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Lung sounds - Breath sounds Types & Causes
 
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Here is a quick review of breath sounds heard on auscultation. The normal breath sounds are Vesicular breath sounds heard on most of the lung. It is soft and of low pitch. Inspiratory phase in longer than expiration without any pause between these two phases. Abnormalities can be presence of bronchial breath sounds, diminished or absent breath sounds, or presence of added/Adventitious breath sounds. Bronchial breathing is hollow, tubular in quality, high pitched. There is definite gap between inspiration & expiration. Added or Adventitious sounds include Wheeze, Crepitations, Pleural friction rub & Stridor. Wheeze can be Low pitched also known as Rhonchi or High pitched which is the usual wheeze. Low pitched wheeze/Rhonchi is caused by secretions in smaller airways causing narrowing while High pitched wheeze is because of Bronchospasm. Stridor is not included in this video as it is not classically a breath sound auscultated but is audible without stethoscope and is caused by narrowing/obstruction of larger airways. A good stethoscope like Litmann stethoscope is a must to pick sounds easily during auscultation. It is encouraged to listen to breath sounds (included in video) with headphones. We hope you enjoy this video ! Good luck ! ________________________________________________________ Please Visit & Subscribe Our Channel for Latest Videos: https://www.youtube.com/lastsecondmedicine Visit us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lastsecondmedicine Follow us on Twitter: https://twitter.com/Last_Second_Med Please Leave you valued suggestion in Comments.
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Peripheral Signs in Aortic Regurgitation Makes Diagnosis Easy
 
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Peripheral signs in aortic regurgitation are too obvious to miss. These help in anticipating aortic insufficiency as the right diagnosis even before you auscultate heart. These signs are generated because of hyper-dynamic circulation. So look for these signs: 1. Quinke's sign 2. Water-hammer pulse (Collapsing pulse) 3. Wide pulse pressure 4. de Musset's sign 5. Corrigan's sign or Dancing carotids 6. Muller's sign 7. Pistol shot femorals or Traube's sign 8. Duroziez's sign 9. Hill's sign Please Visit & Subscribe Our Channel for Latest Videos: https://www.youtube.com/lastsecondmedicine Visit us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lastsecondmedicine Follow us on Twitter: https://twitter.com/Last_Second_Med Please Leave you valued suggestion in Comments.
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Mitral Stenosis Murmur | With Murmur Sounds Audio
 
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Are you afraid to get Mitral Stenosis for Clinical Viva? Don't be & Revise it here. Mitral valvular disease is a commonly examined scenario in exam and is summarised here with audio for revision. Mitral stenosis is usually caused by Rheumatic heart disease. It causes mid diastolic murmur which is a low pitched murmur best heard in left lateral position on cardiac apex & with bell of the stethoscope. Please Visit & Subscribe Our Channel for Latest Videos: https://www.youtube.com/lastsecondmedicine Visit us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lastsecondmedicine Follow us on Twitter: https://twitter.com/Last_Second_Med Please Leave you valued suggestion in Comments.
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Complete Heart Sounds In 7 minutes - with Heart Sounds Audio
 
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If you are stuck with heart sounds, this video will help you organize & revise heart sounds alongwith audio of the heart sounds. All you need to remember for exams are summarized here. Heart sounds can be categorized into Normal, Extra, Additional sounds & Murmurs for the sake of simplicity. 1. Normal Heart Sounds - S1, S2 2. Extra Heart Sounds - S3, S4 3. Additional Heart Sounds - Clicks (i.e., Ejection systolic clicks, Other Systolic Clicks) & Snap (Opening Snap) 4. Murmurs - Systolic, Diastolic & Continuous Murmurs Pericarditis, Tumor plop, Pericardial knock, Prosthetic valve sounds are some other cardiac sounds which are not included here & shall be discussed in future videos. Please Visit & Subscribe Our Channel for Latest Videos: https://www.youtube.com/lastsecondmedicine Visit us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lastsecondmedicine Follow us on Twitter: https://twitter.com/Last_Second_Med Please Leave you valued suggestion in Comments.
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Heart Murmurs | In Less than 5 minutes - All You Need To Know
 
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All about Heart Murmurs, that a medical student shall know, is recapped here. Timing (Systolic, Diastolic or Continuous), Duration (Early, Mid, Late or Pan/Holo systolic) , Pitch (High/Low), Intensity (Levine Grading), Site of Murmur & Radiation are the main titles you need to ascertain about a murmur. These go side by side during an examination and are included in the final description of the murmur. Please Visit & Subscribe Our Channel for Latest Videos: https://www.youtube.com/lastsecondmedicine Visit us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lastsecondmedicine Follow us on Twitter: https://twitter.com/Last_Second_Med Please Leave you valued suggestion in Comments.
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Aortic Insufficiency/Regurgitation murmur | With Murmur Sounds Audio
 
