Station (NRTS) approximately 40 miles (64 km) west of Idaho Falls, Idaho, was part of the Army Nuclear Power Program and was known as the Argonne Low Power Reactor (ALPR) during its design and build phase. It was intended to provide electrical power and heat for small, remote military facilities, such as radar sites near the Arctic Circle, and those in the DEW Line. The design power was 3 MW (thermal). Operating power was 200 kW electrical and 400 kW thermal for space heating. In the incident the core power level reached nearly 20 GW in just four milliseconds, precipitating the steam explosion... From 1954 to 1955, the U.S. Army evaluated their need for nuclear reactor plants that would be operable in remote regions of the Arctic. [The Army] contracted with Argonne National Laboratory to design, build, and test a prototype reactor plant to be called the Argonne Low Power Reactor (ALPR)... Incident and response On December 21, 1960, the reactor was shut down for maintenance... and installation of 44 flux wires to monitor the neutron flux levels in the reactor core. The wires were made of aluminum, and contained slugs of aluminum--cobalt alloy. On January 3, 1961, the reactor was being prepared for restart after a shutdown of eleven days over the holidays. Maintenance procedures were in progress, which required the main central control rod to be manually withdrawn a few inches to reconnect it to its drive mechanism; at 9:01 p.m. this rod was suddenly withdrawn too far, causing SL-1 to go prompt critical instantly. In four milliseconds, the heat generated by the resulting enormous power surge caused water surrounding the core to begin to explosively vaporize. The water vapor caused a pressure wave to strike the top of the reactor vessel, causing water and steam to spray from the top of the vessel. This extreme form of water hammer propelled control rods, shield plugs, and the entire reactor vessel upwards. A later investigation concluded that the 26,000-pound (12,000 kg) vessel had jumped 9 feet 1 inch (2.77 m) and the upper control rod drive mechanisms had struck the ceiling of the reactor building prior to settling back into its original location. The spray of water and steam knocked two operators onto the floor, killing one and severely injuring another. One of the shield plugs on top of the reactor vessel impaled the third man through his groin and exited his shoulder, pinning him to the ceiling. The victims were Army Specialists John A. Byrnes (age 27) and Richard Leroy McKinley (age 22), and Navy Seabee Construction Electrician First Class (CE1) Richard C. Legg (age 26). It was later established that Byrnes (the reactor operator) had lifted the rod and caused the excursion, Legg (the shift supervisor) was standing on top of the reactor vessel and was impaled and pinned to the ceiling, and McKinley, the trainee who stood nearby, was later found alive by rescuers. All three men succumbed to injuries from physical trauma, however the radiation from the nuclear excursion would have given the men no chance of survival... There were no other people at the reactor site. The ending of the nuclear reaction was caused solely by the design of the reactor and the basic physics of heated water and core elements melting, separating the core elements and removing the moderator... The remains of the SL-1 reactor are now buried near the original site...
Просмотров: 209155 Jeff Quitney
Off-Base Activities: "Killjoy Was Here!" 1956 US Air Force Animated Training Film Cartoon
 
12:08
USAF Training Film playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL8F26D920AA815835 more at http://quickfound.net/links/military_news_and_links.html Airman Killjoy makes enemies, then Airman Archie tries to make friends, with the locals near USAF bases. "This film uses animation to instruct U.S. Air Force personnel on their responsibilities to communities surrounding their installations." US Air Force Training Film SFP-366 Public domain film from the US National Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_with_overseas_military_bases#United_States ...The establishment of military bases abroad enable a country to project power, e.g. to conduct expeditionary warfare, and thereby influence events abroad. Depending on their size and infrastructure, they can be used as staging areas or for logistical, communications and/or intelligence support. Many conflicts throughout modern history have resulted in overseas military bases being established in large numbers by world powers, and the existence of bases abroad has served countries having them in achieving political and military goals. The British Empire and other colonial powers established overseas military bases in many of their colonies during the First and Second World Wars, where useful, and actively sought rights to facilities where needed for strategic reasons. At one time, establishing coaling stations for naval ships was important. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union established military bases where they could within their respective spheres of influence, and actively sought influence where needed. More recently, the War on Terror has resulted in overseas military bases being established in the Middle East. Whilst the overall number of overseas military bases has fallen since 1945, France, Russia, the United Kingdom and the United States still possess a substantial number. Smaller numbers of overseas military bases are operated by India, Italy, Japan and Turkey. The United States is the largest operator of military bases abroad, with 38 "named bases" having active duty, national guard/reserve, and/or civilian personnel as of September 30, 2014. Its largest, in terms of personnel, was Ramstein AB, in Germany, with almost 9,200 personnel... United States - Afghanistan - Camp Dwyer; Forward Operating Base Delhi; Forward Operating Base Geronimo; Firebase Fiddler's Green; PB Jaker - Australia - Pine Gap Bahrain - Naval Support Activity Bahrain; Isa Air Base Belgium - Chièvres Air Base; Kleine Brogel Air Base Brazil - United States Naval Support Detachment, São Paulo British Indian Ocean Territory - Naval Support Facility Diego Garcia - Bulgaria - Aitos Logistics Center; Bezmer Air Base; Graf Ignatievo Air Base; Novo Selo Range - Cuba - Guantanamo Bay Naval Base - Djibouti - Camp Lemonnier - Germany - US Army installations in Germany; Panzer Kaserne; Ramstein Air Base; Spangdahlem Air Base - Greece - Naval Support Activity Souda Bay[41] - Greenland - Thule Air Base - Honduras - Soto Cano Air Base - Israel - Port of Haifa (United States Sixth Fleet); Dimona Radar Facility - Italy - US Army installations in Italy; Naval Air Station Sigonella; Naval Support Activity Naples; Aviano Air Base; Darby Military Community - Japan - United States Forces Japan - Kosovo - Camp Bondsteel - Kuwait - Ali Al Salem Air Base; Camp Arifjan; Camp Buehring; Kuwait Naval Base - Netherlands - Volkel Air Base - Norway - 426th Air Base Squadron at Sola Air Station - Oman - RAFO Masirah; RAFO Thumrait - Portugal - Lajes Field - Qatar - Al Udeid Air Base - Saudi Arabia - 64th Air Expeditionary Group - Singapore - Paya Lebar Air Base - South Korea - United States Forces Korea - Spain - Morón Air Base; Naval Station Rota - Turkey - Incirlik Air Base; Izmir Air Station - United Arab Emirates - Al Dhafra Air Base; Port of Jebel Ali; Fujairah Naval Base - United Kingdom - RAF Alconbury; RAF Croughton; RAF Lakenheath; RAF Menwith Hill; RAF Mildenhall
Просмотров: 209627 Jeff Quitney
"The Saturn Propulsion System" Project Apollo Rocket Engines 1962 NASA Marshall Space Flight Center
 
14:11
more at http://scitech.quickfound.net/astro/project_apollo.html "The theory of reaction engines and the application to the Saturn propulsion system." Includes film of the first Saturn I launch in 1961 (SA-1). NASA f HQ-a77 I couldn't do much to improve the color on this one, but the sound cleaned up nicely. NEW VERSION with improved video & sound: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wq3phcv-NbI Reupload of a previously uploaded film with improved sound and video. Public domain film from NASA, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and 1-pass exposure & color correction applied (cannot be ideal in all scenes). The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). Rocket engine development history: V-2 engine led to Navaho engine led to Atlas engine led to Saturn H-1 engine. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SM-64_Navajo ...Development of the first stage rocket engine for the Navaho began with two refurbished V-2 engines in 1947. That same year, the phase II engine was designed, the XLR-41-NA-1, a simplified version of the V-2 engine made from American parts. The phase III engine, XLR-43-NA-1 (also called 75K), adopted a cylindrical combustion chamber with the experimental German impinging-stream injector plate. Engineers at North American were able to solve the combustion stability problem, which had prevented it being used in the V-2, and the engine was successfully tested at full power in 1951. The Phase IV engine, XLR-43-NA-3 (120K), replaced the poorly cooled heavy German engine wall with a brazed tubular ("spaghetti") construction, which was becoming the new standard method for regenerative cooling in American engines. A dual-engine version of this, XLR-71-NA-1 (240K), was used in the G-26 Navaho. With improved cooling, a more powerful kerosene-burning version was developed for the triple-engine XLR-83-NA-1 (405K), used in the G-38 Navaho. With all the elements of a modern engine (except a bell-shaped nozzle), this led to designs for the Atlas, Thor and Titan engines... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/H-1_(rocket_engine) Rocketdyne's H-1 is a 205,000 lbf (910 kN) thrust liquid-propellant rocket engine burning LOX and RP-1. The H-1 was developed for use in the S-IB first stage of the Saturn I and Saturn IB rockets, where it was used in clusters of eight engines. After the Apollo program, surplus H-1 engines were rebranded and reworked as the Rocketdyne RS-27 engine with first usage on the Delta 2000 series in 1974... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/F-1_(rocket_engine) The F-1 is a rocket engine developed by Rocketdyne and used in the Saturn V. Five F-1 engines were used in the S-IC first stage of each Saturn V, which served as the main launch vehicle in the Apollo program. The F-1 is still the most powerful single-chamber liquid-fueled rocket engine ever developed. The RD-170 has slightly more thrust, using a cluster of four smaller combustion chambers and nozzles... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J-2_(rocket_engine) The J-2 was a liquid-fuel cryogenic rocket engine used on NASA's Saturn IB and Saturn V launch vehicles. Built in the United States of America by Rocketdyne, the J-2 burned cryogenic liquid hydrogen & liquid oxygen propellants, with each engine producing 1,033.1 kN (232,250 lbf) of thrust in vacuum. Development of the engine began in the 1960s, with the first flight, AS-201, occurring on 26 February 1966. The J-2 underwent several minor upgrades over its operational history to improve the engine's performance, with two major upgrade programs, the de Laval nozzle-type J-2S and aerospike-type J-2T, being cancelled after the conclusion of the Apollo program. Five J-2 engines were used on the Saturn V's S-II second stage, and one J-2 was used on the S-IVB upper stage used on both the Saturn IB and Saturn V. Proposals also existed to use various numbers of J-2 engines in the upper stages of an even larger rocket, the planned Nova. The J-2 was America's largest production liquid hydrogen fuelled rocket engine before the RS-25 Space Shuttle Main Engine, and a modernised version of the engine, the J-2X, is intended for use on the Earth Departure Stage of NASA's Space Shuttle replacement, the Space Launch System. Unlike most liquid-fuelled rocket engines in service at the time, the J-2 was designed to be re-started once after shutdown when flown on the Saturn V. The first burn, lasting about two minutes, placed the Apollo spacecraft into a low Earth parking orbit. After the crew verified that the spacecraft was operating nominally, the J-2 was re-ignited for translunar injection, a 6.5 minute burn which accelerated the vehicle to a course for the Moon... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saturn_I http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saturn_IB http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saturn_V
Просмотров: 265474 Jeff Quitney
1956 Chevy Stunt Driving: "Thrill Driver's Choice" 1956 Chevrolet; Joie Chitwood Thrill Show
 
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Auto Mechanics playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLCED11EACAE477F6C more at http://cars.quickfound.net/ Joie Chitwood Thrill Show drivers exclusively drive 1956 Chevrolets. Reupload of a previously uploaded film with improved video & sound. Public domain film from the Library of Congress Prelinger Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://creativecommons.org/licenses/b... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joie_Chi... George Rice "Joie" Chitwood (April 14, 1912 - January 3, 1988) was an American racecar driver and businessman. He is best known as a daredevil in the Joie Chitwood Thrill Show. Born in Denison, Texas of Cherokee Indian ancestry, he was dubbed "Joie" by a track promoter and the name stuck. Racing career Chitwood started his racecar driving career in 1934 at a dirt track in Winfield, Kansas. From there, he began racing sprint cars. In 1939 and 1940 he won the AAA East Coast Sprint car championship. He switched to the CSRA and won its title in 1942. Between 1940 and 1950 competed at the Indianapolis 500 seven times finishing fifth on three different occasions. He was the first man ever to wear a safety belt at the Indy 500. Joie Chitwood Thrill Show Chitwood also operated the "Joie Chitwood Thrill Show", an exhibition of auto stunt driving that became so successful he gave up racing. Often called "Hell Drivers," he had five units that for more than forty years toured across North America thrilling audiences in large and small towns alike with their death-defying automobile stunts. His show was so popular, that in January 1967, the performance at the Islip Speedway, New York was broadcast on ABC television's Wide World of Sports. On May 13, 1978, Joie Chitwood set a world record when he drove a Chevrolet Chevette for 5.6 miles (9.0 km) on just 2 wheels. His sons, Joie Jr. and Tim both joined the auto thrill show and continued to run the "Joie Chitwood Chevy Thunder Show" after their father's retirement. His grandson, Joie Chitwood III, is the President of Daytona International Speedway and a former president of the Indianapolis Motor Speedway. The show was featured during season 3 of CHiPs in an episode entitled "Thrill Show". Chitwood's show was credited by Evel Knievel as being his inspiration to become a daredevil. Stuntman Chitwood was frequently hired by Hollywood film studios to either do stunt driving for films or to act as auto-stunt coordinator. On a few occasions he appeared in a minor role, notably with Clark Gable and Barbara Stanwyck in the 1950 film about auto racing, To Please a Lady. In 1973, Chitwood is credited as a Stunt Coordinator for the hugely successful James Bond film Live and Let Die (film), where he was also the stunt driver and acted in a minor part. Safety Consultant Chitwood also acted as a car safety consultant, intentionally crashing vehicles for subsequent investigation. He had intentionally crashed more than 3000 vehicles by the time he appeared on the game show I've Got A Secret in 1965. Retirement When Chitwood retired, his sons took over the business. Joie Chitwood died in 1988, aged 75, in Tampa Bay, Florida. He was inducted in the National Sprint Car Hall of Fame in 1993. He was inducted in the Motorsports Hall of Fame of America in 2010 in the Historic category.
Просмотров: 100450 Jeff Quitney
World Record 83 G Deceleration Peak on Rocket Sled 1958-05-16  (1967) USAF
 
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Bioastronautics & Space Medicine playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLE8248A33EE6EC9B5 The two most noted rocket sled human deceleration events in history are shown. First, on December 10, 1954, John Paul Stapp, facing forward, was accelerated to a speed of 632 mph, breaking the land speed record and making him "the fastest man on earth." The sled was then slowed by water, and Stapp took 46.2 g for 1.1 seconds. In the second event, on May 16, 1958, Eli Beeding, facing backward, was accelerated to 35 mph, then stopped in less than 1/10 second (over a distance of 1 foot). Sensors showed Beeding took a momentary peak of 82.6 g while sustaining an average of 40.4 gs for 0.04 seconds. This clip is taken from the US Air Force Film "Pioneers of the Vertical Frontier" (1967). Public domain film from the US National Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eli_Beeding Eli Lackland Beeding Jr. (December 17, 1928 - December 21, 2013) was a U.S. Air Force captain and rocket test subject. In 1958, a series experiments using a miniature rocket sled began at Holloman AFB under the supervision of Colonel John Stapp and Captain Beeding. Participants rode the "Daisy Sled" (so-called because it was originally designed to be air, and not rocket, powered) at various speeds and in many different positions — even head first — in an attempt to learn more about the g-force limits of the human body. On May 16, Capt. Eli Beeding prepared to make a 40 g run. The Daisy shot down the track, reached a top speed around 35 mph, and came to a screeching halt in less than a tenth of a second. "When I hit the water brake," Beeding recalled in a recent interview, "It felt like Ted Williams had hit me on the back, about lumbar five, with a baseball bat." Beeding had barely informed flight surgeon Capt. Les Eason of his troubles when he began to experience tunnel vision and passed out. It was a scary moment, since the standard protocol for shock would be to elevate Beeding’s feet. Yet there was a chance his back was broken, in which case he shouldn’t be touched. Taking a calculated risk, Eason and Tech. Sgt. Roy Gatewood gently moved Beeding onto the side of the sled and elevated his feet. Ten minutes later, Beeding emerged from shock and was rushed to the base hospital. Doctors determined his back was only badly bruised. "I thought that was the big excitement of the day,” Beeding recalls. "But later my boss came to me and said, ‘The chest accelerometer tracing shows you got 82.6 g!’" Subsequent tests with bears showed that the reading was not a fluke, and that Beeding had indeed endured a massive g load. When word got out, the young captain made headlines as the man who had topped John Stapp's g-force record. Beeding however is quick to point out that he rode the sled backwards, and that his time at 83 gs was “infinitesimal” compared to the 1.1 second durations Stapp faced during his own tests. “That doesn’t sound like much (time),” Beeding notes, “But I guarantee you, having been through it at lesser durations, one second is an eternity.” Still, the incident was wholly remarkable and made Beeding a hero and, for several decades thereafter, his name appeared in the Guinness Book of World Records. Guinness and many other sources incorrectly reported that Beeding endured 82.6 gs for 0.04 seconds. Beeding's sled in fact deccelerated at 40.4 gs for 0.04 seconds as it slowed from 35 mph to a stop over a distance of one foot. 82.6 gs was a brief peak acceleration measured by a sensor on his chest due to elastic response of his rib cage. Beeding retired from the Air Force in 1971, later moving to Colorado where he died in 2013 at the age of 85. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Stapp Colonel John Paul Stapp, (July 11, 1910 – November 13, 1999) M.D., Ph.D., was an American career U.S. Air Force officer, flight surgeon, physician, biophysicist, and pioneer in studying the effects of acceleration and deceleration forces on humans. He was a colleague and contemporary of Chuck Yeager, and became known as "the fastest man on earth"... ...in his 29th and last ride at Holloman Air Force Base in New Mexico, Stapp demonstrated that a human can withstand at least 46.2 g (in the forward position, with adequate harnessing). This is the highest known acceleration voluntarily encountered by a human, set on December 10, 1954. Stapp reached a speed of 632 mph (1,017 km/h), which broke the land speed record and made him the fastest man on earth... Stapp died peacefully at his home in Alamogordo at the age of 89.
Просмотров: 1642320 Jeff Quitney
Private SNAFU Censored 1944 US Army Training Cartoon, Mel Blanc, Frank Tashlin
 
05:03
more at http://quickfound.net/links/military_news_and_links.html Private Snafu learns he should watch what he writes in letters to home. "Originally created by Theodore Geisel (Dr. Seuss) and Phil Eastman, most of the cartoons were produced by Warner Brothers Animation Studios - employing their animators, voice actors (primarily Mel Blanc) and Carl Stalling's music." Public domain film from the US National Archives slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). more Private Snafu: Booby Traps: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-PbDa-NlX9A The Home Front http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vGmIhhMi8cg Spies http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WJn_aB4FjpI Snafuperman http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Op6-V5x8XHQ Fighting Tools: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kRyUAUl2q5M Rumors: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rEdboFx1mK8 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Private_Snafu Private Snafu is the title character of a series of black-and-white American instructional cartoon shorts produced between 1943 and 1945 during World War II. The character was created by director Frank Capra, chairman of the U.S. Army Air Force First Motion Picture Unit, and most were written by Theodor "Dr. Seuss" Geisel, Philip D. Eastman, and Munro Leaf. Although the United States Army gave Walt Disney the first crack at creating the cartoons, Leon Schlesinger of the Warner Bros. animation studio underbid Disney by two-thirds and won the contract. Disney had also demanded exclusive ownership of the character, and merchandising rights. Nel (2007) shows the goal was to help enlisted men with weak literacy skills learn through animated cartoons (and also supplementary comic books). They featured simple language, racy illustrations, no profanity, and subtle moralizing. Private Snafu did everything wrong, so that his negative example taught basic lessons about secrecy, disease prevention, and proper military protocols. Private Snafu cartoons were a military secret—for the armed forces only. Surveys to ascertain the soldiers' film favorites showed that the Snafu cartoons usually rated highest or second highest. Each cartoon was produced in six weeks, compared to the six months usually taken for short cartoons of the same kind... Most of the Private Snafu shorts are educational, and although the War Department had to approve the storyboards, the Warner directors were allowed great latitude in order to keep the cartoons entertaining... The Snafu shorts are notable because they were produced during the Golden Age of Warner Bros. animation. Directors such as Chuck Jones, Friz Freleng, Bob Clampett, and Frank Tashlin worked on them, and their characteristic styles are in top form. P. D. Eastman was a writer and storyboard artist for the Snafu shorts. Voice characterizations were provided by the celebrated Mel Blanc (Private Snafu's voice was similar to Blanc's Bugs Bunny characterization, and Bugs himself actually made cameos in the Snafu episodes Gas and Three Brothers). Toward the end of the war, other studios began producing Snafu shorts as well (the Army accused Schlesinger of padding his bills), though some of these never made it to celluloid before the war ended. The Snafu films are also partly responsible for keeping the animation studios open during the war—by producing such training films, the studios were declared an essential industry. After the war, the Snafu cartoons went largely forgotten. Prints eventually wound up in the hands of collectors, and these form the basis for The Complete, Uncensored Private Snafu, a VHS and DVD collection from Bosko Video...
Просмотров: 2579680 Jeff Quitney
Man in 457 mph Wind: "Human Tolerance to Wind Blasts" 1946 NACA  Langley Research Center
 
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NEW VERSION with improved video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LfBvXC9MQj8 more at http://scitech.quickfound.net/ "Test conducted in 1946 where a human subject was exposed to blasts of air. The test was performed at NASA Langley Research Center's 8 ft High Speed Tunnel." Silent. Public domain film from NASA, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and mild video noise reduction applied. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wind Wind is the flow of gases on a large scale. On Earth, wind consists of the bulk movement of air. In outer space, solar wind is the movement of gases or charged particles from the sun through space, while planetary wind is the outgassing of light chemical elements from a planet's atmosphere into space. Winds are commonly classified by their spatial scale, their speed, the types of forces that cause them, the regions in which they occur, and their effect. The strongest observed winds on a planet in our solar system occur on Neptune and Saturn. In meteorology, winds are often referred to according to their strength, and the direction from which the wind is blowing. Short bursts of high speed wind are termed gusts. Strong winds of intermediate duration (around one minute) are termed squalls. Long-duration winds have various names associated with their average strength, such as breeze, gale, storm, hurricane, and typhoon. Wind occurs on a range of scales, from thunderstorm flows lasting tens of minutes, to local breezes generated by heating of land surfaces and lasting a few hours, to global winds resulting from the difference in absorption of solar energy between the climate zones on Earth. The two main causes of large-scale atmospheric circulation are the differential heating between the equator and the poles, and the rotation of the planet (Coriolis effect). Within the tropics, thermal low circulations over terrain and high plateaus can drive monsoon circulations. In coastal areas the sea breeze/land breeze cycle can define local winds; in areas that have variable terrain, mountain and valley breezes can dominate local winds. In human civilization, wind has inspired mythology, influenced the events of history, expanded the range of transport and warfare, and provided a power source for mechanical work, electricity and recreation. Wind powers the voyages of sailing ships across Earth's oceans. Hot air balloons use the wind to take short trips, and powered flight uses it to increase lift and reduce fuel consumption. Areas of wind shear caused by various weather phenomena can lead to dangerous situations for aircraft. When winds become strong, trees and man-made structures are damaged or destroyed. Winds can shape landforms, via a variety of aeolian processes... http://crgis.ndc.nasa.gov/historic/641 8-Foot High Speed Tunnel As interest in the field of high-speed aerodynamics increased in the early 1930s, Langley's existing wind tunnels proved too small and underpowered for effective high-speed aircraft testing. Understanding that a new facility would give U.S. engineers a decided advantage in the aeronautical field, Langley's director of research George W. Lewis authorized the design and construction of a larger high speed wind tunnel in 1933. Construction of the 8-Foot High Speed Tunnel (HST) was funded by the Public Works Administration (PWA) and completed in 1936 at a cost of $266,000... The world's first large high speed tunnel, the HST proved vital during World War II... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Stapp#Wind-blast_experiments ...Wind-blast experiments Stapp also participated in wind-blast experiments, in which he flew in jet aircraft at high speeds to determine whether or not it was safe for a pilot to remain with his aircraft if the canopy should accidentally blow off. Stapp stayed with his aircraft at a speed of 570 mph (917 km/h), with the canopy removed, and suffered no injurious effects from the wind blasts. Among these experiments was one of the first high-altitude skydives, executed by Stapp himself. He also supervised research programs in the fields of human factors in escape from aircraft and human tolerance to abrupt acceleration and deceleration...
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How Steel Is Made circa 1943 Bethlehem Steel
 
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more at http://scitech.quickfound.net The process of manufacturing steel is shown. Part One of a series: "Steel for the Armed Forces." NEW VERSION with improved video & sound: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2HCt6EV9RGA Originally a public domain film from the Prelinger Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steel Wikipedia license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ Steel is an alloy of iron. Carbon is the primary alloying element, and its content in the steel is between 0.002% and 2.1% by weight. Too little carbon content leaves (pure) iron quite soft, ductile, and weak. Carbon contents higher than those of steel make an alloy commonly called pig iron that is brittle and not malleable. Additional elements may be present in steel: manganese, phosphorus, sulfur, silicon, and traces of oxygen, nitrogen and aluminium. Alloy steel is steel to which additional alloying elements have been intentionally added to modify the characteristics of steel. Common alloying elements include: manganese, nickel, chromium, molybdenum, boron, titanium, vanadium and niobium... Overview Carbon, other elements, and inclusions within iron act as hardening agents that prevent the movement of dislocations that naturally exist in the iron atom crystal lattices. Varying the amount of alloying elements, their form in the steel either as solute elements, or a precipitated phases, retards the movement of those dislocations that make iron so ductile and so weak, and so it controls qualities such as the hardness, ductility, and tensile strength of the resulting steel... Alloys with a higher than 2.1% carbon content, depending on other element content and possibly on processing, are known as cast iron. Cast iron is not malleable even when hot, but it can be formed by casting as it has a lower melting point than steel and good castability properties. Steel is also distinguishable from wrought iron (now largely obsolete), which may contain a small amount of carbon but large amounts of slag... ...steel's use expanded extensively after more efficient production methods were devised in the 17th century... With the invention of the Bessemer process in the mid-19th century, a new era of mass-produced steel began. This was followed by Siemens-Martin process and then Gilchrist-Thomas process that refined the quality of steel... Further refinements in the process, such as basic oxygen steelmaking (BOS), further lowered the cost of production, while increasing the quality of the metal and largely replaced earlier methods. Today, steel is one of the most common materials in the world, with more than 1.3 billion tons produced annually... When iron is smelted from its ore by commercial processes, it contains more carbon than is desirable. To become steel, it must be melted and reprocessed to reduce the carbon to the correct amount, at which point other elements can be added. This liquid is then continuously cast into long slabs or cast into ingots. Approximately 96% of steel is continuously cast, while only 4% is produced as ingots. The ingots are then heated in a soaking pit and hot rolled into slabs, blooms, or billets. Slabs are hot or cold rolled into sheet metal or plates. Billets are hot or cold rolled into bars, rods, and wire. Blooms are hot or cold rolled into structural steel, such as I-beams and rails. In modern steel mills these processes often occur in one assembly line, with ore coming in and finished steel coming out. Sometimes after a steel's final rolling it is heat treated for strength, however this is relatively rare... Since the 17th century the first step in European steel production has been the smelting of iron ore into pig iron in a blast furnace. Originally using charcoal, modern methods use coke, which has proven more economical... The modern era in steelmaking began with the introduction of Henry Bessemer's Bessemer process in 1855, the raw material for which was pig iron. His method let him produce steel in large quantities cheaply, thus mild steel came to be used for most purposes for which wrought iron was formerly used. The Gilchrist-Thomas process (or basic Bessemer process) was an improvement to the Bessemer process... These methods of steel production were rendered obsolete by the Linz-Donawitz process of basic oxygen steelmaking (BOS), developed in the 1950s, and other oxygen steel making methods. Basic oxygen steelmaking is superior to previous steelmaking methods because the oxygen pumped into the furnace limits impurities that previously had entered from the air used. Today, electric arc furnaces (EAF) are a common method of reprocessing scrap metal to create new steel...
Просмотров: 38088 Jeff Quitney
Car Brakes: "Hydraulics" 1936 Chevrolet Auto Mechanics
 
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more at http://auto-parts.quickfound.net "PRINCIPLES OF HYDRAULICS EXPLAINED, CENTERING ON THE VALUE FOR SAFETY & COMFORT OF HYDRAULIC BRAKES." NEW VERSION with improved video & sound: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mTO7vlITLek Public domain film from the Library of Congress Prelinger Archive, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drum_brake A drum brake is a brake in which the friction is caused by a set of shoes or pads that press against a rotating drum-shaped part called a brake drum. The term "drum brake" usually means a brake in which shoes press on the inner surface of the drum. When shoes press on the outside of the drum, it is usually called a clasp brake. Where the drum is pinched between two shoes, similar to a conventional disk brake, it is sometimes called a "pinch drum brake", although such brakes are relatively rare. A related type of brake uses a flexible belt or "band" wrapping around the outside of a drum, called a band brake. The modern automobile drum brake was invented in 1902 by Louis Renault, whose unique genius inspired him to use woven asbestos lining for the drum brakes lining as there were no other alternatives that dissipated heat like the asbestos lining, though a less-sophisticated drum brake had been used by Maybach a year earlier... Components Some of the major components of the drum brake assembly are the back plate, the brake drum and shoe, the wheel cylinder, and various springs and pins. Back plate The back plate serves as the base on which all the components are assembled. It attaches to the axle and forms a solid surface for the wheel cylinder, brake shoes and assorted hardware. Since all the braking operations exert pressure on the back plate, it needs to be very strong and wear-resistant. Levers for emergency or parking brakes, and automatic brake-shoe adjuster were also added in recent years... Brake drum The brake drum is generally made of a special type of cast iron which is heat-conductive and wear-resistant. It is positioned very close to the brake shoe without actually touching it, and rotates with the wheel and axle. As the lining is pushed against the inner surface of the drum, friction heat can reach as high as 600 °F (316 °C). Wheel cylinder One wheel cylinder is used for each wheel. Two pistons operate the shoes, one at each end of the wheel cylinder. When hydraulic pressure from the master cylinder acts upon the piston cup, the pistons are pushed toward the shoes, forcing them against the drum. When the brakes are not being applied, the piston is returned to its original position by the force of the brake shoe return springs. The parts of the wheel cylinder are as follows: Brake shoe Brake shoes are typically made of two pieces of sheet steel welded together. The friction material is either rivetted to the lining table or attached with adhesive. The crescent-shaped piece is called the Web and contains holes and slots in different shapes for return springs, hold-down hardware, parking brake linkage and self-adjusting components. All the application force of the wheel cylinder is applied through the web to the lining table and brake lining. The edge of the lining table generally has three "V"-shaped notches or tabs on each side called nibs. The nibs rest against the support pads of the backing plate to which the shoes are installed. Each brake assembly has two shoes, a primary and secondary. The primary shoe is located toward the front of the vehicle and has the lining positioned differently than the secondary shoe. Quite often the two shoes are interchangeable, so close inspection for any variation is important. Linings must be resistant against heat and wear and have a high friction coefficient unaffected by fluctuations in temperature and humidity. Materials which make up the brake shoe include, friction modifiers (which can include can include graphite and cashew nut shells), powdered metal such as lead, zinc, brass, aluminium and other metals that resist heat fade, binders, curing agents and fillers such as rubber chips to reduce brake noise. Automatic self-adjuster The self-adjuster is used to adjust the distance between the brake shoe and the drum automatically as brake shoes wear...
Просмотров: 158208 Jeff Quitney
1940 Ford Cars Commercial (1939) Ford Motor Co; New Improvements in Ford Models
 
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Car Commercials playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLB74FCD20D75428CB New features of 1940 Ford cars are promoted. Note that at 0:10 the narrator SEEMS to be speaking of new features for 1942, but what he means is "For 1940 ALSO..." The cars shown are 1940 models. When the narrator reaches the convertible at the end, he clearly says 1940 rather than 1942. Public domain film from the US National Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1937_Ford The Ford line of cars was updated in 1937 with one major change — the introduction of an entry-level 136 CID (2.2 L) V8 in addition to the popular 221 CID (3.6 L) flathead V8. The model was a refresh of its predecessor, the Model 48 (itself based on the Model 40A), and was the company's main product. It was redesigned more thoroughly in 1941. At the start of production, it cost $850. The Ford Line bore several model numbers during this period: For domestic 1937 production in the United States Ford Model Numbers for 85 hp V-8 equipped cars was Model 78 and 60 hp V-8 cars was Model 74. Models 81A and 82A in 1938, and Models 91A and 92A in 1939... 1940 A high flat-topped hood dominated the front look of the 1940 model, as the grille spread out to reach the fenders to differentiate the Deluxe line and the headlights were pushed wider still. The standard Ford inherited the grille of the 1939 model with blackout on each side of a heavy chrome center; heavier headlight surrounds serve as another major differentiator from the 1939. 1940 was the last year of the 1937 design and its smaller V8 engine, with a straight-six engine to be reintroduced the following year. Sealed-beam headlights were one of the few major advances for 1940, while a hydraulic top was new on the convertible. Legacy The 1937-1940 generation of Fords is one of the most popular automobiles for hot rodding. Early stock car racing drivers also used Fords of this generation among other cars. This Ford also formed the basis for a style of dirt track racing car.
Просмотров: 33640 Jeff Quitney
Nuclear Ramjet (Project Pluto) to Drive "Big Stick" SLAM Missile circa 1959 USAF-Convair
 