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Aortic regurgitation murmur is summarised here along-with its audio as it is a commonly tested valvular heart disease in clinical exams. Do not get panicked by this Murmur in exam. Aortic Regurgitation murmur is easy to pick in combination with peripheral obvious signs of hyperdynamic circulation like Collapsing pulse, Corrigan's sign, DeMussets sign, Muller Sign etc. It is high pitched murmur easily heard at aortic 2 area with diaphragm of the stethoscope. It can be accentuated by maneouvers like sitting and leaning forward with breathing held i expiration. Other functional murmurs like Austin Flint murmur and Ejection systolic murmur can be heard also. Please Visit & Subscribe Our Channel for Latest Videos: https://www.youtube.com/lastsecondmedicine Visit us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lastsecondmedicine Follow us on Twitter: https://twitter.com/Last_Second_Med Please Leave you valued suggestion in Comments.
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10 Common Mistakes Candidates Make During Clinical Exam - MRCP PACES Videos
 
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10 Common Mistakes Candidates usually make during clinical exam Although list may be long but these are the most common mistakes that should be avoided. 1. Talk only when you are asked. It is alright give detailed answer if you are sure you are talking right because it makes examiner go smoothly on to next question rather than extracting pertinent details in bits and pieces. 2. When you volunteer to Talk, you say something that is clearly wrong. It is equally important not to say more than what you have been asked if you do not know details. 3. You are unable to pick up clues given by the examiners . Examiners are happy to bring you back on track by giving clues. So try not to miss them. 4. Arguing with the examiners. JUST ONE WORD - ‘AVOID. 5. Causes pain/discomfort to patients. This is just like asking examiners to fail you. 6. Unable to give more than two causes for any findings. Practice to give at least 3 causes for all commonly encountered signs/symptoms. 7. Unable to formulate simple management. You forget to give sensible management plans that you otherwise practically do in your daily practice. 8. You say rare diagnoses first just to impress. Examiners want to assess that you are safe doctor who do not misses common things. So stay simple and practical ! 9. You do not greet your patient. Please do not forget that you are not examining a ‘case’, but a ‘human. 10. You do not cover back patient after examining him/her.
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MRCP PACES - Get started
 
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Feeling confused on How to start preparing? Here are some useful tips that shall help you get started: 1. Get yourself oriented with exam. it is important to know what is expected from you in the exam then you can do focused preparation. 2. MRCP PACES is performance based examination so you need to practice in addition to study 3. So as you have to practice search for your study partner preferably who is also sitting in same exam 4.Make schedule e.g. clinical examination methods in morning interactive station preparation and practice with your exam partner(s) in afternoon & theory side at evening /night 5. Keep maximum 2-3 clinical methods for one day. do not exhaust yourself. at end of each clinical method, narrate your findings as you would do in exam, answer the questions asked by partner and then discuss the topic among yourself slow and study wins the race unless you have started late and run short of time 6. Similarly practice either of 2 interactive stations(i.e. station 2 and 4) in a day. there is no limit to how many scenarios you can practice. more, the better 7. Speaking of scenarios, get them from books get yourself MRCP PACES books. there are lot of them available see which one suits you. 8. After few sessions, you will know your weak areas. make a checklist, focus on these individually and strengthen them 9. Speaking of weak areas, practice speaking the narration in front of mirror and also record and hear what you say in your phones 10. Watch paces related videos available on youtube especially pastest. These are very useful. so grab your books, notebook (to make checklists), prepare your clinical bag, find an exam partner, AND GET STARTED DON'T THINK YOU CAN DO IT, KNOW YOU CAN DO IT ! Other Videos On This Topic MRCP PACES Videos - Orientation about PACES Carousel https://youtu.be/mvNQIsIm7uU MRCP PACES Videos - Marking System https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=woQTWCl4TgQ Background Music Courtesy: Alan Walker - Fade [NCS Release] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bM7SZ5SBzyY Alan Walker ➞ Facebook https://www.facebook.com/alanwalkermu... ➞ SoundCloud https://soundcloud.com/alanwalker ➞ Twitter https://twitter.com/IAmAlanWalker ➞ YouTube https://www.youtube.com/user/DjWalkzz ➞ Instagram https://www.instagram.com/alanwalkerm...
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Hypertensive Retinopathy | Stages | Keith-Wagener-Barker classification
 