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more at http://quickfound.net Late 50's Convair proposal for "The Big Stick", a Supersonic Low Altitude Missile (SLAM) driven by a nuclear reactor-powered ramjet. The missile could loiter in flight for long periods before dashing at Mach 3 to the targets, delivering multiple atomic bombs. It also would leave a stream of nuclear fallout from its reactor in its wake. SLAM development was cancelled in 1964. Public domain film, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supersonic_Low_Altitude_Missile The Supersonic Low Altitude Missile or SLAM... was a canceled U.S. Air Force project conceived around 1955. Although it never proceeded beyond the initial design and testing phase before being declared obsolete, it represented several radical innovations as a Nuclear delivery system. The SLAM was designed to complement the doctrine of mutually assured destruction... In the event of nuclear war it was intended to fly below the cover of enemy radar at supersonic speeds, and deliver thermonuclear warheads to roughly 16 targets. The primary innovation was the engine of the aircraft, which was developed under the aegis of a separate project code-named Project Pluto, after the Roman god of the underworld. It was a ramjet that used nuclear fission to superheat incoming air instead of chemical fuel. Project Pluto produced two working prototypes of this engine, the Tory-IIA and the Tory-IIC, which were successfully tested in the Nevada desert. Special ceramics had to be developed to meet the stringent weight and tremendous heat tolerances demanded of the SLAM's reactor. These were developed by the Coors Porcelain Company. The reactor itself was designed at the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory. The use of a nuclear engine in the airframe promised to give the missile staggering and unprecedented low-altitude range, estimated to be roughly 113,000 miles (182,000 km) (over four and a half times the equatorial circumference of the earth). The engine also acted as a secondary weapon for the missile: direct neutron radiation from the virtually unshielded reactor would sicken, injure, and/or kill living things beneath the flight path; the stream of fallout left in its wake would poison enemy territory; and its strategically selected crash site would receive intense radioactive contamination. In addition, the sonic waves given off by its passage would damage ground installations. Another revolutionary aspect of the SLAM was its reliance on automation. It would have the mission of a long-range bomber, but would be completely unmanned: accepting radioed commands up to its failsafe point, whereafter it would rely on a Terrain Contour Matching (TERCOM) radar system to navigate to preprogrammed targets. Although a prototype of the airframe was never constructed, the SLAM was to be a wingless, fin-guided aircraft. Apart from the ventral ram-air intake it was very much in keeping with traditional missile design. Its estimated airspeed at thirty thousand feet was Mach 4.2. The SLAM program was scrapped on July 1, 1964. By this time serious questions about its viability had been raised, such as how to test a device that would emit copious amounts of radioactive exhaust from its unshielded reactor core in flight, as well as its efficacy and cost. ICBMs promised swifter delivery to targets, and because of their speed (the Thor traveled at roughly Mach 12) and trajectory were considered virtually unstoppable. The SLAM was also being outpaced by advances in defensive ground radar, which threatened to render its stratagem of low-altitude evasion ineffective... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Project_Pluto Project Pluto was a United States government program to develop nuclear powered ramjet engines for use in cruise missiles. Two experimental engines were tested at the United States Department of Energy Nevada Test Site (NTS) in 1961 and 1964... History On January 1, 1957, the U.S. Air Force and the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission selected the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) predecessor, the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, to study the feasibility of applying heat from nuclear reactors to ramjet engines. This research became known as "Project Pluto". The work was directed by Dr. Ted Merkle, leader of the laboratory's R-Division... On May 14, 1961, the world's first nuclear ramjet engine, "Tory-IIA", mounted on a railroad car, roared to life for a few seconds. Three years later, "Tory-IIC" was run for five minutes at full power... On July 1, 1964, seven years and six months after it was started, "Project Pluto" was canceled...
Просмотров: 205707 Jeff Quitney
Good Looking: "How to Be Well Groomed" 1948 Coronet Instructional Films
 
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more at http://quickfound.net/ "Siblings Don and Sue show how they keep themselves well groomed throughout the school week and for their Friday night dates." Stresses health, posture, cleanliness, and neatness. NEW VERSION with improved video & sound: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Pvrc8lI4Sks Public domain film from the Prelinger Archive, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Personal_grooming Personal grooming (also called titivating and preening) is the art of cleaning, grooming, and maintaining parts of the body. It is a species-typical behavior... In animals Individual animals regularly clean themselves and put their fur, feathers or other skin coverings in good order. This activity is known as personal grooming, a form of hygiene. Extracting foreign objects such as insects, leaves, dirt, twigs and parasites, are all forms of grooming. Among animals, birds spend considerable time preening their feathers... Grooming as a social activity Many social animals adapt preening and grooming behaviors for other social purposes such as bonding and social structure enforcement. Grooming plays a particularly important role in forming social bonds in many primate species, such as chacma baboons and wedge-capped capuchins. Mutual Grooming in Human Relationships In human kind, mutual grooming is quite related to social grooming, which is defined as the process by which human beings fulfill one of their basic instincts, such as socializing, cooperating and learning from each other. Research conducted by Holly Nelson (from the University of New Hampshire) and Glenn Geher (State University of New York at Platz), individuals who chose their romantic partner reported more mutual grooming than others who focused in other types of relationships. Hence, this study hypothesized that mutual grooming was related to relationship satisfaction, trust and previous experience of affection within the family. They claim that even though humans do not groom each other with the same fervor that other species do, they are groomers par excellence. Therefore, human mutual grooming plays an important role in pair bonding. In the same investigation, researchers found that individuals with more promiscuous attitudes and those who scored high on the anxiety sub-scale on an adult attachment style measure, tend to groom their partners more frequently. These findings were also consistent with some of the functions of grooming: potential parental indicator, developing trust and courtship or flirtation... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cleanliness Cleanliness is both the abstract state of being clean and free from dirt, and the process of achieving and maintaining that state. Cleanliness may be endowed with a moral quality, as indicated by the aphorism "cleanliness is next to godliness," and may be regarded as contributing to other ideals such as health and beauty. In emphasizing an ongoing procedure or set of habits for the purpose of maintenance and prevention, the concept of cleanliness differs from purity[disambiguation needed], which is a physical, moral, or ritual state of freedom from pollutants. Whereas purity is usually a quality of an individual or substance, cleanliness has a social dimension, or implies a system of interactions. "Cleanliness," observed Jacob Burckhardt, "is indispensable to our modern notion of social perfection." A household or workplace may be said to exhibit cleanliness, but not ordinarily purity; cleanliness also would be a characteristic of the people who maintain cleanness or prevent dirtying. On a practical level, cleanliness is thus related to hygiene and disease prevention. Washing is one way of achieving physical cleanliness, usually with water and often some kind of soap or detergent. Procedures of cleanliness are of utmost importance in many forms of manufacturing. As an assertion of moral superiority or respectability, cleanliness has played a role in establishing cultural values in relation to social class, humanitarianism, and cultural imperialism...
Просмотров: 78984 Jeff Quitney
Lumberjacks Log Rolling from "See No. 6" circa 1940 Castle Films Newsreel
 
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more at http://quickfound.net "Giants Tumble! Daredevil lumberjacks risk life and limb!" Public domain film from the Prelinger Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lumberjack A lumberjack is a worker in the logging industry who performs the initial harvesting and transport of trees for ultimate processing into forest products. The term usually refers to a bygone era (before 1945 in the United States) when hand tools were used in harvesting trees. Because of its historical ties, the term lumberjack has become ingrained in popular culture through folklore, mass media and spectator sports. The actual work was difficult, dangerous, intermittent, low-paying, and primitive in living conditions, but the men built a traditional culture that celebrated strength, masculinity, confrontation with danger, and resistance to modernization... Lumberjacks worked in lumber camps and often lived a migratory life, following timber harvesting jobs as they opened. Being a lumberjack was seasonal work. Lumberjacks were exclusively men. They usually lived in bunkhouses or tents. Common equipment included the axe and crosscut saw. Lumberjacks could be found wherever there were vast forests to be harvested and a demand for wood, most likely in Scandinavia, Canada, and parts of the United States. In the U.S., many lumberjacks were of Scandinavian ancestry, continuing the family tradition. American lumberjacks were first centered in northeastern states such as Maine and then followed the general westward migration on the continent to the Upper Midwest, and finally the Pacific Northwest. Stewart Holbrook documented the emergence and westward migration of the classic American lumberjack in his first book, Holy Old Mackinaw: A Natural History of the American Lumberjack, and often wrote colorfully about lumberjacks in his subsequent books, romanticizing them as hard-drinking, hard-working men. Logging camps were slowly phased out between World War II and the early 1960s as crews could by then be transported to remote logging sites in motor vehicles. The division of labor in lumber camps led to several specialized jobs on logging crews, such as whistle punk, chaser, and high climber.[7] The whistle punk's job was to sound a whistle as a signal to the yarder operator controlling the movement of logs and act as a safety lookout, and a good whistle punk had to be alert and think fast as the safety of the others depended on him. The high climber (also known as a tree topper) used iron climbing hooks and rope to ascend a tall tree in the landing area of the logging site, where he would chop off limbs as he climbed, chop off the top of the tree, and finally attach pulleys and rigging to the tree so it could be used as a spar so logs could be skidded into the landing. High climbers and whistle punks were both phased out in the 1960s to early 1970s when portable steel towers replaced spar trees and radio equipment replaced steam whistles for communication. The chokersetters attached steel cables (or chokers) to downed logs so they could be dragged into the landing by the yarder. The chasers removed the chokers once the logs were at the landing. Chokersetters and chasers were often entry-level positions on logging crews, with more experienced loggers seeking to move up to more skill-intensive positions such as yarder operator and high climber, or supervisory positions such as hooktender. Despite the common perception that all loggers cut trees, the actual felling and bucking of trees were also specialized job positions done by fallers and buckers. Fallers and buckers were once two separate job titles but are now combined... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Log_rolling Logrolling (log birling or just birling), is a sport that originated in the lumberjack/log driver tradition of the northeastern United States and Canada, involving logs in a river (traditionally) or other body of water. After bringing their logs downriver, the lumberjacks have a competition to see who can balance on a log the longest while it is still rolling in the river. The contest involves two lumberjacks, each on one end of a log floating in the river. One or the other starts "walking" (or "rolling") the log, and the other is forced to keep up. The contest involves attempting to stay on the log while attempting to cause the competitor to lose their balance and splash into the water...
Просмотров: 20875 Jeff Quitney
Private SNAFU: "Gas" 1944 US Army Training Cartoon Mel Blanc; Chuck Jones
 
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more at http://quickfound.net/links/military_news_and_links.html "Snafu (Mel Blanc) learns the need of keeping his gas mask at hand when he is attacked by anthropomorphic gas cloud." With a cameo appearance by Bugs Bunny. Directed by Chuck Jones. "Originally created by Theodore Geisel (Dr. Seuss) and Phil Eastman, most of the cartoons were produced by Warner Brothers Animation Studios - employing their animators, voice actors (primarily Mel Blanc) and Carl Stalling's music." more Private Snafu: Gripes: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2TVTd-kQcuo Fighting Tools: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ntSimW0PlFo Booby Traps: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-PbDa-NlX9A The Home Front http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vGmIhhMi8cg Spies http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WJn_aB4FjpI Snafuperman http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Op6-V5x8XHQ Public domain film from the US National Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gas_(1944_film) Gas is an animated short, directed by Chuck Jones and first released in May, 1944. It features Private Snafu learning the value of a gas mask in warfare. The cartoon was produced by Warner Bros. Cartoons. The script writers for the Snafu cartoons were typically uncredited, though animation historians consider that several of them were written or co-written by Dr. Seuss and Munro Leaf... The film is set in a military camp, with a sign informing viewers that the camp is situated at a distance of 3642,5 miles (5862 kilometers) from Brooklyn. An alarm alerts the soldiers to wear their gas masks and assemble at a predetermined area of the camp. Every soldier rushes to complete the task, except for Snafu who has trouble locating his gas mask case. He is the last soldier to arrive to the assembly grounds, and has yet to actually wear his mask. When Snafu opens the case, he reaches in and retrieves first a sheer bra, then Bugs Bunny, and last his mask. His lack of organization skills earns him the attention of the officers. He is singled out for additional drill exercises with his gas mask. Following his training, an exhausted Snafu discards his gas mask and leaves it with the trash waiting to be collected. He proceeds to rest under a tree in an idyllic meadow, at a short distance from the camp. While he rests, a passing airplane sprays poison gas. The gas takes the form of an anthropomorphic gas cloud and parachutes its way to the ground. Spotting Snafu as the easiest target around, it begins surrounding him. As Snafu relaxes under the tree, he comments on "the smell of new-mown hay, apple blossoms, flypaper..." whereupon he finally realizes that he is in danger of being gassed. Snafu barely manages to escape breathing the gas and "frantically chases the trash truck" to retrieve his gas mask. While the gas cloud seems to sweep over both the soldier and the truck, Snafu emerges triumphant. He had managed to wear the mask before breathing the poison. Night finds Snafu sleeping with his gas mask at hand, "in a lover's embrace". In a flirtatious manner, the mask comments "I didn't know you cared" and the short ends. Analysis The extensive use of chemical weapons in World War I had left a lasting impression. During World War II, there were fears that chemical warfare would again be used against both military targets and civilians. In practice, all major combatants of the War stockpiled chemical weapons, but these weapons were rarely used and played a minimal role in the conflict. The short was part of the ongoing efforts of the military to convince soldiers that their gas masks were more than "dead weight". As the war progressed and the expected chemical warfare did not occur, soldiers were increasingly likely to view both the masks and their training in using them as essentially useless.
Просмотров: 53241 Jeff Quitney
Car Suspensions: "Spring Harmony" 1935 Chevrolet Auto Mechanics
 
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more at http://auto-parts.quickfound.net/ "A DRAMATIZATION OF THE BALANCE BETWEEN THE FRONT & THE REAR SPRINGS, INCLUDING AN EXPLANATION OF THE VALUE OF KNEE ACTION." NEW VERSION with improved video & sound: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8PQAWYvDKVg Public domain film from the Library of Congress Prelinger Archive, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Suspension_(vehicle) Suspension is the term given to the system of springs, shock absorbers and linkages that connects a vehicle to its wheels and allows relative motion between the two. Suspension systems serve a dual purpose — contributing to the vehicle's roadholding/handling and braking for good active safety and driving pleasure, and keeping vehicle occupants comfortable and reasonably well isolated from road noise, bumps, and vibrations,etc. These goals are generally at odds, so the tuning of suspensions involves finding the right compromise. It is important for the suspension to keep the road wheel in contact with the road surface as much as possible, because all the forces acting on the vehicle do so through the contact patches of the tires. The suspension also protects the vehicle itself and any cargo or luggage from damage and wear. The design of front and rear suspension of a car may be different... Leaf springs have been around since the early Egyptians. Ancient military engineers used leaf springs in the form of bows to power their siege engines, with little success at first. The use of leaf springs in catapults was later refined and made to work years later. Springs were not only made of metal, a sturdy tree branch could be used as a spring, such as with a bow. Horse drawn vehicles By the early 19th century, most British horse carriages were equipped with springs; wooden springs in the case of light one-horse vehicles to avoid taxation, and steel springs in larger vehicles. These were made of low-carbon steel and usually took the form of multiple layer leaf springs... Automobiles Automobiles were initially developed as self-propelled versions of horse drawn vehicles. However, horse drawn vehicles had been designed for relatively slow speeds and their suspension was not well suited to the higher speeds permitted by the internal combustion engine. In 1901 Mors of Paris first fitted an automobile with shock absorbers... In 1920, Leyland used torsion bars in a suspension system. In 1922, independent front suspension was pioneered on the Lancia Lambda and became more common in mass market cars from 1932... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Independent_suspension Independent suspension is a broad term for any automobile suspension system that allows each wheel on the same axle to move vertically (i.e. reacting to a bump in the road) independently of each other. This is contrasted with a beam axle, live axle or deDion axle system in which the wheels are linked -- movement on one side affects the wheel on the other side. Note that "independent" refers to the motion or path of movement of the wheels/suspension. It is common for the left and right sides of the suspension to be connected with anti-roll bars or other such mechanisms. The anti-roll bar ties the left and right suspension spring rates together but does not tie their motion together. Most modern vehicles have independent front suspension (IFS). Many vehicles also have an independent rear suspension (IRS). IRS, as the name implies, has the rear wheels independently sprung. A fully independent suspension has an independent suspension on all wheels. Some early independent systems used swing axles, but modern systems use Chapman or MacPherson struts, trailing arms, multilink, or wishbones. Independent suspension typically offers better ride quality and handling characteristics, due to lower unsprung weight and the ability of each wheel to address the road undisturbed by activities of the other wheel on the vehicle. Independent suspension requires additional engineering effort and expense in development versus a beam or live axle arrangement. A very complex IRS solution can also result in higher manufacturing costs. The key reason for lower unsprung weight relative to a live axle design is that, for driven wheels, the differential unit does not form part of the unsprung elements of the suspension system. Instead it is either bolted directly to the vehicle's chassis or more commonly to a subframe. The relative movement between the wheels and the differential is achieved through the use of swinging driveshafts connected via universal (U) joints, analogous to the constant-velocity (CV) joints used in front wheel drive vehicles...
Просмотров: 393082 Jeff Quitney
Physics: Crystals 1958 Alan Holden - Bell Laboratories - PSSC Physical Science Study Committee
 