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Hypertensive Retinopathy classification for easy revision with pictures is brought for you in this video. Keith-Wagener-Barker classification (1939) Patients were grouped according to their ophthalmoscopic findings. As such, this was the first system to correlate retinal findings with the hypertensive disease state. Classifications are as follows: Grade 1 - Slight narrowing, sclerosis, and tortuosity of the retinal arterioles; mild, asymptomatic hypertension Grade 2 - Definite narrowing, focal constriction, sclerosis, and AV nicking; blood pressure is higher and sustained; few, if any, symptoms referable to blood pressure Grade 3 - Retinopathy (cotton-wool patches, arteriolosclerosis, hemorrhages); blood pressure is higher and more sustained; headaches, vertigo, and nervousness; mild impairment of cardiac, cerebral, and renal function Grade 4 - Neuroretinal edema, including papilledema; Siegrist streaks, Elschnig spots; blood pressure persistently elevated; headaches, asthenia, loss of weight, dyspnea, and visual disturbances; impairment of cardiac, cerebral, and renal function Mitchell-Wong simplification of the Keith-Wagener-Barret system Grading is as follows: Grade 1 (mild retinopathy) - Arteriolar narrowing (generalized and focal), AV nicking, and/or arteriolar wall opacity Grade 2 (moderate retinopathy) - Hemorrhage, microaneurysm, cotton wool spot, and/or hard exudate Grade 3 (malignant retinopathy) - Moderate retinopathy plus optic disc swelling .................................................................................................. Please Visit & Subscribe Our Channel for Latest Videos: https://www.youtube.com/lastsecondmedicine Visit us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lastsecondmedicine Follow us on Twitter: https://twitter.com/Last_Second_Med Support us on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lastsecondmedicine Please Leave you valued suggestion in Comments. Background Music Courtesy TITLE Wings ARTIST NICOLAI HEIDLAS
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10 Things You Do That Annoys The Examiners During OSCE
 
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10 Things that may annoy your examiner during OSCEs & should be best avoided. Please Visit & Subscribe Our Channel for Latest Videos: https://www.youtube.com/lastsecondmedicine Visit us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lastsecondmedicine Follow us on Twitter: https://twitter.com/Last_Second_Med Support us on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lastsecondmedicine Please Leave you valued suggestion in Comments.
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MRCP PACES Books | MRCP PACES videos
 
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Books obviously make an integral part of any examination preparation. Similarly, MRCP PACES preparation needs a good selection of books so you can make most out of it. There is a variety of very good books available exclusively for MRCP PACES, and careful selection among these different options is needed to suit individual needs. My only personal recommendation is about 'Cases for PACES' which is a small book giving you a good foundation for PACES. However, since it is a small book and not giving you detailed knowledge therefore combine it with other books. This video is not intended to give recommendations about specific books but it grossly provides an insight into which sort of books you will be needing most of the time. I have broadly classified books into three types: 1. MRCP(UK) PACES preparation books 2. Reference books/Theory books 3. Clinical Methods books You shall be able to get a lot of needed information including examination steps, viva question answers etc from MRCP PACES books solely written for this purpose, but you do need to consult medicine reference books especially for the topics in which detailed core medical knowledge is needed. Yes I am talking about Station-4 'Providing Information about diseases' like Multiple sclerosis, Rheumatoid arthritis etc. where you do need minimum level of satisfying details about an illness. You shall be able to appreciate that your interaction time with the examiners is quite less so the questions asked by the examiners are quite basic. This shall get you to the point that it is your performance and making good communication with the patient, eliciting correct findings as well as logical differentials that helps you get you through the exam easily, and not the minute details/extensive theoretical knowledge. Clinical method books are needed on required basis when you need to see specific system examination. (Get useful e-Books on MRCP as well as on lot of other medical subjects for free from http://medicalbooksfree.com/ http://medicalbooksfree.com/category/mrcp) I hope to see you soon for more tips. please give your valuable feedback by liking and sharing this video, comment on it and let me know what you want me to make my next video about and also don't forget to subscribe to this channel to receive notification as soon as next video is uploaded. Till Next Time Take Care Background music courtesy: Alan Walker - Force [NCS Release] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xshEZzpS4CQ Alan Walker ➞ SoundCloud https://soundcloud.com/alanwalkermusic ➞ Facebook https://www.facebook.com/alanwalkermusic ➞ Twitter https://twitter.com/IAmAlanWalker ➞ Instagram http://www.instagram.com/alanwalkermusic
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Aortic Stenosis Murmur | With Murmur Sounds Audio
 
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This video will give all basic information you need to know about Aortic Stenosis before viva. Aortic stenosis murmur is high pitched systolic murmur easily heard at aortic I area with diaphragm of the stethoscope. it is often associated with thrill . the murmur radiates to neck. Please Visit & Subscribe Our Channel for Latest Videos: https://www.youtube.com/lastsecondmedicine Visit us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lastsecondmedicine Follow us on Twitter: https://twitter.com/Last_Second_Med Please Leave you valued suggestion in Comments.
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MRCP PACES Videos- Station 3 - CVS Examination summary
 
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I find Cardiovascular system examination the most easy, objective and systematic of all system examinations. The only thing which make students fear this examination is they are unsure whether they will be able to pick up findings with stethoscope or not. But in my opinion, you can get to the diagnosis even before you put your stethoscope on patients chest, only if you perform the general physical examination (GPE) related to CVS in a methodical way. Cardiovascular system examination can either be started from periphery proceeding to precordium or from precordium to periphery. Ideally it should be started from periphery with general physical examination related to CVS. Because you can get important clues by examining pulse and measuring BP like collapsing pulse, wide pulse pressure, visible pulsatile carotids can provide you clue about presence of Aortic regurgitation. Similarly nail signs like clubbing, splinter hemorrhages can suggest infective endocarditis. So start from Hands and arms and Look for clubbing, peripheral cyanosis, xanthomata or peripheral signs of endocarditis. Determine pulse rate, rhythm and character. Check collapsing pulse here. Ask for the blood pressure. Look at the face for central cyanosis, pallor, a malar flush, corneal arcus or xanthelasmata. Determine the height of the jugular venous pulse and any abnormal waveform. Do not fear about JVP waveforms if you have correctly determined if it is raised or not and correlated with other findings you pick, even that will suffice. Now proceed toward Precordium. In most cases, by now from peripheral clues you shall be able to anticipate what are expected findings here and if that is the case, this part is easy now. Here Inspection, Palpation and Auscultation. Do not waste time in percussion. Practically nobody do it even if it is mentioned in clinical methods books. INSPECTION: Inspect for any scar, pigmentation, pulsatile precordium, visibly displaced apex beat. Midline scar can give you clue about 2 things: 1. ByPass graft surgery: so do look for scar of graft site on shins 2. Valve replacement surgery PALPATION: Determine the position of the apex and any abnormalities in apex beat character. Feel for a right ventricular heave. Feel for thrills. Ask yourself if pulse character, blood pressure and apex position predict any valve abnormality. AUSCULTATION: Listen for S1 and S2; note any abnormal intensity of S1 and any abnormal splitting of S2. Listen for any S3 or S4. Listen for added sounds like clicks, metallic valve's sounds. Listen for murmurs. Consider the character, location, radiation, intensity and timing of murmurs (but give greatest attention to character). Remember to listen in the left lateral position and with the patient sitting forward. DO NOT FORGET to palpate carotid pulse when auscultate Precordium to time heart sounds and murmurs with pulse. FINALLY: Then ask about pain in abdomen and palpate abdomen to check hepatomegaly, check pedal oedema, scar mark of bypass graft on shin (in case you noticed median scar on chest). Get patient to sitting position and check sacral oedema and listen to lung bases to rule out any element of cardiac decompensation i.e., pulmonary oedema. conclude your examination by telling examiner that you would like to check BP if not measured and looking at temperature charts of the patient.
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Difference between Asthma and COPD
 
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This video will help you differentiate between asthma and COPD. Please Visit & Subscribe Our Channel for Latest Videos: https://www.youtube.com/lastsecondmedicine Visit us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lastsecondmedicine Follow us on Twitter: https://twitter.com/Last_Second_Med Support us on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lastsecondmedicine Please Leave you valued suggestion in Comments.
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MRCP PACES Station 1 | Respiratory System Examination | Summary/Checklist
 
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Station 1 of MRCP PACES comprises Respiratory System and Abdomen examination each of 10 minute duration. Respiratory System examination is a relatively easy to do. Inspection gives many important clues e.g., bedside nebulizer/MDI or sputum pot & pursed lip breathing suggest COPD even before start of examination. Therefore don't hurry through this important part of chest examination. This short video is aimed to summarize important steps of Respiratory system examination, and is in no way a replacement for physical examination method books in case you need to consult it during preparation. Good Luck for your Exams !
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Specific Antidotes for Drug Overdose/Poisoning
 
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Drug overdose & Antidotes are enumerated in a simple way for revision. Enjoy & Learn ! ______________________________________________________________ Please Visit & Subscribe Our Channel for Latest Videos: https://www.youtube.com/lastsecondmedicine Visit us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lastsecondmedicine Follow us on Twitter: https://twitter.com/Last_Second_Med Visit Blog www.lastsecondmedicine.blogspot.com Support us on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lastsecondmedicine Please Leave you valued suggestion in Comments.
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Lung Sounds - Wheeze vs Rhonchi - what is the difference ?
 