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Physical Science Study Committee Films (PSSC) playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL_hX5wLdhf_KuXqv0QzMoNQYgR_nBxETx Physics & Physical Sciences playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL_hX5wLdhf_JKIMNk88rKCkhpK73_qmHY "Explains how crystals are formed and why they are shaped as they are. Considers their actual growth under a microscope, how they may be grown, and the relation of these phenomena to the concept of atoms. From the PSSC Physics series. Blue Ribbon winner, American Film Festival." Your instructor is Alan Holden of Bell Laboratories. Public domain film, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crystal A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents, such as atoms, molecules or ions, are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions. In addition, macroscopic single crystals are usually identifiable by their geometrical shape, consisting of flat faces with specific, characteristic orientations. The scientific study of crystals and crystal formation is known as crystallography. The process of crystal formation via mechanisms of crystal growth is called crystallization or solidification. The word crystal is derived from the Ancient Greek word κρύσταλλος (krustallos), meaning both “ice” and “rock crystal”, from κρύος (kruos), "icy cold, frost". Examples of large crystals include snowflakes, diamonds, and table salt. Most inorganic solids are not crystals but polycrystals, i.e. many microscopic crystals fused together into a single solid. Examples of polycrystals include most metals, rocks, ceramics, and ice. A third category of solids is amorphous solids, where the atoms have no periodic structure whatsoever. Examples of amorphous solids include glass, wax, and many plastics... The scientific definition of a "crystal" is based on the microscopic arrangement of atoms inside it, called the crystal structure. A crystal is a solid where the atoms form a periodic arrangement. (Quasicrystals are an exception, see below.) Not all solids are crystals. For example, when liquid water starts freezing, the phase change begins with small ice crystals that grow until they fuse, forming a polycrystalline structure. In the final block of ice, each of the small crystals (called "crystallites" or "grains") is a true crystal with a periodic arrangement of atoms, but the whole polycrystal does not have a periodic arrangement of atoms, because the periodic pattern is broken at the grain boundaries. Most macroscopic inorganic solids are polycrystalline, including almost all metals, ceramics, ice, rocks, etc. Solids that are neither crystalline nor polycrystalline, such as glass, are called amorphous solids, also called glassy, vitreous, or noncrystalline. These have no periodic order, even microscopically. There are distinct differences between crystalline solids and amorphous solids: most notably, the process of forming a glass does not release the latent heat of fusion, but forming a crystal does. A crystal structure (an arrangement of atoms in a crystal) is characterized by its unit cell, a small imaginary box containing one or more atoms in a specific spatial arrangement. The unit cells are stacked in three-dimensional space to form the crystal. The symmetry of a crystal is constrained by the requirement that the unit cells stack perfectly with no gaps. There are 219 possible crystal symmetries, called crystallographic space groups. These are grouped into 7 crystal systems, such as cubic crystal system (where the crystals may form cubes or rectangular boxes, such as halite shown at right) or hexagonal crystal system (where the crystals may form hexagons, such as ordinary water ice)...
Просмотров: 322242 Jeff Quitney
The Naval Gun at Iwo Jima 1945 US Navy Tactical Report; Battleship Gun Performance
 
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US Navy Training Film playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLA40407C12E5E35A7 World War II playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL3E5ED4749AE3CD2C more at http://quickfound.net/links/military_news_and_links.html "The Naval Gun at Iwo Jima: Destruction of Defenses Preceding the Landing Assault" US Navy Tactical Report MN-5562 Originally a public domain film from the US National Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Iwo_Jima Wikipedia license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ The Battle of Iwo Jima (19 February -- 26 March 1945), or Operation Detachment, was a major battle in which the United States fought for and captured the island of Iwo Jima from the Empire of Japan. The U.S. invasion, charged with the mission of capturing the three airfields on Iwo Jima, resulted in some of the fiercest fighting in the Pacific Campaign of World War II. The Imperial Japanese Army positions on the island were heavily fortified, with a vast network of bunkers, hidden artillery, and 18 km (11 mi) of underground tunnels. The Americans were covered by extensive naval and air support, capable of delivering an enormous amount of firepower onto the Japanese positions. The battle was the first American attack on the Japanese Home Islands, and the Imperial soldiers defended their positions tenaciously. Iwo Jima was also the only U.S. Marine battle where the American overall casualties exceeded the Japanese, although Japanese combat deaths numbered 3 times that of Americans. Of the 22,000 Japanese soldiers present at the beginning of the battle, only 216 were taken prisoner. The rest were killed or missing and assumed dead. Despite heavy fighting and casualties on both sides, Japanese defeat was assured from the start. The Americans possessed an overwhelming superiority in arms and numbers; this, coupled with the impossibility of Japanese retreat or reinforcement, ensured that there was no plausible scenario in which the U.S. could have lost the battle. The battle was immortalized by Joe Rosenthal's photograph of the raising of the U.S. flag on top of the 166 m (545 ft) Mount Suribachi by five Marines and one Navy Corpsman... Starting on 15 June 1944, the U.S. began strikes against Iwo Jima that would become the longest and most intense conflict in the Pacific theater. These would be a combination of naval assaults and bombings that would go on for almost one year. Major General Harry Schmidt requested a ten day shelling of the island before the land invasion, but was given only three, which were impaired by the weather conditions. Each heavy ship was given an area to fire on which combined with all the ships covered the entire island. A ship would fire for approximately six hours before stopping for a certain amount of time... Although the island was declared secure at 18:00 on 16 March 25 days after the landings, the 5th Marine Division still faced Kuribayashi's stronghold in a gorge 640 m (700 yd) long at the northwestern end of the island... A weapon heavily used in the Pacific was the United States M2A1 flamethrower... Of the 22,060 Japanese soldiers entrenched on the island, 21,844 died either from fighting or by ritual suicide. Only 216 were captured during the battle. According to the official Navy Department Library website, "The 36-day (Iwo Jima) assault resulted in more than 26,000 American casualties, including 6,800 dead." To put that into context, the 82-day Battle for Okinawa lasted from early April until mid-June 1945 and U.S. (5 Army and 2 Marine Corps Divisions) casualties were over 62,000 of whom over 12,000 were killed or missing ; while the Battle of the Bulge lasted 40 days (16 December 44 -- 25 January 45) with almost 90,000 U.S. casualties; 19,000 killed, 47,500 wounded, and 23,000 captured or missing. Iwo Jima was also the only U.S. Marine battle where the American casualties exceeded the Japanese, although Japanese combat deaths numbered three times as many American deaths... USS Bismarck Sea had also been lost, as the last U.S. aircraft carrier sunk in World War II... After Iwo Jima, it was estimated there were no more than 300 Japanese left alive in the island's warren of caves and tunnels. In fact, there were close to 3,000...
Просмотров: 477658 Jeff Quitney
PreFab Homebuilding from Industry on Parade circa 1954 NAM, Prefabricated Housing
 
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more at http://hardware.quickfound.net/ National Homes Corporation, Lafayette, Indiana, makes the components of a full house every 7 minutes. From the National Association of Manufacturers "Industry on Parade" newsreel. Public domain film from the Prelinger Archive, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prefabricated_building Prefabricated building is a type of building that consists of several factory-built components or units that are assembled on-site to complete the unit... History Buildings have been built in one place and reassembled in another throughout history. Possibly the first advertised prefab house was the Manning Portable Cottage. A London carpenter, Henry Manning, constructed a house that was built in components, then shipped and assembled by British emigrants. This was published at the time (advertisement, South Australian Record, 1837) and a few still stand in Australia. One such is the Friends Meeting House, Adelaide. The peak year for the importation of portable buildings to Australia was 1853, when several hundred arrived. These have been identified as coming from Liverpool, Boston and Singapore (with Chinese instructions for re-assembly). In Barbados the Chattel house was a form of prefabricated building which was developed by emancipated slaves who had limited rights to build upon land they did not own. As the buildings were moveable they were legally regarded as chattels. In 1855 during the Crimean War, after Florence Nightingale wrote a letter to The Times, Isambard Kingdom Brunel was commissioned to design a prefabricated modular hospital. In five months he designed a 1,000 patient hospital, with innovations in sanitation, ventilation and a flushing toilet. Fabricator William Eassie constructed the required 16 units in Gloucester Docks, shipped directly to the Dardanelles. Only used from March 1856 to September 1857, it reduced the death rate from 42% to 3.5%. The world's first prefabricated, pre-cast panelled apartment blocks were pioneered in Liverpool. A process was invented by city engineer John Alexander Brodie, whose inventive genius also had him inventing the football goal net. The tram stables at Walton in Liverpool followed in 1906. The idea was not extensively adopted in Britain, however was widely adopted elsewhere, particularly in Eastern Europe. Prefabricated homes were produced during the Gold Rush in the United States, when kits were produced to enable Californian prospectors to quickly construct accommodation. Homes were available in kit form by mail order in the United States in 1908. Prefabricated housing was popular during World War II due to the need for mass accommodation for military personnel. The United States used Quonset huts as military buildings, and in the United Kingdom prefabricated buildings used included Nissen huts and Bellman Hangars. 'Prefabs' were built after the war as a means of quickly and cheaply providing quality housing as a replacement for the housing destroyed during the war. The proliferation of prefabricated housing across the country was a result of the Burt Committee and the Housing (Temporary Accommodation) Act 1944. Under the Ministry of Works Emergency Factory Made housing programme, a specification was drawn up and bid on by various private construction and manufacturing companies. After approval by the MoW, companies could bid on Council led development schemes, resulting in whole estates of prefabs constructed to provide accommodation for those made homeless by the War and ongoing slum clearance. Almost 160,000 had been built in the UK by 1948 at a cost of close to £216 million. The largest single prefab estate in Britain was at Belle Vale (South Liverpool), where more than 1,100 were built after World War 2. The estate was demolished amid much controversy - the prefabs were very popular with residents - in the mid 1960s. Prefabs were aimed at families, and typically had an entrance hall, two bedrooms (parents and children), a bathroom (a room with a bath) — which was a novel innovation for many British at that time, a separate toilet, a living room and an equipped (not fitted in the modern sense) kitchen. Construction materials included steel, aluminium, timber or asbestos, depending on the type of dwelling. The aluminium Type B2 prefab was produced as four pre-assembled sections which could be transported by lorry anywhere in the country... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prefabricated_home http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manufactured_housing
Просмотров: 21323 Jeff Quitney
Auto Mechanics: Transmissions: "Fluid Coupling Principles of Operation" 1954 US Army 13min
 
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NEW VERSION with improved video & sound: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YKHeqHMye4k more at http://auto-parts.quickfound.net/ "DEMONSTRATION OF FLUID COUPLING WITH THE USE OF A PLASTIC MODEL IN OPERATION AND A TRUCK IN ACTION." Public domain film from the National Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and equalization. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fluid_coupling A fluid coupling is a hydrodynamic device used to transmit rotating mechanical power. It has been used in automobile transmissions as an alternative to a mechanical clutch. It also has widespread application in marine and industrial machine drives, where variable speed operation and/or controlled start-up without shock loading of the power transmission system is essential. History The fluid coupling originates from the work of Dr. Hermann Föttinger, who was the chief designer at the AG Vulcan Works in Stettin. His patents from 1905 covered both fluid couplings and torque converters. In 1930 Harold Sinclair, working with the Daimler company, devised a transmission system using a fluid coupling and planetary gearing for buses in an attempt to mitigate the lurching he had experienced while riding on London buses during the 1920s. In 1939 General Motors Corporation introduced Hydramatic drive, the first fully automatic automotive transmission system installed in a mass produced automobile. The Hydramatic employed a fluid coupling. The first Diesel locomotives using fluid couplings were also produced in the 1930s. Overview A fluid coupling consists of three components, plus the hydraulic fluid: - The housing, also known as the shell (which must have an oil tight seal around the drive shafts), contains the fluid and turbines. - Two turbines (fan like components): - One connected to the input shaft; known as the pump or impellor, primary wheel input turbine - The other connected to the output shaft, known as the turbine, output turbine, secondary wheel or runner The driving turbine, known as the 'pump', (or driving torus[note 1]) is rotated by the prime mover, which is typically an internal combustion engine or electric motor. The impellor's motion imparts both outwards linear and rotational motion to the fluid. The hydraulic fluid is directed by the 'pump' whose shape forces the flow in the direction of the 'output turbine' (or driven torus[note 1]). Here, any difference in the angular velocities of 'input stage' and 'output stage' result in a net force on the 'output turbine' causing a torque; thus causing it to rotate in the same direction as the pump. The motion of the fluid is effectively toroidal - travelling in one direction on paths that can be visualised as being on the surface of a torus: - If there is a difference between input and output angular velocities the motion has a component which is circular (i.e. round the rings formed by sections of the torus) - If the input and output stages have identical angular velocities there is no net centripetal force - and the motion of the fluid is circular and co-axial with the axis of rotation (i.e. round the edges of a torus), there is no flow of fluid from one turbine to the other. Stall speed An important characteristic of a fluid coupling is its stall speed. The stall speed is defined as the highest speed at which the pump can turn when the output turbine is locked and maximum input power is applied. Under stall conditions all of the engine's power would be dissipated in the fluid coupling as heat, possibly leading to damage. Step-circuit coupling A modification to the simple fluid coupling is the step-circuit coupling which was formerly manufactured as the "STC coupling" by the Fluidrive Engineering Company. The STC coupling contains a reservoir to which some, but not all, of the oil gravitates when the output shaft is stalled. This reduces the "drag" on the input shaft, resulting in reduced fuel consumption when idling and a reduction in the vehicle's tendency to "creep". When the output shaft begins to rotate, the oil is thrown out of the reservoir by centrifugal force, and returns to the main body of the coupling, so that normal power transmission is restored. Slip A fluid coupling cannot develop output torque when the input and output angular velocities are identical. Hence a fluid coupling cannot achieve 100 percent power transmission efficiency. Due to slippage that will occur in any fluid coupling under load, some power will always be lost in fluid friction and turbulence, and dissipated as heat. The very best efficiency a fluid coupling can achieve is 94 percent, that is for every 100 revolutions input, there will be 94 revolutions output. Like other fluid dynamical devices, its efficiency tends to increase gradually with increasing scale, as measured by the Reynolds number...
Просмотров: 176417 Jeff Quitney
M114A1 155mm Howitzer Towed from "Weapons of the Field Artillery" 1965 US Army training film
 
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more at http://quickfound.net/links/military_news_and_links.html From US Army training film TF6-3646 Public domain film from the National Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and equalization. NEW VERSION with improved video & sound: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iiS6FNvKNXY http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/M114_155_mm_howitzer The M114 155 mm howitzer was a towed howitzer used by the United States Army. It was first produced in 1942 as a medium artillery piece under the designation of 155 mm Howitzer M1. It saw service with the US Army during World War II, the Korean War, and the Vietnam War, before being replaced by the M198 howitzer. The gun was used by the armed forces of many nations, including Afghanistan, Argentina, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Chile, Republic of China, Croatia, Denmark, Germany, Ecuador, France, Greece, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Italy, Jordan, South Vietnam, South Korea, Lebanon, Libya, Norway, Netherlands, Pakistan, Philippines, Portugal, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Spain, Thailand, Turkey, Venezuela, Vietnam, and Yugoslavia. One hundred sixteen surplus howitzers were sent to Bosnia in 1997. In some countries the M114 still remains in service. Development A new carriage was under development for much of the 1930s for the existing World War I-era M-1918 155 mm howitzer, which was a license-built French Canon de 155 C modèle 1917 Schneider until 1939 when it was realized that it did not seem logical to put a new carriage underneath an obsolete howitzer. So development began anew with a carriage designed to be used for either the 155 mm howitzer or the 4.7-inch (120 mm) gun. This was completed by 15 May 1941 when the Howitzer M1 on the Carriage M1 was standardized. The howitzer itself differed from the older model by a lengthened barrel of 20 calibers and a new breech mechanism. Uniquely it was the sole 'slow-cone' interrupted screw mechanism to enter service after 1920. This meant that two separate movements were necessary to open the breech, versus the single movement of the 'steep cone' mechanism that simultaneously rotated and withdrew the breech. The M1A1 was redesignated as the M114A1 in 1962. Carriage variants The carriage was also used by the 4.5 inch Gun M-1. It went through a number of minor changes over time. The original Warner electric brakes were replaced by Westinghouse air brakes on the M1A1. Both the M1 and M1A1 carriages used a mid-axle firing pedestal that was extended by a ratchet mechanism. The M1A2 replaced the ratchet with a screw-jack system and also modified the traveling lock. The M1A1E1 carriage was intended for use in jungle and muddy terrain and replaced the wheels of the M1A1 with a free-wheeling tracked suspension, but the project was terminated after V-J day without having reached production. The T-9 and T-10 carriages were projects using low-grade steel alloys that were canceled when no longer needed. The T-16 was a light-weight carriage using high-grade steel that was estimated to save some 1,200 lb (540 kg); work began in July 1945 and continued after the war, although nothing seems to have come from it. A mid-1960s variant was the 155mm M123A1 auxiliary-propelled howitzer with an engine, driver's seat, steering wheel, and guide wheel, all fitted on the left trail, allowing it to be more rapidly emplaced when detached from the prime mover. The extra weight on the left trail displaced the howitzer after each round was fired requiring it to be realigned and the project was abandoned. The concept was copied from the Soviet 85mm SD-44 auxiliary-propelled antitank gun developed in 1954 and used by airborne forces. Self-propelled mounts The howitzer was experimentally mounted on a lengthened chassis of the M5 light tank. The resulting vehicle received the designation 155 mm Howitzer Motor Carriage T64. A single prototype was built before the T64 project was abandoned in favor of T64E1, based on the M24 Chaffee light tank chassis. This was eventually adopted as 155mm Howitzer Motor Carriage M41 and saw action in the Korean War.[2] Towards the end of the Korean War the US Army replaced the M41 self propelled howitzer with the M44[3] which used the drive train of the recently introduced M-41 light tank, giving it increased battlefield mobility and gave the 155mm cannon crew some armor protection, even when firing the cannon. The 155mm cannon was a version of the M114 designated the M-45 Howitzer with a modified recoil system that was more compact and put all the cannon under armor except the top and the barrel. The first production models were issued in 1954...
Просмотров: 83445 Jeff Quitney
Shotgun or Sidearm? ~ 1976 Sid Davis Police Training Film; When Should Cops Use Shotguns?
 
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FBI & Police Training playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL1265E0E6B45AC07D Firearms playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL22A5611941174745 more at http://quickfound.net "Most cops get a fair amount of practice with their sidearms. But they don't fire a shotgun very often... and just as important, they don't know when to take the shotgun out of the police car..." Shot in Pasadena, California, with the cooperation of the Pasadena Police Department. Originally a public domain film from the Library of Congress Prelinger Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Riot_shotgun Wikipedia license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ A riot shotgun is a shotgun designed or modified for use as a primarily defensive weapon, by the use of a short barrel and a larger magazine capacity than shotguns marketed for hunting. The riot shotgun is used by military personnel for guard duty and was at one time used for riot control, and is commonly used as a door breaching and patrol weapon by law enforcement personnel, as well as a home defense weapon by private citizens. Guns of this type are often labeled as breaching shotguns, tactical shotguns or special-purpose shotguns to denote the larger scope of their use; however these are largely marketing terms... Characteristics The primary characteristic of a riot shotgun is a "short" barrel (generally 14 to 20" long; 18" is the shortest length available in the U.S. that is not subject to additional federal BATFE regulation, though such restrictions are rarely a problem for police departments and thus shorter-barrel shotguns are not uncommon among police) which makes the shotgun more compact and easier to handle, easier to stow inside a police vehicle, and more suitable for quick aiming at (close) stationary targets. Generally they have an open (cylinder-bore) choke, to permit the shot to spread quickly and to allow use with other types of projectiles, and they may be equipped with bead, rifle, or ghost-ring sights. Riot guns are most often pump-action due to this design's lower cost and higher reliability, although in recent years a number of semi-automatic shotguns designed primarily for defensive use have become available and are used by military, law enforcement and civilians alike. Most riot guns are chambered in 12-gauge and can handle either 2.75" "standard-length" or 3" "magnum" cartridges. Most non-shotshell loads, such as less lethal ammunition like bean bags, are made only in 12-gauge. However, 20-gauge and .410 shotguns in riot gun configuration are available. Smaller bores are popular for home defense, as the reduced power and recoil make them more suitable for less experienced shooters who are recoil-sensitive. While most hunting shotguns hold between 2 and 5 shells (often 3 shells, to comply with U.S. regulations for migratory bird hunting), riot shotguns can have a magazine tube as long as the barrel, allowing for 6 to 10 shells to be loaded depending on the model, barrel length, and type of shells loaded...
Просмотров: 133592 Jeff Quitney
Electronics: Vacuum Tubes (Valves): Triode & Multipurpose Tubes ~ 1943 US Army Training Film TF1-471
 
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OOPS: This video outputs sound on the left speaker only. Fixed version with sound from both speakers here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=igGu-I7Cg6A Electronics playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLAA9B0175C3E15B47 US Army Training Film playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL0C7C6CCF1C0DEBB3 more at http://electronics.quickfound.net/ "Explains basic functions of electronic tubes and shows how each type of tube is used in military applications." US Army Training Film TF 1-471 Public domain film from the Library of Congress Prelinger Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vacuum_tube In electronics, a vacuum tube, electron tube (in North America), or thermionic valve (elsewhere, especially in Britain), reduced to simply "tube" or "valve" in everyday parlance, is a device that relies on the flow of electric current through a vacuum. Vacuum tubes may be used for rectification, amplification, switching, or similar processing or creation of electrical signals. Vacuum tubes rely on thermionic emission of electrons from a hot filament or hot cathode, that then travel through a vacuum toward the anode (commonly called the plate), which is held at a positive voltage relative to the cathode. Additional electrodes interposed between the cathode and anode can alter the current, giving the tube the ability to amplify and switch. Vacuum tubes were critical to the development of electronic technology... In most applications, vacuum tubes have been replaced by solid-state devices such as transistors and other semiconductor devices... However, tubes still find particular uses where solid-state devices have not been developed or are not practical, or where the tube device is regarded as having superior performance over the solid-state equivalent, as can be the case with some devices used in professional audio. Tubes are still produced for such applications and to replace those used in existing equipment such as high-power radio transmitters... Classification Vacuum tubes with two active elements ("diodes") are used for rectification. Ones with 3 or more elements ("triodes", "tetrodes", etc.) are used for amplification, functions which rely on amplification such as oscillators, and switching... The 19th century saw increasing research with evacuated tubes, such as the Geissler and Crookes tubes. Famous scientists who experimented with such tubes included Thomas Edison, Eugen Goldstein, Nikola Tesla, and Johann Wilhelm Hittorf... Although thermionic emission was originally reported in 1873 by Frederick Guthrie, it was Thomas Edison's 1884 investigation that spurred future research, the phenomenon thus becoming known as the "Edison Effect." Edison patented what he found, but he did not understand the underlying physics, nor did he have an inkling of the potential value of the discovery. It wasn't until the early 20th century that the rectifying property of such a device was utilized, most notably by John Ambrose Fleming who used the diode tube to detect (demodulate) radio signals. Lee De Forest's 1906 "audion" was also developed as a radio detector, and soon led to the development of the triode tube. This was essentially the first electronic amplifier, leading to great improvements in telephony... The electronics revolution of the 20th century arguably began with the invention of the triode vacuum tube... ...it was Lee De Forest who in 1907 is credited with inventing the triode tube while continuing experiments to improve his original Audion tube, a crude forerunner of the triode. By placing an additional electrode in between the filament (cathode) and plate (anode), he discovered the ability of the resulting device to amplify signals of all frequencies. As the voltage applied to the so-called control grid (or simply "grid") was lowered from the cathode's voltage to somewhat more negative voltages, the amount of current flowing from the filament to the plate would be reduced. The negative electrostatic field created by the grid in the vicinity of the cathode would inhibit thermionic emission and reduce the current to the plate. Thus a few volts difference at the grid would make a large change in the plate current and could lead to a much larger voltage change at the plate, resulting in voltage and power amplification. In 1907, De Forest filed for a patent for such a three-electrode version of his original Audion tube for use as an electronic amplifier in radio communications. This eventually became known as the triode....
Просмотров: 74581 Jeff Quitney
Toxic Propellant Hazards ~ 1966 NASA KSC; Hydrazine Rocket Fuel & Nitrogen Tetroxide Oxidizer
 
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Chemistry playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL_hX5wLdhf_KyuOalV6rwHjo810Zaa6xq NASA & Space Miscellany playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL_hX5wLdhf_K3mK1TZNCkmdD-JMZYGew1 more at: http://scitech.quickfound.net NASA training film for workers handling hydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide at Kennedy Space Center and other NASA installations. "This NASA safety film demonstrates the dangers of rocket fuels, including hydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide, and instructs workers in their safe handling." Film produced by Technicolor, Inc. NASA film KSC-6. Public domain film from the US National Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypergolic_propellant A hypergolic propellant combination used in a rocket engine is one whose components spontaneously ignite when they come into contact with each other. The two propellant components usually consist of a fuel and an oxidizer. Although commonly used hypergolic propellants are difficult to handle because of their extreme toxicity and/or corrosiveness, they can be stored as liquids at room temperature and hypergolic engines are easy to ignite reliably and repeatedly. In contemporary usage, the terms "hypergol" or "hypergolic propellant" usually mean the most common such propellant combination, dinitrogen tetroxide plus hydrazine and/or its relatives monomethylhydrazine and unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine... History Soviet rocket engine researcher Valentin Glushko experimented with hypergolic fuel as early as 1931. It was initially used for "chemical ignition" of engines, starting kerosene/nitric acid engines with an initial charge of phosphorus dissolved in carbon disulfide. Starting in 1935, Prof. O. Lutz of the German Aeronautical Institute experimented with over 1000 self-igniting propellants. He assisted the Walter Company with the development of C-Stoff which ignited with concentrated hydrogen peroxide... Hypergolic propellants were discovered independently, for the third time, in the U.S. by GALCIT and Navy Annapolis researchers in 1940. They developed engines powered by aniline and nitric acid. Robert Goddard, Reaction Motors and Curtiss-Wright worked on aniline/nitric acid engines in the early 1940s, for small missiles and jet assisted take-off (JATO)... Advantages Hypergolic rockets are usually simple and reliable because they need no ignition system... The most common hypergolic fuels, hydrazine, monomethylhydrazine and unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine, and oxidizer, nitrogen tetroxide, are all liquid at ordinary temperatures and pressures. They are therefore sometimes called storable liquid propellants. They are suitable for use in spacecraft missions lasting many years... Because hypergolic rockets do not need an ignition system, they can fire any number of times by simply opening and closing the propellant valves until the propellants are exhausted and are therefore uniquely suited for spacecraft maneuvering... Disadvantages Relative to their mass, traditional hypergolic propellants are less energetic than such cryogenic propellant combinations as liquid hydrogen / liquid oxygen or liquid methane / liquid oxygen. A launch vehicle that uses hypergolic propellant must therefore carry a greater mass of fuel than one that uses these cryogenic fuels. The corrosivity, toxicity, and carcinogeneity of traditional hypergolics necessitate expensive safety precautions. Hypergolic combinations Common - Aerozine 50 + nitrogen tetroxide (N2O4) – widely used in historical American rockets, including the Titan 2; all engines in the Apollo Lunar Module; and the Service Propulsion System in the Apollo Service Module. Aerozine 50 is a mixture of 50% UDMH and 50% straight hydrazine (N2H4). - Unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) + nitrogen tetroxide (N2O4) – frequently used by the Russians, such as in the Proton (rocket family) and supplied by them to France for the Ariane 1 first and second stages (replaced with UH 25); ISRO PSLV second stage. - UH 25 is a mixture of 25% hydrazine hydrate and 75% UDMH. - Monomethylhydrazine (MMH) + nitrogen tetroxide (NTO) – smaller engines and reaction control thrusters:[citation needed] Apollo Command Module reaction control system; Space Shuttle OMS and RCS; Ariane 5 EPS; Draco thrusters used by the SpaceX Dragon spacecraft. The corrosiveness of nitrogen tetroxide can be reduced by adding several percent nitric oxide (NO), forming mixed oxides of nitrogen (MON)...
Просмотров: 162577 Jeff Quitney
1949 Ford Design and Development: "The Human Bridge" 1949 Ford Motor Company
 
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Automobile Transportation playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL_hX5wLdhf_Ko5IvhQnWzOIJg_yfo2gGR more at http://cars.quickfound.net/ "Traces the birth of the 1949 Ford from the drawing board to the roads of the world, showing different stages of automobile design and manufacturing..." Unfortunately only the first half of this film is available, but it is quite good. Reupload of a previously uploaded film with improved video & sound. Public domain film from the Library of Congress Prelinger Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1949_Ford After sticking with its well-received previous model through model year 1948, Ford completely redesigned its namesake car for 1949. Save for its drivetrain, this was an all-new car in every way, with a modern ladder frame now supporting a coil spring suspension in front and longitudinal semi-elliptical springs in back. The engine was moved forward to make more room in the passenger compartment and the antiquated torque tube was replaced by a modern drive shaft. Ford's popular 226 CID (3.7 L) L-head straight-6 and 239 CID (3.9 L) Flathead V8 remained, now rated at 90 hp (67 kW) and 100 hp (75 kW), respectively. The 1949 models debuted at a gala at the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel in New York City in June 1948, with a carousel of the new Fords complemented by a revolving demonstration of the new chassis. The new integrated steel structure was advertised as a "lifeguard body", and even the woody wagon was steel at heart. The convertible frame had an "X member" for structural rigidity. From a customer's perspective, the old Custom, De Luxe, and Super De Luxe lines were replaced by new Standard and Custom trims and the cars gained a modern look with completely integrated rear fenders and just a hint of a fender in front. The new styling approach was also evident in the 1949 Mercury Eight and the all-new Lincoln Cosmopolitan... 1950 saw a new Crestliner "sports sedan" — a 2-door sedan with 2-tone paint intended to battle Chevrolet's popular hardtop sedans of 1950. Another new name was Country Squire, which referred to the 2-door wood-sided station wagon. All wagons received flat-folding middle seats at mid-year, an innovation that would reappear in the minivans of the 1990s. The 1949 and 1950 styling was similar, with a single central "bullet" in the frowning chrome grille. In the center there was a red space that had either a 6 or 8 depending if the car had the six-cylinder engine or the V8. The trim lines were renamed as well, with "Standard" becoming "Deluxe" and "Custom" renamed "Custom Deluxe". In 1950, Ford also manufactured a lesser known Business Coupe... The 1951 Fords featured an optional Ford-O-Matic automatic transmission for the first time...
Просмотров: 63042 Jeff Quitney
How Car & Truck Axles Work: "It Floats" 1935 Chevrolet Auto Mechanics
 
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more at http://auto-parts.quickfound.net/ Film on Chevy's new improved truck axles for 1936 explains how car axles work in general. Reupload of a previously uploaded film with improved video & sound. Public domain film from the Library of Congress Prelinger Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Axle An axle is a central shaft for a rotating wheel or gear. On wheeled vehicles, the axle may be fixed to the wheels, rotating with them, or fixed to the vehicle, with the wheels rotating around the axle[citation needed]. In the former case, bearings or bushings are provided at the mounting points where the axle is supported. In the latter case, a bearing or bushing sits inside a central hole in the wheel to allow the wheel or gear to rotate around the axle. Sometimes, especially on bicycles, the latter type axle is referred to as a spindle. Terminology On cars and trucks, several senses of the word "axle" occur in casual usage, referring to the shaft itself, its housing, or simply any transverse pair of wheels. Strictly speaking, a shaft which rotates with the wheel, being either bolted or splined in fixed relation to it, is called an "axle" or "axle shaft". However, in looser usage an entire assembly including the surrounding "axle housing" (typically a casting) is also called an "axle". An even broader (somewhat figurative) sense of the word refers to every pair of parallel wheels on opposite sides of the vehicle, regardless of their mechanical connection to each other and to the vehicle frame or body. Thus, transverse pairs of wheels in an independent suspension may be called "an axle" in some contexts. This very loose definition of "axle" is often used in assessing toll roads or vehicle taxes, and is taken as a rough proxy for the overall weight-bearing capacity of a vehicle, and its potential for causing wear or damage to roadway surfaces. Vehicle axles Axles are an integral component of most practical wheeled vehicles. In a live-axle suspension system, the axles serve to transmit driving torque to the wheel, as well as to maintain the position of the wheels relative to each other and to the vehicle body. The axles in this system must also bear the weight of the vehicle plus any cargo. A non-driving axle, such as the front beam axle in heavy duty trucks and some 2-wheel drive light trucks and vans, will have no shaft, and serves only as a suspension and steering component. Conversely, many front wheel drive cars have a solid rear beam axle. In other types of suspension systems, the axles serve only to transmit driving torque to the wheels; the position and angle of the wheel hubs is an independent function of the suspension system. This is typical of the independent suspension found on most newer cars and SUV's, and on the front of many light trucks. These systems still have a differential, but it will not have attached axle housing tubes. It may be attached to the vehicle frame or body, or integral in a transaxle. The axle shafts (usually constant velocity type) then transmit driving torque to the wheels. Like a full floating axle system, the drive shafts in a front wheel drive independent suspension system do not support any vehicle weight...
Просмотров: 203216 Jeff Quitney
How Car Brakes Work: "What Stops Them" 1935 Chevrolet Division General Motors
 