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Learn about difference of Wheeze & Rhonchi in this video? Auscultation is part & parcel of pulmonary system examination. Lung sounds give important clues towards the diagnosis of pathology, therefore it is important to know different breath sounds and master them. It is important therefore to auscultate with a good quality stethoscope like Litmann's and auscultation shall be done with cloths removed to avoid added sounds created by these. Wheeze is a common finding heard in asthma, COPD, bronchiolitis. Aim here is to differentiate between wheeze and rhonchi, which are sometimes used interchangeably. ________________________________________________________ Please Visit & Subscribe Our Channel for Latest Videos: https://www.youtube.com/lastsecondmedicine Visit us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lastsecondmedicine Follow us on Twitter: https://twitter.com/Last_Second_Med Please Leave you valued suggestion in Comments.
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MRCP PACES Videos - PACES Marking System
 
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It is prudent for any exam candidate to get oriented him/herself with exam pattern before embarking on preparation for that exam. This video is intended to give orientation to MRCP PACES candidate about Marking system of MRCP PACES. In the end of the video, there are useful tips for target oriented preparation. MRCP(UK) PACES is the third part of MRCP. It is Clinical exam consisting of 5 different clinical stations. https://www.mrcpuk.org/ is an excellent website giving you all possible information about every MRCP exam so do visit this excellent resource. https://www.mrcpuk.org/mrcpuk-examinations/paces What to expect on exam day https://www.mrcpuk.org/mrcpuk-examinations/paces/what-expect-exam-day you can also download sample scenarios from here https://www.mrcpuk.org/mrcpuk-examinations/paces/station-2-and-4-sample-scenarios Also get oriented yourself with mark-sheets used in exam https://www.mrcpuk.org/mrcpuk-examinations/paces/paces-marksheets Last but not the least checkout this video which helped me out a lot in my exam orientation https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L9P7PNipoQA&list=PLkqHeDZ2HyL5_2hZ7qgOTf8wf2ECS6cH9 And also checkout this video by pastest on skills assessed https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-b7-3nf06M8 Please do give your valuable feedback and let me know what topic you want in my future videos. Like, Subscribe to this channel and Share this video to your folks who want to take this exam. I will get back soon with more useful topics of medicine for preparation as well as for quick review just before exam. Background Music Courtesy: The Creek.mp3' by youtube free music
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Mitral Regurgitation Murmur | Summarised alongwith Audio | Heart Sounds
 
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Mitral Regurgitation murmur is a systolic murmur and is easy to pick during examination. It is summarised alongwith audio for easy revision. Mitral Regurgitation is usually caused by different causes including Rheumatic heart disease, Marfan's syndrome, Ischemic heart disease, Mitral leaflet prolapse and functional MR in Congestive cardiac failure. It causes Pansystolic/Holosystolic murmur which is a high pitched murmur best heard apical area diaphragm of the stethoscope. It radiates to left axila.
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Very Useful Lines for Communication Skills in Clinical Medicine
 
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Useful sentences for MRCP PACES Station 4 HERE ARE SOME USEFUL SENTENCES ESPECIALLY FOR OVERSEAS (Non-English speaking) CANDIDATES THAT WILL HELP FILL IN GAPS DURING CONVERSATION & WILL SHAPE COMMUNICATION WITH A PATIENT INTO A SMOOTHER AND REALISTIC ONE. THESE ARE GENERALLY THE COMMONLY NEEDED SENTENCES OUT OF ENDLESS OPTIONS IN COMMON SCENARIOS WHICH CAN BE USED WHERE NEEDED. YOU CAN, OBVIOUSLY, USE YOUR OWN CUSTOMIZED SENTENCES. 1. I am Dr ....... and I believe you wanted to meet me regarding your mother/father. 2. May I confirm your ID details with you before we discuss about ...... 3. If I were in your shoes, I most probably will do the same. 4. Mr .... with your investigations reports completed now, I am afraid I have not a good news for you ... (pause, and break bad news when asked by patient what is it doctor?) 5. I understand that this isn't what you wanted to hear. I wish the news was better ... 6. Do you want someone with you right now while we discuss about your disease 7. This must be a bit bewildering at moment but are you following what I am trying to say? 8. I can understand your concern but let me assure you .... 9. This question is rather difficult for me to answer. Please let me discuss it with my consultant/senior and I shall get back to you. 10. We are trying the best we can hoping that your mother will get better, unfortunately ... 11. I know it is rather too much to know in one sitting. If you have further questions, I will be available in evening too today. Background Music Courtesy: TITLE: Happy Chances ARTIST: Nicolai Heidlas
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MRCP PACES Videos | Very Important General Tips for Physical Examination stations
 