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Auto Mechanics playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLCED11EACAE477F6C more at http://auto-parts.quickfound.net Drum brakes: "A CLEAR EXPLANATION OF HYDRAULIC BRAKES AND OF THEIR USE ON THE MODERN MOTORCAR." also see: Drum Brakes, Principles of Operation, US Army, 1983 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n20sTZggvYc NEW VERSION with improved video & sound: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iLpQgOfPTP4 Public domain film from the Prelinger Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drum_brake A drum brake is a brake that uses friction caused by a set of shoes or pads that press against a rotating drum-shaped part called a brake drum. The term drum brake usually means a brake in which shoes press on the inner surface of the drum. When shoes press on the outside of the drum, it is usually called a clasp brake. Where the drum is pinched between two shoes, similar to a conventional disc brake, it is sometimes called a pinch drum brake, though such brakes are relatively rare. A related type called a band brake uses a flexible belt or "band" wrapping around the outside of a drum... History The modern automobile drum brake was invented in 1902 by Louis Renault. He used woven asbestos lining for the drum brakes lining, as no alternative dissipated heat like the asbestos lining, though Maybach has used a less sophisticated drum brake. In the first drum brakes, levers and rods or cables operated the shoes mechanically. From the mid-1930s, oil pressure in a small wheel cylinder and pistons (as in the picture) operated the brakes, though some vehicles continued with purely mechanical systems for decades. Some designs have two wheel cylinders. The shoes in drum brakes wear thinner, and brakes required regular adjustment until the introduction of self-adjusting drum brakes in the 1950s. In the 1960s and 1970s, disc brakes gradually replaced drum brakes on the front wheels of cars. Now practically all cars use disc brakes on the front wheels, and many use disc brakes on all wheels. However, drum brakes are still often used for handbrakes, as it has proven very difficult to design a disc brake suitable for holding a parked car. Moreover, it is very easy to fit a drum handbrake inside a disc brake so that one unit serves as both service brake and handbrake. Early brake shoes contained asbestos. When working on brake systems of older cars, care must be taken not to inhale any dust present in the brake assembly. The United States Federal Government began to regulate asbestos production, and brake manufacturers had to switch to non-asbestos linings. Owners initially complained of poor braking with the replacements; however, technology eventually advanced to compensate. A majority of daily-driven older vehicles have been fitted with asbestos-free linings. Many other countries also limit the use of asbestos in brakes. Components Drum brake components include the backing plate, brake drum, shoe, wheel cylinder, and various springs and pins. Backing plate The backing plate provides a base for the other components. It attaches to the axle sleeve and provides a non-rotating rigid mounting surface for the wheel cylinder, brake shoes, and assorted hardware... Brake drum The brake drum is generally made of a special type of cast iron that is heat-conductive and wear-resistant. It rotates with the wheel and axle. When a driver applies the brakes, the lining pushes radially against the inner surface of the drum, and the ensuing friction slows or stops rotation of the wheel and axle, and thus the vehicle. This friction generates substantial heat. Wheel cylinder One wheel cylinder operates the brake on each wheel. Two pistons operate the shoes, one at each end of the wheel cylinder. Hydraulic pressure from the master cylinder acts on the piston cup, pushing the pistons toward the shoes, forcing them against the drum. When the driver releases the brakes, the brake shoe springs restore the shoes to their original (disengaged) position... Brake shoe Brake shoes are typically made of two pieces of sheet steel welded together. The friction material is either riveted to the lining table or attached with adhesive. The crescent-shaped piece is called the Web and contains holes and slots in different shapes for return springs, hold-down hardware, parking brake linkage and self-adjusting components. All the application force of the wheel cylinder is applied through the web to the lining table and brake lining...
Просмотров: 45483 Jeff Quitney
1950 Chevy Body by Fisher: "The Inside Story" 1950 Chevrolet Division, General Motors
 
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Auto Mechanics playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLCED11EACAE477F6C more at http://cars.quickfound.net/ "Includes: 1950 Chevrolet assembly line footage (EXCELLENT)..." Reupload of a previously uploaded film with improved video & sound. Public domain film from the Library of Congress Prelinger Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chevrolet_Bel_Air The Chevrolet Bel Air is a full-size automobile that was produced by the Chevrolet division of General Motors for the 1950--1975 model years. Hardtops in the Chevrolet Deluxe Styleline model range were designated with the Bel Air name from 1950 to 1952, but it was not a distinct series of its own until the 1953 model year. Bel Air production continued in Canada for its home market only through the 1981 model year. In 1950, Chevrolet came up with a revolutionary style that would set a pattern for decades. The Bel Air Hardtop (on the DeLuxe line) was styled as a convertible with a non-detachable solid roof. Models like this had been around since the 1920s, including early Chevrolets, with no degree of success. But the newly revised idea, sweeping the GM line from Chevrolet to Cadillac, had finally found its era. First year production reached only 76,662 as buyers cautiously tested the revised concept. The car cost $1,741 and weighed 3,225 lb (1,463 kg). Front suspension was independent, named "knee-action" In 1953 Chevrolet renamed its series and the Bel Air name was applied to the premium model range. Two lower series, the 150 and 210, also emerged. The 1953 Chevrolet was advertised as "Entirely new through and through," due to the restyled body panels, front and rear ends. However, essentially these Chevrolets had the same frame and mechanicals as the 1949-52 cars. The Bel Air series featured a wide chrome strip of molding from the rear fender bulge, to the rear bumper. The inside of this stripe was painted a coordinating color with the outside body color, and "Bel Air" scripts were added inside the strip. Lesser models had no model designation anywhere on the car, only having a Chevy crest on the hood and trunk. 1953 was the first year for a curved, one-piece windshield. Bel Air interiors had a massive expanse of chrome across the lower part of the dashboard, along with a de luxe Bel Air steering wheel with full chrome horn ring. Carpeting and full wheel covers rounded out Bel Air standard equipment. For 1954, the Bel Air stayed essentially the same, except for a revised grille and taillights. During these years, there were two engine choices, depending on the transmission ordered. Both engines were "Blue Flame" inline six cylinder OHV engines, featuring hydraulic valve lifters and aluminum pistons. The 115 hp (86 kW) engine was standard on stickshift models, with solid lifters and splash plus pressure lubrication. Powerglide cars got a 125 hp (93 kW) version which had hydraulic lifters and full pressure lubrication. In 1953-54, Bel Airs could be ordered in convertible, hardtop coupe, 2- and 4-door sedans, and, for 1954, the Beauville station wagon which featured woodgrain trim around the side windows. Power steering was optional for 1953; 1954 added power brakes, power seat positioner and power front windows. 1954 cars with stick shift used the 1953 Powerglide engine...
Просмотров: 34819 Jeff Quitney
Minting Coins at the Philadelphia Mint: "How They Make Money" circa 1940 10min
 
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more at http://money.quickfound.net/ Excellent account of the minting of US coins at Philadelphia. Truncated, but the coining process is intact. 'U.S. Mint scales. engraving, etc. medals and coin samples diemaking die hardening ingots of metal melting metal in foundry furnaces making pigs and rolling sheet metal planchets being cleaned pennies being pressed in CU row of women inspecting coins and smoothing them, removing bad ones men running counting and bagging machines montage of coins and money at end, incomplete, ends early' NEW VERSION with improved video & sound: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V4B79VE-7Rc Public domain film from the Library of Congress Prelinger Archive, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philadelphia_Mint ...The third Philadelphia Mint was built at 1700 Spring Garden Street and opened in 1901. It was designed by James Knox Taylor. It was a block from the United States Smelting Company was at Broad and Spring Garden Streets. In one year alone the mint produced 501,000,000 coins (5/7 of the U.S. currency minted) as well as 90,000,000 coins for foreign countries. A massive structure nearly a full city block, it was an instant landmark. Characterized by a Roman temple facade, visitors enjoyed seven themed glass mosaics designed by Louis C. Tiffany in a gold-backed vaulted ceiling. The mosaics depicted ancient Roman coin making methods. This mint still stands intact with much of the interior as well. It was acquired by the Community College of Philadelphia in 1973... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mint_(coin) ...In the beginning, hammered coinage or cast coinage were the chief means of coin minting, with resulting production runs numbering as little as the hundreds or thousands. In modern mints, coin dies are manufactured in large numbers and planchets are made into milled coins by the billions. With the mass production of currency, the production cost is weighed when minting coins. For example, it costs the United States Mint much less than 25 cents to make a quarter, and the difference in production cost and face value (called seigniorage) helps fund the minting body... Around 1550 the German silversmith Marx Schwab invented coining with the screw press. Henry II of France (reign 1547-1559) imported the new machines: rolling mill, punch and screw press. 8 to 12 men took over from each other every quarter of an hour to maneuver the arms driving the screw which struck the medals. Henry II came up against hostility on the part of the coin makers, so the process was only to be used for coins of small value, medals and tokens. In 1645 it came into general use for minting coins. Coining by lever press Between 1817 and 1830 the German engineer Dietrich "Diedrich" Uhlhorn invented the Presse Monétaire (level coin press known as Uhlhorn Press) which bears his name. Uhlhorn invented a new type of minting press (steam driven knuckle-lever press) that made him internationally famous... The advanced construction of the Uhlhorn press proved to be highly satisfactory, and the use of the screw press for general coinage was gradually eliminated...
Просмотров: 118304 Jeff Quitney
84 mph Truck Crash into 690 Ton Concrete Block: Nuclear Waste Cask Crash Tests 1978 DOE Sandia
 
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Nuclear & Radioactive playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL4CD7F0970A5F16AB more at: http://scitech.quickfound.net Radioactive waste transportation safety tests conducted by Sandia National Laboratories in 1977 and 1978. A truck carrying a 22 ton nuclear waste flask (aka cask) crashes head on into a 690 ton concrete block at 60 miles per hour. After cleanup, the same cask is impacted into the block at 84 miles per hour. 3rd test: a locomotive crashes into a truck holding a 25 ton radioactive waste cask at 81 miles per hour. Final test: a 74 ton nuclear waste cask aboard a cask rail car impacts the concrete block at 81 mph, then is burned by a pool of jet fuel for 90 minutes, during which temps exceeded 1400 degrees F. What is not mentioned is the possibility of a nuclear waste cask truck impacting another truck traveling at 60+ mph in the opposite direction making the combined velocity 120+ mph. Public domain film slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_flask A nuclear flask is a shipping container that is used to transport active nuclear materials between nuclear power station and spent fuel reprocessing facilities. Each shipping container is designed to maintain its integrity under normal transportation conditions and during hypothetical accident conditions. They must protect their contents against damage from the outside world, such as impact or fire. They must also contain their contents from leakage, both for physical leakage and for radiological shielding. Spent nuclear fuel shipping casks are used to transport spent nuclear fuel used in nuclear power plants and research reactors to disposal sites such as the nuclear reprocessing center at COGEMA La Hague site... In the United States, the acceptability of the design of each cask is judged against Title 10, Part 71, of the Code of Federal Regulations (other nations' shipping casks, possibly excluding Russia's, are designed and tested to similar standards (International Atomic Energy Agency "Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material" No. TS-R-1)). The designs must demonstrate (possibly by computer modelling) protection against radiological release to the environment under all four of the following hypothetical accident conditions, designed to encompass 99% of all accidents: - A 9-meter (30 ft) free fall onto an unyielding surface - A puncture test allowing the container to free-fall 1 meter (about 39 inches) onto a steel rod 15 centimeters (about 6 inches) in diameter - A 30-minute, all-engulfing fire at 800 degrees Celsius (1475 degrees Fahrenheit) - An 8-hour immersion under 0.9 meter (3 ft) of water. - Further, an undamaged package must be subjected to a one-hour immersion under 200 meters (655 ft) of water. In addition, between 1975 and 1977 Sandia National Laboratories conducted full-scale crash tests on spent nuclear fuel shipping casks. Although the casks were damaged, none would have leaked... Since 1965, approximately 3,000 shipments of spent nuclear fuel have been transported safely over the U.S.'s highways, waterways, and railroads. Baltimore train tunnel fire On July 18, 2001, a freight train carrying hazardous (non-nuclear) materials derailed and caught fire while passing through the Howard Street railroad tunnel in downtown Baltimore, Maryland, United States. The fire burned for 3 days, with temperatures as high as 1000 °C (1800 °F). Since the casks are designed for a 30-minute fire at 800 °C (1475 °F), several reports have been made regarding the inability of the casks to survive... State of Nevada The State of Nevada, USA, released a report entitled, "Implications of the Baltimore Rail Tunnel Fire for Full-Scale Testing of Shipping Casks" on February 25, 2003. In the report, they said a hypothetical spent nuclear fuel accident based on the Baltimore fire: - "Concluded steel-lead-steel cask would have failed after 6.3 hours; monolithic steel cask would have failed after 11-12.5 hours." - "Contaminated Area: 32 square miles (82 km2)" - "Latent cancer fatalities: 4,000-28,000 over 50 years (200-1,400 during first year)" - "Cleanup cost: $13.7 Billion (2001 Dollars)"...
Просмотров: 441575 Jeff Quitney
Supermarket Checkers: "The Front Line" 1965 Reader's Digest; Grocery Store Cashier Training
 
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Food & Beverage playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL12ED9F0F94A97DA0 more at http://food.quickfound.net "How to be an effective supermarket checker." Features former "International Checker of the Year" champions. Presented by Reader's Digest in cooperation with Super Market Institute. Public domain film from the Library of Congress Prelinger Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supermarket A supermarket, a large form of the traditional grocery store, is a self-service shop offering a wide variety of food and household products, organized into aisles. It is larger and has a wider selection than a traditional grocery store, but is smaller and more limited in the range of merchandise than a hypermarket or big-box market. The supermarket typically comprises meat, fresh produce, dairy, and baked goods aisles, along with shelf space reserved for canned and packaged goods as well as for various non-food items such as kitchenware, household cleaners, pharmacy products and pet supplies... In the early days of retailing, all products generally were fetched by an assistant from shelves behind the merchant's counter while customers waited in front of the counter and indicated the items they wanted. Also, most foods and merchandise did not come in individually wrapped consumer-sized packages, so an assistant had to measure out and wrap the precise amount desired by the consumer. This also offered opportunities for social interaction: many regarded this style of shopping as "a social occasion" and would often "pause for conversations with the staff or other customers." These practices were by nature very labor-intensive and therefore also quite expensive. The shopping process was slow, as the number of customers who could be attended to at one time was limited by the number of staff employed in the store. Shopping for groceries also often involved trips to multiple specialty shops, such as a greengrocer, butcher, bakery, fishmonger and dry goods store, in addition to a general store, while milk was delivered by a milkman. The concept of an inexpensive food market relying on large economies of scale was developed by Vincent Astor. He founded the Astor Market in 1915, investing $750,000 ($18 million in 2015 currency) of his fortune into a 165' by 125' corner of 95th and Broadway, Manhattan, creating, in effect, an open air mini-mall that sold meat, fruit, produce and flowers. The expectation was that customers would come from great distances ("miles around"), but in the end even attracting people from ten blocks away was difficult, and the market folded in 1917. The concept of a self-service grocery store was developed by entrepreneur Clarence Saunders and his Piggly Wiggly stores. His first store opened in 1916. Saunders was awarded a number of patents for the ideas he incorporated into his stores. The stores were a financial success and Saunders began to offer franchises. The Great Atlantic & Pacific Tea Company, which was established in 1859, was another successful early grocery store chain in Canada and the United States, and became common in North American cities in the 1920s. The general trend in since then has been to stock shelves at night so that customers, the following day, can obtain their own goods and bring them to the front of the store to pay for them. Although there is a higher risk of shoplifting, the costs of appropriate security measures ideally will be outweighed by reduced labor costs. Early self-service grocery stores did not sell fresh meats or produce. Combination stores that sold perishable items were developed in the 1920s. Historically, there was debate about the origin of the supermarket, with King Kullen and Ralphs of California having strong claims... It has been determined that the first true supermarket in the United States was opened by a former Kroger employee, Michael J. Cullen, on 4 August 1930, inside a 6,000-square-foot (560 m2) former garage in Jamaica, Queens in New York City. The store, King Kullen, operated under the slogan "Pile it high. Sell it low." At the time of Cullen's death in 1936, there were seventeen King Kullen stores in operation. Although Saunders had brought the world self-service, uniform stores and nationwide marketing, Cullen built on this idea by adding separate food departments, selling large volumes of food at discount prices and adding a parking lot...
Просмотров: 73760 Jeff Quitney
H-Bomb Armed B-52 Crash Cleanup in Greenland: "Crested Ice" 1968 USAF Strategic Air Command
 
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Nuclear weapons playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL4CD7F0970A5F16AB "STRATEGIC AIR COMMAND SEMIANNUAL FILM REPORT... CRESTED ICE PROJECT..." From US Air Force Strategic Air Command Film Report FR-818 Public domain film from the US National Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1968_Thule_Air_Base_B-52_crash On 21 January 1968, an aircraft accident (sometimes known as the Thule affair or Thule accident (/ˈtuːli/); Danish: Thuleulykken) involving a United States Air Force (USAF) B-52 bomber occurred near Thule Air Base in the Danish territory of Greenland. The aircraft was carrying four hydrogen bombs on a Cold War "Chrome Dome" alert mission over Baffin Bay when a cabin fire forced the crew to abandon the aircraft before they could carry out an emergency landing at Thule Air Base. Six crew members ejected safely, but one who did not have an ejection seat was killed while trying to bail out. The bomber crashed onto sea ice in North Star Bay, Greenland, causing the conventional explosives aboard to detonate and the nuclear payload to rupture and disperse, which resulted in radioactive contamination. The United States and Denmark launched an intensive clean-up and recovery operation, but the secondary stage of one of the nuclear weapons could not be accounted for after the operation completed. USAF Strategic Air Command "Chrome Dome" operations were discontinued immediately after the accident, which highlighted the safety and political risks of the missions. Safety procedures were reviewed and more stable explosives were developed for use in nuclear weapons. ...Workers involved in the clean-up program have been campaigning for compensation for radiation-related illnesses they experienced in the years after the accident... In 1960, the USAF Strategic Air Command (SAC) began Operation Chrome Dome, a Cold War airborne alert program devised by General Thomas S. Power to fly nuclear-armed B-52 Stratofortresses to the borders of the Soviet Union. The flights were scheduled to ensure that twelve bombers were aloft at all times... Beginning in 1961, B-52 bombers also flew secret "Hard Head" missions (or "Thule Monitor Missions") over Thule Air Base with the purpose of maintaining visual surveillance of the base's strategically important Ballistic Missile Early Warning System (BMEWS)... On 21 January 1968, a B-52G Stratofortress, serial number 58-0188, with the callsign "HOBO 28" from the 380th Strategic Bomb Wing at Plattsburgh Air Force Base, New York was assigned the "Hard Head" mission over Thule and nearby Baffin Bay... At 15:22 EST, about six hours into the flight and 90 miles (140 km) south of Thule Air Base, Haug declared an emergency. He told Thule air traffic control that he had a fire on board... ...the captain realized he would not be able to land the aircraft... and when he confirmed that the aircraft was directly over the lights of Thule Air Base, the... crewmen ejected... The pilotless aircraft initially continued north, then turned left through 180° and crashed onto sea ice in North Star Bay at a relatively shallow angle of 20 degrees—about 7.5 miles (12.1 km) west of Thule Air Base—at 15:39 EST. The conventional high explosive (HE) components of four 1.1 megaton B28FI model hydrogen bombs detonated on impact, spreading radioactive material over a large area in a manner similar to a dirty bomb. "Weak links" in the weapon design ensured that a nuclear explosion was not triggered. The extreme heat generated by the burning of 225,000 pounds (102 t) of jet fuel during the five to six hours after the crash melted the ice sheet, causing wreckage and munitions to sink to the ocean floor... The accident was designated a "Broken Arrow"—a United States military term that describes an accident involving a nuclear weapon... Project Crested Ice South of the impact area, a 400-foot (120 m) by 2,200-foot (670 m) blackened patch was visible where fuel from the aircraft had burned—this area was highly contaminated with JP-4 aviation fuel and radioactive elements that included plutonium, uranium, americium and tritium. Plutonium levels as high as 380 mg/m2 were registered in the area... By the time the operation concluded, 700 specialized personnel from both countries and more than 70 United States government agencies had worked for nine months to clean up the site, often without adequate protective clothing or decontamination measures... Project Crested Ice ended on 13 September 1968...
Просмотров: 27990 Jeff Quitney
Logging Giant Redwood Trees: "Redwood Saga" 1946; How Trees Were Logged in Northern California
 