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11 General Advices for Clinical Methods Stations On Exam Day 1. Read Clinical Scenario Carefully. This may help you anticipate what you are going to find. And do only what you have been asked to do. 2. Greet Examiners Cheerfully but in a nice, decent and balanced manner. This definitely will have a good impact. 3. Greet and Introduce yourself to the patient. to help build rapport. 4. Explain to patient in Precise and easy terms what you are going to do before positioning patient for exam. 5. Sufficient Exposure of patient appropriate to the examination 6. Ask about pain or discomfort. Reassure that you will be gentle during examination and ask to let you know in case he/she feel any discomfort during examination 7. Sanitize your hands. Do not forget if you are not used to it before every physical examination. 8. Appear composed, organized and professional during your performance. only possible when you have practiced each method several times so that you can concentrate on picking up clues and findings rather than thinking about next step in examination 9. Explain every subsequent step of examination to patient before doing it so patient is more cooperative, and this help you score better in skill 7 i.e., maintaining patient welfare 10. Thank the patient at end of examination and cover him/her up before turning around towards the examiner 11. Narrate your findings to the examiner in a well organized way. therefore it is also necessary to rehearse this narration so that on exam day you don't have to think how to formulate your findings. a good narration will help examiners move on to next questions in viva rather than wondering about what your findings were which obviously will not be in your good interest KNOW THAT ALL THESE ARE NOT STEPS BUT ARE INTEGRATED AND GOES SIDE BY SIDE WITH EACHOTHER NECESSARY FOR A SMOOTH FLOW OF EXAMINATION. EVERY POINT IN THE VIDEO IS NUMBERED SEPARATELY TO HIGHLIGHT IT AS A NECESSARY POINT THAT IS OBSERVED AND HAVE A HUGE IMPACT ON YOUR OVERALL OUTLOOK. BUT THESE ARE OVERLOOKED DURING PREPARATION WHERE YOU ONLY STRESS ON PHYSICAL EXAMINATION AND CONCENTRATE ON PICKING UP FINDINGS. KEEP IT AS A CHECKLIST TO JUDGE YOURSELF HOW MANY POINTS YOU FULFILL IN ADDITION TO PRACTICING PHYSICAL METHODS ITSELF.
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MRCP PACES Videos- 12 TIPS FOR CARDIOVASCULAR EXAMINATION
 
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12 Do's and Dont's for this station: 1. Start from general physical examination related to CVS. 2. Try not to miss findings, if any, in hands and face. 3. Concentrate on pulse rhythm, character and volume. (comment on volume by checking carotid pulse) 4. Ask about pain/discomfort or shoulder joint problem before raising patient's arm to check collapsing pulse. 5. Do not forget to auscultate carotids for bruit before checking carotid pulse for volume and pressing carotid for timing with murmur. 6. Do not press too hard to find carotids. it should be easy to feel them. You only need to check one side carotid mainly right side. But if for any farfetched reason, you need to check both, DO NOT press both simultaneously. 7. Do not forget to determine findings about normal heart sounds before jumping on determining murmurs. Finding murmur is important but not sole part of examination. 8. Do maneuvers of murmur accentuation. 9. Ask about pain abdomen before palpating for hepatomegaly. And BE GENTLE in palpation since hepatomegaly with cardiovascular system examination is expected to be tender (i.e.,congestive hepatomegaly). 10. Do not forget to Check for graft scar when looking for pedal oedema. Important to differentiate between CABG and valve surgery when there is operative scar on sternal area. 11. Do not forget to check 2 things on back. 1. Auscultating lungs for pulmonary oedema (rarely other diseases like ILD, COPD leading to corpulmonale if it is given in this station) 2. Sacral oedema 12. Last but not the least, DO NOT make up findings which were not there. "Music: http://www.bensound.com/royalty-free-music
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Abnormal Facies - Spot Diagnoses in Medicine
 