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Forestry, Logging, Wood, Lumber, Sawmills, Lumberjacks... playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL_hX5wLdhf_ItHl6u0oUCHbUyb7KlUpup Biosphere - Plants & Animals playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL1FCE267E4A977761 more at http://scitech.quickfound.net/environment/environment_news.html "Cutting, loading, transportation, mill sawing and finishing operations of the Northern California's redwood lumber industry." Reupload of a previously uploaded film with improved video & sound. Public domain film from the Library of Congress Prelinger Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Logging_in_the_Sierra_Nevada Logging in the Californian Sierra Nevada arose from the need to support growing communities in the area. The Gold Rush created a high demand for timber to build housing, for mining procedures, and especially to build railroads. In these days use was unregulated and in the first 20 years after the rush, a third of the timber in the Sierra Nevada was logged . Concern for the forests created a movement towards conservation at the turn of the 19th century creating state and national parks (Yosemite, Sequoia and Grant Grove) and forest reserves. The Sierra Club, a non-governmental organization (NGO), was founded around this time by the famous preservationist John Muir. Between 1900 and 1940 agencies like the U.S. Forest Service and The National Park Service regulated the use of the Sierra Nevada's resources. The economy boom after World War II dramatically increased timber production in the Sierras using clear-cutting as the dominant form of logging. Methods One method of logging is clear-cutting, removing all trees from a tract of land, which has caused major disturbances in the Sierra Nevada environment leaving patches of densely packed, single-specie, same-aged, tree plantations among the diverse old growth forest. Low-impact logging meets current needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. This typically means smaller periodic harvests and removing the worst trees to eliminate danger to high value trees... Environmental effects Logging practices have altered the majority of the native forests, transforming them into simplified forests of same-aged trees with a reduced ecological resilience[citation needed]. These disturbed stands are especially prone to catastrophic fire and mortality due to beetle infestation and disease. It has also caused fragmentation and increased edge effect, along with releasing pesticides and chemicals into the water and land. In the Sierra's there are 218 endemic plant species that are considered rare or threatened, and three plant species are believed to be extinct. Sixty-nine terrestrial vertebrate species are considered at risk by government agencies... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Logging http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sequoia_sempervirens Sequoia sempervirens is the sole living species of the genus Sequoia in the cypress family Cupressaceae (formerly treated in Taxodiaceae). Common names include coast redwood, California redwood, and giant redwood. It is an evergreen, long-lived, monoecious tree living 1200--1800 years or more. This species includes the tallest trees on Earth, reaching up to 379 feet (115.5 m) in height (without the roots) and up to 26 feet (7.9 m) in diameter at breast height. Before commercial logging and clearing began by the 1850s, this massive tree occurred naturally in an estimated 2,100,000 acres (8,500 km2) along much of coastal California (excluding southern California where rainfall is not sufficient) and the southwestern corner of coastal Oregon within the United States. It is estimated that more than 95% of the original old-growth redwood forest has been cut down, due to its excellent properties for use as lumber in construction. The name sequoia sometimes refers to the subfamily Sequoioideae, which includes S. sempervirens along with Sequoiadendron (giant sequoia) and Metasequoia (dawn redwood). On its own, the term redwood usually refers to the coast redwood, which is covered in this article, and not to the other two species... Although coast redwoods are currently the world's tallest trees, it is possible that Australian mountain ash and Douglas-fir trees were taller—exceeding 400 feet (120 m)—before the commercial logging of the 19th and 20th centuries... There is fairly solid evidence that before logging, coast redwoods were the world's largest trees, with specimens measured at over 55,000 cubic feet (1,600 m3) (660,000 board feet)...
Просмотров: 20999 Jeff Quitney
Gear Shift "Vacuum Control" 1938 Chevrolet Division, General Motors
 
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more at http://auto-parts.quickfound.net/ "AN EXPLANATION OF THE PRINCIPLE OF THE NEW VACUUM GEARSHIFT, AND HOW IT CONTRIBUTES TO COMFORT, EASE OF DRIVING, & SAFETY." Reupload of a previously uploaded film with improved video & sound. Public domain film from the Library of Congress Prelinger Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). 1938 Chevrolet Specifications for Passenger Cars: http://chevy.oldcarmanualproject.com/chevyresto/38specs00.htm http://auto.howstuffworks.com/1938-chevrolet-master-and-master-deluxe.htm The 1938 Chevrolet Master and Master DeLuxe were saddled with the unimaginative advertising slogan "The Car that is Complete." It was a year of refinement, for only minor modifications differentiated the 1938 Chevys from their 1937 counterparts. The 1938 Chevrolet Master and Master DeLuxe did get a smart new grille designed by Franklin Q. Hershey, a recent arrival from Pontiac. It featured horizontal, rather than vertical bars. Otherwise, styling was unchanged. The engine was fitted with heavier valve springs, and the rear tread was widened by two inches, presumably for greater stability. Once again, the Chevrolet Master and Master DeLuxe offered 12 models, six in the Master series and six in the Master DeLuxe. Coach and sedan sales very nearly fell off the charts, as buyers defected to the Town Sedan and Sport Sedan models, both offering the convenience of built-in trunks for just a few extra dollars. Prices were raised by as much as 41/2 percent, which may have been a tactical error; the nation's economy was in the grip of a severe recession and sales plummeted by about 43.5 percent. Even so, Chevrolet was able to increase its lead over Ford...
Просмотров: 125349 Jeff Quitney
Motion Picture Persistence of Vision: "How You See It" 1936 Chevrolet 8min
 
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more at http://showbiz.quickfound.net/ "How persistence of vision makes motion pictures possible." NEW VERSION with improved video & sound: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-pHXsSEaQ10 Public domain film from the Library of Congress Prelinger Archive, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Persistence_of_vision Persistence of vision is the phenomenon of the eye by which an afterimage is thought to persist for approximately one twenty-fifth of a second on the retina. The myth of persistence of vision is the belief that human perception of motion (brain centered) is the result of persistence of vision (eye centred). The myth was debunked in 1912 by Wertheimer but persists in many citations in many classic and modern film-theory texts. A more plausible theory to explain motion perception (at least on a descriptive level) are two distinct perceptual illusions: phi phenomenon and beta movement. A visual form of memory known as iconic memory has been described as the cause of this phenomenon. Although psychologists and physiologists have rejected the relevance of this theory to film viewership, film academics and theorists generally have not. Some scientists nowadays consider the entire theory a myth. In contrasting persistence of vision theory with phi phenomena, a critical part of understanding that emerges with these visual perception phenomena is that the eye is not a camera. In other words vision is not as simple as light registering on a medium, since the brain has to make sense of the visual data the eye provides and construct a coherent picture of reality. Joseph Anderson and Barbara Fisher argue that the phi phenomena privileges a more constructionist approach to the cinema (David Bordwell, Noël Carroll, Kirsten Thompson), whereas the persistence of vision privileges a realist approach (André Bazin, Christian Metz, Jean-Louis Baudry). The discovery of persistence of vision is attributed to the Roman poet Lucretius, although he only mentions it in connection with images seen in a dream. In the modern era, some stroboscopic experiments performed by Peter Mark Roget in 1824 were also cited as the basis for the theory. Film systems Persistence of vision is still the accepted term for this phenomenon in the realm of cinema history and theory. In the early days of film innovation, it was scientifically determined that a frame rate of less than 16 frames per second (frame/s) caused the mind to see flashing images. Audiences still interpret motion at rates as low as ten frames per second or slower (as in a flipbook), but the flicker caused by the shutter of a film projector is distracting below the 16-frame threshold. Modern theatrical film runs at 24 frames a second. This is the case for both physical film and digital cinema systems. It is important to distinguish between the frame rate and the flicker rate, which are not necessarily the same. In physical film systems, it is necessary to pull down the film frame, and this pulling-down needs to be obscured by a shutter to avoid the appearance of blurring; therefore, there needs to be at least one flicker per frame in film. To reduce the appearance of flicker, virtually all modern projector shutters are designed to add additional flicker periods, typically doubling the flicker rate to 48 Hz (single-bladed shutters make two rotations per frame -- double-bladed shutters make one rotation per frame), which is less visible. (Some three-bladed projector shutters even triple it to 72 Hz.) In digital film systems, the scan rate may be decoupled from the image update rate. In some systems, such as the Digital Light Processing (DLP) system, there is no flying spot or raster scan at all, so there is no flicker other than that generated by the temporal aliasing of the film image capture. The new film system MaxiVision 48 films at 48 frames per second, which, according to film critic Roger Ebert, offers even a strobeless tracking shot past picket fences. The lack of strobe (as opposed to flicker) is due to the higher sampling rate of the camera relative to the speed of movement of the image across the film plane. This ultra-smooth imaging is called High motion. It is critical for sports and motion simulation, but unpopular for drama...
Просмотров: 54245 Jeff Quitney
San Luis Obispo California Travel: "Roads to Romance"1949 Chevrolet
 
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more at http://travel.quickfound.net/ "Travelogue, made for theatrical showing and commissioned by Chevrolet, promoting tourism by car..." NEW VERSION with improved video & sound: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AaBHd7i4KoE Public domain film from the Library of Congress Prelinger Archive, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and equalization. http://www.sanluisobispocounty.com/visitors/ca-central-coast-towns/ For 80 centuries, San Luis Obispo County was the heart of the Chumash Indian country. They must have lived a pleasant life - mild climate, abundant seafood, and natural hot springs to soak in. The Chumash had a rich culture and were excellent craftspeople and artists. By 1769 the Europeans had arrived under the command of Gaspar de Portola of Spain. With Portola came the Franciscan friars to begin founding the California missions and by 1772, Mission San Luis Obispo de Tolosa was established. North of San Luis Obispo along the El Camino Real trail, the 16th of 21 missions, Mission San Miguel Arcangel was built in 1797. Following the independence of Mexico and the secularization of the missions, the central coast entered the period of the rancheros from which many names of towns and places are derived. San Luis Obispo was claimed for the United States in 1846 by General Fremont. Four years later, California was admitted to the United States, and San Luis Obispo became one of the original counties. San Luis Obispo County and its cities are a major tourist destination. Just a FEW of the attractions that draw visitors are: great beaches, growing wine industry (now the third largest wine producing region in California), and historical treasures (including Mission San Luis Obispo, Mission San Miguel, and world-famous Hearst Castle). Outdoor pastimes are of course popular: ATV'ing, biking, boating, fishing, golf, hiking, kayaking to name just a few. San Luis Obispo County is also a cultural mecca. With a major university and a large prosperous population base - and large numbers of visitors - the county is host to many theaters, plays, concerts, art galleries and other cultural amenities. The cities in the county host many art fairs - many of course also serving wine - and live theare perfomances. The world famous "Festival Mozaic" has ocurred annually for 40 years. Cal Poly's "Performing Arts Center" is the largest performance venue between Los Angeles and San Francisco, and hosts a year - round schedule of touring professional theater and musical companies. Most cities also host FREE weekly concerts during the summer, with top local rock, salsa, C&W bands performing. Bring a picnic, but a glass of wine put on your dancing shoes and kick-back with the locals. Presently, over 238,974 residents enjoy our central coast location. Agriculture, state institutions, tourism and recreation make up the principal economic background. With the ocean and mountains, the Spanish and historical flavor, the friendly climate and the relative freedom from urban hassles, San Luis Obispo County is a good place to call home - AND to visit.
Просмотров: 15676 Jeff Quitney
F-111 Crew Escape Module Development Report ~ 1965 US Air Force-McDonnell-General Dynamics
 
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Aircraft playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL23A1203602337689 more at http://scitech.quickfound.net/ Subcontractor (McDonnell) report on the development and testing of the Crew Escape Module for the General Dynamics F-111 Aardvark. Instead of ejection seats, the entire cockpit was ejected from the aircraft as an escape capsule. Originally a public domain film, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/General_Dynamics_F-111_Aardvark Wikipedia license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ The General Dynamics F-111 "Aardvark" was a medium-range... tactical strike aircraft that also filled the roles of strategic bomber, reconnaissance, and electronic warfare in its various versions. Developed in the 1960s by General Dynamics, it first entered service in 1967 with the United States Air Force. The Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) also ordered the type and began operating F-111Cs in 1973. The F-111 pioneered several technologies for production aircraft, including variable-sweep wings, afterburning turbofan engines, and automated terrain-following radar for low-level, high-speed flight... USAF F-111 variants were retired in the 1990s, with the F-111Fs in 1996 and EF-111s in 1998... The RAAF was the last operator of the F-111, with its aircraft serving until December 2010... Tactical Fighter Experimental (TFX) The U.S. Air Force and Navy were both seeking new aircraft when Robert McNamara was appointed U.S. Secretary of Defense in January 1961... On 14 February 1961, McNamara formally directed the services to study the development of a single aircraft that would satisfy both requirements... Design phase The F-111A and B variants used the same airframe structural components and TF30-P-1 turbofan engines. They featured side by side crew seating in an escape capsule as required by the Navy... The F-111B was canceled by the Navy in 1968... [the Navy developed the F-14 Tomcat instead]... Production ended in 1976 after 563 F-111 aircraft were built... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Escape_crew_capsule An escape crew capsule allows a pilot (or astronaut) to escape from their craft while it is subjected to extreme conditions such as high speed or altitude... - The B-58 Hustler and XB-70 Valkyrie had individual encapsulated seats. A cabin ejection for the XB-70 Valkyrie was also tested. The B-58's capsule had control stick, a bottle of oxygen, and a drogue chute. - The F-111 used cabin ejection where both side-by-side seats were in a single 3000 lb (1360 kg) capsule. - Three of the four B-1A prototypes also used cabin ejection. They had a single capsule "roughly the size of a mini-van" for all four crew members. Design and development The first escape capsule designed was for the U.S. Navy F4D Skyray. It was tested in 1951-52 but was never installed in the aircraft. The Bell X-2, designed for flight in excess of Mach 3, could jettison the cockpit, though the pilot would still have to jump out and descend under his own parachute. The first production aircraft with an escape crew capsule was the Mach 2 B-58 Hustler... The Mach 3 XB-70's two crew escape capsules did not work well the only time they were needed. On June 8, 1966, XB-70 airframe AV/2 was involved in a mid-air crash with an F-104 Starfighter. Maj. Carl Cross's seat was unable to retract backwards into the escape capsule due to high-g-forces as the plane spiraled downwards. He died in the crash. Maj. Al White's seat did retract but his elbow protruded from the capsule and blocked the closing clamshell doors. He struggled to free his trapped elbow. As soon as he freed the doors, he was ejected from the plane and descended by parachute as planned. However, due to pain and confusion, White failed to trigger the manually activated airbag which would normally cushion the capsule upon landing. When the capsule hit the ground, White was subjected to an estimated 33 to 44 g (320 to 430 m/s²). He received serious injuries, but nevertheless survived... In the 1960s and 1970s, the F-111 and B-1A introduced the method of jettisoning the entire front fuselage as a means of crew escape. The crew remains strapped in the cabin, unencumbered by a parachute harness, while 27,000 lbf (120 kN) of thrust from rockets pushes the module out into the air. Multiple large parachutes bring the capsule down, in a manner very similar to the Launch Escape System of the Apollo spacecraft. On landing, an airbag system cushions the landing. In the event of a water landing the airbag acts as a flotation device; on land, the airbag is also usable as a shelter...
Просмотров: 16679 Jeff Quitney
Basic Map Reading: Direction, Orientation, And Location With A Compass 1966 US Army Training Film
 