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Many diagnoses are possible by just looking at the patient's face. Some examples are given below— 1. Myxedematous or Torpid Facies—Patient have expressionless face & apathetic look.Face is puffy with periorbital swelling, boggy eyelids and loss of outer 1/3 rd of the eyebrows. Xanthelasmas may be present. Skin is cool & dry. There may be malar flush. 2. Thyrotoxic face or Graves’ disease— Patient appears anxious, restless and fidgety. Unilateral or bilateral proptosis. Thyroid gland may be diffusely enlarged. 3. Cretinism—Congenital Hypothyroidism. Mental retardation results in idiotic look on face. Coarse skin with thick lips, large ears. 4. Cushingoid face— Rounded, plethoric face giving rise to moon face appearance. There may be hirsutism and acne. 5. Acromegalic face— Coarse facial features with prominent supraorbital ridges. Increased wrinkling of the forehead. Jaw is protruded forward (Prognathism). Nose, lips and ears are large. 6. Dermatomyositis - Heliotrope rash which is a purplish color or lilac rash, but may also be red. It can occur around the eyes along with swelling but also occurs on the upper chest or back what is called the "shawl" (around the neck) or "V-sign" above the breasts and may also occur on the face, upper arms, thighs, or hands. 7. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus - Photosensitive rash over both cheeks and bridge of the nose, popularly known as ‘Butterfly Rash’. 8. Systemic Sclerosis - kin is smooth, shiny & tight with hypopigmented and hyperpigmented areas. Nose is pinched up and tapered (beaking of nose, bird beak). Loss of wrinkling of forehead. Lips are thin, pursed with puckered skin around mouth. Mouth orifice is small (microstomia). 9. Thalassemic Facies - Expanded globular maxillae, due to bone marrow hyperexpansion into facial bones, combined with prominent epicanthal folds & frontal bossing. This facies is also called ‘Chipmunk Facies’. 10. Parkinsonian Facies - Mask like, expressionless face with absent/reduced blinking of eyes, staring & vacant look, and dribbling of saliva. Weakness of upward gaze, seborrhoea and sweatiness. 11. Myopathic Facies - Frontal baldness. Bilateral ptosis. Long, lean, triangular (Hatchet facies), sad and expressionless face with wasting of temporalis and masseter. 12. Myasthenic facies - Snarling facies’ in Myasthenia gravis is due to ptosis (usually bilateral) & drooping of corners of the mouth, and weakness of the facial muscles. There is usually frontalis overactivity to compensate for ptosis. 13. Down’s syndrome— Flat appearing face, small head, flat bridge of the nose, smaller than normal, low-set nose, small mouth which causes the tongue to stick out and to appear overly large, upward slanting eyes, epicanthal fold, rounded cheeks, small misshapen ears. 14. Turner Syndrome - Short and webbed neck, low hairline and redundant skinfold on the back of neck. Small lower jaw (micrognathia), small and fish-like mouth with low set, deformed ears. 15. Marfanoid face - Face is long, lean, elongated and narrow with small jaw leading to crowding of teeth, and high arched palate. 16. Mitral facies - Malar flush is Rosy, flushed cheeks and dilated capillaries. 17. Nephrotic face - Puffy face with periorbital swelling. 18. Sarcoidosis - Lupus pernio is found in sarcoidosis. It is a chronic raised indurated (hardened) lesion of the skin, often purplish in color. It is seen on the nose, ears, cheeks, lips, and forehead. 19. Bell's palsy - Rolling up of eye on affected side when try to close eye is the Bell’s sign. Moreover, there is loss of wrinkling on forehead, nasolabial fold on effected side. 20. Leonine face - Seen in Lepromatous leprae. Skin of the face and forehead is thick and corrugated. Multiple nodules of variable sizes and shapes involving ear lobule, face and nose. 21. Achondroplasia—Short stature. Skull appears enlarged. ................................................................... Please Visit & Subscribe Our Channel for Latest Videos: https://www.youtube.com/lastsecondmedicine Visit us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lastsecondmedicine Follow us on Twitter: https://twitter.com/Last_Second_Med Support us on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lastsecondmedicine Please Leave you valued suggestion in Comments. Background Music Courtesy: TITLE: Colourful spots ARTIST: Nicolai Heidlas
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MRCP PACES Station 1 | Abdominal Examination | Summary/Checklist
 
01:43
Abdominal examination is relatively easy as it is easy to do. You generally anticipate what to see by reading the scenario but you can easily get most clues by doing a careful inspection and looking for peripheral signs like stigmata of chronic liver disease or hemodialysis scars/AV fistula in case of Renal transplant/Polycystic kidney disease etc, so importance of inspection cannot be overemphasized. Palpation and percussion becomes easy in getting the anticipated findings in abdomen. This short video is not a replacement for real time examination video or abdominal examination given in examination methods book, but is just a brief summary or checklist of steps in examination.
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04 _ Lung Sounds - Cackles or Crepitations
 
01:08
Here is a quick review of CREPITATIONS/CREPTS heard on auscultation. The normal breath sounds are Vesicular breath sounds heard on most of the lung. It is soft and of low pitch. Inspiratory phase in longer than expiration without any pause between these two phases. Abnormalities can be presence of bronchial breath sounds, diminished or absent breath sounds, or presence of added/Adventitious breath sounds. Bronchial breathing is hollow, tubular in quality, high pitched. There is definite gap between inspiration & expiration. Added or Adventitious sounds include Wheeze, Crepitations, Pleural friction rub & Stridor. Wheeze can be Low pitched also known as Rhonchi or High pitched which is the usual wheeze. Low pitched wheeze/Rhonchi is caused by secretions in smaller airways causing narrowing while High pitched wheeze is because of Bronchospasm. Stridor is not included in this video as it is not classically a breath sound auscultated but is audible without stethoscope and is caused by narrowing/obstruction of larger airways. A good stethoscope like Litmann stethoscope is a must to pick sounds easily during auscultation. It is encouraged to listen to breath sounds (included in video) with headphones. We hope you enjoy this video ! Good luck ! ________________________________________________________ Please Visit & Subscribe Our Channel for Latest Videos: https://www.youtube.com/lastsecondmedicine Visit us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lastsecondmedicine Follow us on Twitter: https://twitter.com/Last_Second_Med Please Leave you valued suggestion in Comments.
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13 Most Essential Tips for MRCP PACES Ethics & Communication Skills Station
 