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more at http://search.quickfound.net/map_search_and_news.html "Features and use of lensatic compass in map orientation, in finding direction and location, and in land navigation, by day and night." US Army training film TF5-3721 Basic Map Reading Part IV Reupload of a previously uploaded film, in one piece instead of multiple parts. NEW VERSION in one piece instead of multiple parts, and with more improved video & sound: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HAK8h4mqFsM Public domain film from the National Archives slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and mild noise reduction applied. US Army Field Manual FM 3-25.26 MAP READING AND LAND NAVIGATION (2001) http://www.uvm.edu/~goldbar/FM3_25.26.pdf The map of choice for land navigators is the 1:50,000-scale military topographic map... Geographic coordinates are expressed in angular measurement. Each circle is divided into 360 degrees, each degree into 60 minutes, and each minute into 60 seconds. The degree is symbolized by ° , the minute by ′, and the second by ″. Starting with 0° at the equator, the parallels of latitude are numbered to 90° both north and south. The extremities are the north pole at 90° north latitude and the south pole at 90° south latitude. Latitude can have the same numerical value north or south of the equator, so the direction N or S must always be given. Starting with 0° at the prime meridian, longitude is measured both east and west around the world. Lines east of the prime meridian are numbered to 180° and identified as east longitude; lines west of the prime meridian are numbered to 180° and identified as west longitude. The direction E or W must always be given. The line directly opposite the prime meridian, 180° , may be referred to as either east or west longitude. The values of geographic coordinates, being in units of angular measure, will mean more if they are compared with units of measure with which we are more familiar. At any point on the earth, the ground distance covered by one degree of latitude is about 111 kilometers (69 miles); one second is equal to about 30 meters (100 feet). The ground distance covered by one degree of longitude at the equator is also about 111 kilometers, but decreases as one moves north or south, until it becomes zero at the poles. For example, one second of longitude represents about 30 meters (100 feet) at the equator; but at the latitude of Washington, DC, one second of longitude is about 24 meters (78 feet). Geographic coordinates appear on all standard military maps; on some they may be the only method of locating and referencing a specific point. The four lines that enclose the body of the map (neatlines) are latitude and longitude lines. Their values are given in degrees and minutes at each of the four corners. On a portion of the Columbus map (Figure 4-4), the figures 32° 15' and 84° 45' appear at the lower right corner. The bottom line of this map is latitude 32° 15'00″N, and the line running up the right side is longitude 84° 45'00"W. In addition to the latitude and longitude given for the four corners, there are, at regularly spaced intervals along the sides of the map, small tick marks extending into the body of the map. Each of these tick marks is identified by its latitude or longitude value. Near the top of the right side of the map is a tick mark and the number 20'. The full value for this tick marks is 32° 20'00" of latitude. At one-third and two-thirds of the distance across the map from the 20' tick mark will be found a cross tick mark (grid squares 0379 and 9679) and at the far side another 20' tick mark. By connecting the tick marks and crosses with straight lines, a 32° 20'00" line of latitude can be added to the map. This procedure is also used to locate the 32° 25'00" line of latitude. For lines of longitude, the same procedure is followed using the tick marks along the top and bottom edges of the map. After the parallels and meridians have been drawn, the geographic interval (angular distance between two adjacent lines) must be determined. Examination of the values given at the tick marks gives the interval. For most maps of scale 1:25,000, the interval is 2'30". For the Columbus map and most maps of scale 1:50,000, it is 5'00". The geographic coordinates of a point are found by dividing the sides of the geographic square in which the point is located into the required number of equal parts. If the geographic interval is 5'00" and the location of a point is required to the nearest second, each side of the geographic square must be divided into 300 equal parts (5'00" = 300"), each of which would have a value of one second. Any scale or ruler that has 300 equal divisions and is as long as or longer than the spacing between the lines may be used.
Просмотров: 153309 Jeff Quitney
Aerobatics & Spin Recovery: "The Inverted Spin" 1943 US Navy Pilot Training Film
 
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more at: http://scitech.quickfound.net/aviation_news_and_search.html The Inverted Spin - Intermediate Acrobatics Part VII. "Points out the difference between an accidental spin and an inverted spin; and demonstrates the procedure of executing an inverted spin." US Navy flight training film MN-1325f. Public domain film from the US Navy, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spin_(aerodynamics) A spin is a special category of stall resulting in autorotation about the vertical axis and a shallow, rotating, downward path. Spins can be entered intentionally or unintentionally, from any flight attitude if the aircraft has sufficient yaw while at the stall point. In a normal spin, the wing on the inside of the turn is stalled while the outside wing remains flying; it is possible for both wings to be stalled but the angle of attack of each wing, and consequently its lift and drag, will be different. Either situation causes the aircraft to autorotate (yaw) toward the stalled wing due to its higher drag and loss of lift. Spins are characterized by high angle of attack, an airspeed below the stall on at least one wing and a shallow descent. Recovery may require a specific and counterintuitive set of actions in order to avoid a crash. A spin differs from a spiral dive in which neither wing is stalled and which is characterized by a low angle of attack and high airspeed. A spiral dive is not a type of spin because neither wing is stalled. In a spiral dive, the aircraft will respond conventionally to the pilot's inputs to the flight controls and recovery from a spiral dive requires a different set of actions from those required to recover from a spin. In the early years of flight, a spin was frequently referred to as a "tailspin"... Entry and recovery Some aircraft cannot be recovered from a spin using only their own flight control surfaces and must not be allowed to enter a spin under any circumstances... Spin-entry procedures vary with the type and model of aircraft being flown but there are general procedures applicable to most aircraft. These include reducing power to idle and simultaneously raising the nose in order to induce an upright stall. Then, as the aircraft approaches stall, apply full rudder in the desired spin direction while holding full back-elevator pressure for an upright spin. Sometimes a roll input is applied in the direction opposite of the rudder (i.e., a cross-control). If the aircraft manufacturer provides a specific procedure for spin recovery, that procedure must be used. Otherwise, to recover from an upright spin, the following generic procedure may be used: Power is first reduced to idle and the ailerons are neutralized. Then, full opposite rudder (that is, against the yaw) is added and held to counteract the spin rotation, and the elevator control is moved briskly forward to reduce the angle of attack below the critical angle. Depending on the airplane and the type of spin, the elevator action could be a minimal input before rotation ceases, or in other cases the elevator control may have to be moved to its full forward position to effect recovery from the upright spin. Once the rotation has stopped, the rudder must be neutralized and the airplane returned to level flight. This procedure is sometimes called PARE, for Power idle, Ailerons neutral, Rudder opposite the spin and held, and Elevator through neutral. The mnemonic "PARE" simply reinforces the tried-and-true NASA standard spin recovery actions—the very same actions first prescribed by NACA in 1936, verified by NASA during an intensive, decade-long spin test program overlapping the 1970s and '80s, and repeatedly recommended by the FAA and implemented by the majority of test pilots during certification spin-testing of light airplanes. Inverted spinning and erect or upright spinning are dynamically very similar and require essentially the same recovery process but use opposite elevator control. In an upright spin, both roll and yaw are in the same direction but that an inverted spin is composed of opposing roll and yaw. It is crucial that the yaw be countered to effect recovery. The visual field in a typical spin (as opposed to a flat spin) is heavily dominated by the perception of roll over yaw, which can lead to an incorrect and dangerous conclusion that a given inverted spin is actually an erect spin in the reverse yaw direction (leading to a recovery attempt in which pro-spin rudder is mistakenly applied and then further exacerbated by holding the incorrect elevator input)...
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Auto Suspensions: "Take It Easy" 1936 Chevrolet 8min
 
08:14
more at http://auto-parts.quickfound.net/ 'Dramatization of the spring suspension in the modern automobile, explaining in detail the principle of "knee action." Hot-air balloon tethered to the ground lifts off, ropes dangling from the balloon; VS hot air balloon flying in the air; aerials of the hot air balloon. Camera zooms out from CU of spinning globe in a black set; shot dissolves into an apple with a postage stamp with a ship on it held in disembodied hand. Profile shot man driving woman in car; moving projection in background special effect to make car appear to be moving as in a tracking shot. CU toy model of a car with metal discs for tires filmed in profile in front of moving backdrop with great 1930s futuristic modernist architectural models to give car appearance of movement. Aerial of what appear to be Arizona canyons, probably the Grand Canyon. MS actress dressed as a Southwestern Native American places a grass mat on her head before placing a jar on her head. CU wood wagon wheels riding over rugged dirt road; two frontiersmen in front of covered wagon pulled by horses. Boy pulling a cute little blonde girl in a radio flyer wagon over a brick road; car and old trucks parked along street; MS little girl bouncing in back of the wagon as she tries to eat a piece of bread with jam... Shot antique speed boat numbered 99 races past camera; great shot speed boat bouncing over the swells. Shot of sea sick man in yachting attire walks along rail of ship, projection of tempestuous sea projected as background. Tracking shot upper-class woman trotting on a white horse; wipes to woman ride trotting on a brown horse displaying proper riding technique; CU woman's leg straddling horse bracing herself from the jolts of horse's trot. CU bending leather springs used on old-fashioned coaches; CU stage coach pulled by four horses rides across frame over rocky terrain. Shot man wearing a suit pushing down on carriage with one leg demonstrating the elliptical steel spring suspension of an antique carriage, an improvement from earlier leather springs; CU flexing steel springs of carriage; CU disembodied mans hand squeezes rubber tire of carriage wheel. Shot of antique turn of the twentieth century car, man wearing a suit enters frame carrying a hammer, man hammers the tire demonstrating the improvement of the pneumatic rubber tire for automobiles... hand then touches the hydraulic shock; CU back of antique 1920s car bobbing back and forth; CU front fire of moving car from around 1925 highlighting the first use of balloon tires; great tracking shot man driving down 1920s road through tree-lined rich neighborhood. VS passengers bouncing up and down in back of car as it rides over a bumpy country road; great shot passengers bouncing inside of car. Shot mechanic inspects car stripped of any for of shock absorption, metal discs for tires, not seat cushions, no shocks; passenger enters back seat of car; lamps are installed to face camera from various points in the car... mechanic reinstalls tires, cushions and shocks onto car... three flat lines spread across screen as car moves across frame illustrating smoothness of the ride. Split screen divided horizontally, compares modern 1930s suspensions system with older 1920s steel springs, car on top bounces violently on bumpy road while bottom car rides smoothly over the same bumpy road. CU front of car driving over railroad track, Michigan license plate over car bumper; cuts to track shot of two men doing handstands on hood of the car as one holds men's legs up; two men climb onto the roof of the car and lift woman onto their shoulders...' NEW VERSION with improved video & sound: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j6gjc5FN8-M Public domain film from the Library of Congress Prelinger Archive, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and equalization. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Suspension_(vehicle) Suspension is the term given to the system of springs, shock absorbers and linkages that connects a vehicle to its wheels and allows relative motion between the two.[1] Suspension systems serve a dual purpose — contributing to the vehicle's roadholding/handling and braking for good active safety and driving pleasure, and keeping vehicle occupants comfortable and reasonably well isolated from road noise, bumps, and vibrations,etc. These goals are generally at odds, so the tuning of suspensions involves finding the right compromise. It is important for the suspension to keep the road wheel in contact with the road surface as much as possible, because all the forces acting on the vehicle do so through the contact patches of the tires. The suspension also protects the vehicle itself and any cargo or luggage from damage and wear. The design of front and rear suspension of a car may be different...
Просмотров: 29451 Jeff Quitney
Flying in Foul Weather: "To Save a Life" 1957 AOPA Pilot Training Film
 
14:51
more at http://scitech.quickfound.net/aviation_news_and_search.html Pilot training playlist: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f0tvhjIpjSE&list=PLCA6387BA013F9A4D Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association training film. 'Technical Adviser: Leslie A. Bryan, Director, Institute of Aviation, University of Illinois. Chief Flight Instructor: Jesse W. Stonecipher. Flight Instructor: Jack Eggspeuhler... Beech Aircraft Corporation. Film production by Film Originals.' NEW VERSION with improved video & sound: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NIoRbml3uxw Originally a public domain film from the Prelinger Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Instrument_flight_rules Wikipedia license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ Instrument flight rules (IFR) is one of two sets of regulations governing all aspects of civil aviation aircraft operations; the other is visual flight rules (VFR). FAA's Instrument Flying Handbook defines IFR as: "Rules and regulations established by the FAA to govern flight under conditions in which flight by outside visual reference is not safe. IFR flight depends upon flying by reference to instruments in the flight deck, and navigation is accomplished by reference to electronic signals. It is also a term used by pilots and controllers to indicate the type of flight plan an aircraft is flying, such as an IFR or VFR flight plan... Visual flight rules... Flights operating under VFR are flown solely by reference to outside visual cues (horizon, buildings, flora, etc.) which permit navigation, orientation, and separation from terrain and other traffic. Thus, cloud ceiling and flight visibility are the most important variables for safe operations during all phases of flight... ...typical daytime VFR minimums for most airspace is 3 statute miles of flight visibility and a cloud distance of 500' below, 1,000' above, and 2,000' feet horizontally. Flight conditions reported as equal to or greater than these VFR minimums are referred to as visual meteorological conditions (VMC). Visual flight rules can be simpler than IFR, and require significantly less training and practice. VFR provides a great degree of freedom, allowing pilots to go where they want, when they want, and allows them a much wider latitude in determining how they get there. Pilots are not required to file a flight plan... VFR pilots may use cockpit instruments as secondary aids to navigation and orientation, but are not required to. However, any aircraft operating under IFR must have the required equipment on board... Instrument flight rules Instrument flight rules permit an aircraft to operate in instrument meteorological conditions (IMC) in contrast to VFR. They are also an integral part of flying in class A airspace. "Class A" airspace exists over and near the 48 contiguous U.S. states and Alaska from 18,000 feet above mean sea level to flight level 600 (approximately 60,000 feet in altitude depending on variables such as atmospheric pressure). Flight in "class A" airspace requires pilots and aircraft to be instrument equipped and rated and to be operating under Instrument Flight Rules (IFR). Most jet aircraft operate in "class A" airspace for the cruise portion of their flight and are therefore required to utilize IFR procedures. Procedures and training are significantly more complex as a pilot must demonstrate competency in conducting an entire cross-country flight in IMC conditions, while controlling the aircraft solely by reference to instruments. Instrument pilots must meticulously evaluate weather, create a very detailed flight plan based around specific instrument departure, en route, and arrival procedures, and dispatch the flight... Pilot To fly under IFR, a pilot must have an instrument rating and must be current (meet recency of experience requirements). In the United States, to file and fly under IFR, a pilot must be instrument-rated and, within the preceding six months, have flown six instrument approaches, as well as holding procedures and course interception and tracking with navaids. Flight under IFR beyond six months after meeting these requirements is not permitted; however, currency may be reestablished within the next six months by completing the requirements above. Beyond the twelfth month, examination ("instrument proficiency check") by an instructor is required. Practicing instrument approaches can be done either in the instrument meteorological conditions or in visual meteorological conditions -- in the latter case, a safety pilot is required so that the pilot practicing instrument approaches can wear a view-limiting device...
Просмотров: 36158 Jeff Quitney
How Boilers Work 1955 US Navy; Steam Cycle & Destroyer Escort Boiler Operation
 
15:08
US Navy Training Film playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLA40407C12E5E35A7 more at http://hardware.quickfound.net/ US Navy Training Film MN-9223a "Boilers and their Operation: How Boilers Work" "Practically all modern Naval ships of the Destroyer class or larger are powered by steam. Steam made in the ship's own steam plant propels the ship, generates electricity, and powers auxiliary machinery..." Produced for the US Navy by Reid H. Ray Film Industries. Public domain film from the US Navy, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boiler_(power_generation) Wikipedia license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ A boiler or steam generator is a device used to create steam by applying heat energy to water. Although the definitions are somewhat flexible, it can be said that older steam generators were commonly termed boilers and worked at low to medium pressure (7–2,000 kPa or 1–290 psi) but, at pressures above this, it is more usual to speak of a steam generator. A boiler or steam generator is used wherever a source of steam is required. The form and size depends on the application: mobile steam engines such as steam locomotives, portable engines and steam-powered road vehicles typically use a smaller boiler that forms an integral part of the vehicle; stationary steam engines, industrial installations and power stations will usually have a larger separate steam generating facility connected to the point-of-use by piping. A notable exception is the steam-powered fireless locomotive, where separately-generated steam is transferred to a receiver (tank) on the locomotive... The steam generator or boiler is an integral component of a steam engine when considered as a prime mover. However it needs be treated separately, as to some extent a variety of generator types can be combined with a variety of engine units. A boiler incorporates a firebox or furnace in order to burn the fuel and generate heat. The generated heat is transferred to water to make steam, the process of boiling. This produces saturated steam at a rate which can vary according to the pressure above the boiling water. The higher the furnace temperature, the faster the steam production. The saturated steam thus produced can then either be used immediately to produce power via a turbine and alternator, or else may be further superheated to a higher temperature; this notably reduces suspended water content making a given volume of steam produce more work and creates a greater temperature gradient, which helps reduce the potential to form condensation. Any remaining heat in the combustion gases can then either be evacuated or made to pass through an economiser, the role of which is to warm the feed water before it reaches the boiler...
Просмотров: 27710 Jeff Quitney