04:50
Station 4, The Ethics & Communication Skills Station in PACES comes after Station 3 & before Station5. The purpose of this station is simply to test a candidate's ability to communicate with the patient. You don't need to go on expensive courses- just get a feel for the station by practicing with friends! It will be fun!! The best way to get good of this station is to practice. Here are 13 ESSENTIAL TIPS for this station. 1. Examiners have to agree what they agree on to pass a candidate. Therefore it is very much worth spending a little time studying the calibration sheet and marking sheet available on the MRCP website. 2. Read the scenario carefully before going in. Decide the important issues you are addressing and what you should stress for the patient to take home. Make sure you write down the important points you want to discuss, otherwise you may forget once you go inside that room. 3. Decide which words or letters constitute medical jargon and think of equivalent words that a lay person would easily understand. 4. Establish rapport and lead or direct the interview without being too controlling. 5. Confirm identity with the patient or relative as per the case scenario. 6. Check patient's prior understanding about their illness. 7. Look fluent, professional and avoid jargon. If English is not your first language, the examiners will take this into account and will not penalize you for this. Even if you have to use technical terms, you should do your best to define them for the patient to understand you. Suppose that you are giving interview on a radio show as guidance. 8. Use open Questions. This obviously avoids answers of yes or no variety. 9. Listen attentively, and check patient's beliefs, concerns and expectations. 10. Reacts to cues i.e., if the patient looks stressed on something you have said you must not blunder on regardless. Some patients may even cry. some examiners have even placed a box of tissues on the table so use your common sense. 11. Negotiate and select an appropriate management plan. It may not be clear to you in fact what this management plan is until the end of consultation, however just because this station is designed to examine the communication skills, it does not absolves you from any responsibility to know your medicine. 12. Empathy is a very important skill of a doctor. You can only empathize if you understand the beliefs, concerns and expectations of your patient. 13. Summarizes and confirm your understanding with the patient, You may have made a mistake in your understanding of your patient situation and it is better to know that before discussion with the examiners. Don't forget that your examiners will have seen everything with you have. GOOD LUCK FOR PACES !!! Background Music Courtesy: Alan Walker - Fade [NCS Release] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bM7SZ5SBzyY Alan Walker ➞ Facebook https://www.facebook.com/alanwalkermu... ➞ SoundCloud https://soundcloud.com/alanwalker ➞ Twitter https://twitter.com/IAmAlanWalker ➞ YouTube https://www.youtube.com/user/DjWalkzz ➞ Instagram https://www.instagram.com/alanwalkerm...
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02 _ Lung Sounds - Bronchial breath sounds
 
00:59
Here is a quick review of BRONCHIAL breath sounds heard on auscultation. The normal breath sounds are Vesicular breath sounds heard on most of the lung. It is soft and of low pitch. Inspiratory phase in longer than expiration without any pause between these two phases. Abnormalities can be presence of bronchial breath sounds, diminished or absent breath sounds, or presence of added/Adventitious breath sounds. Bronchial breathing is hollow, tubular in quality, high pitched. There is definite gap between inspiration & expiration. Added or Adventitious sounds include Wheeze, Crepitations, Pleural friction rub & Stridor. Wheeze can be Low pitched also known as Rhonchi or High pitched which is the usual wheeze. Low pitched wheeze/Rhonchi is caused by secretions in smaller airways causing narrowing while High pitched wheeze is because of Bronchospasm. Stridor is not included in this video as it is not classically a breath sound auscultated but is audible without stethoscope and is caused by narrowing/obstruction of larger airways. A good stethoscope like Litmann stethoscope is a must to pick sounds easily during auscultation. It is encouraged to listen to breath sounds (included in video) with headphones. We hope you enjoy this video ! Good luck ! ________________________________________________________ Please Visit & Subscribe Our Channel for Latest Videos: https://www.youtube.com/lastsecondmedicine Visit us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lastsecondmedicine Follow us on Twitter: https://twitter.com/Last_Second_Med Please Leave you valued suggestion in Comments.
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Disease Clues from Nail Abnormalities
 
05:29
Nail abnormalities point towards the diseases. This video has compiled the commonly encountered nail abnormalities and their relationship with the systemic illnesses. Please Visit & Subscribe Our Channel for Latest Videos: https://www.youtube.com/lastsecondmedicine Visit us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lastsecondmedicine Follow us on Twitter: https://twitter.com/Last_Second_Med Support us on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lastsecondmedicine Please Leave you valued suggestion in Comments.
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Viva FAQs - Chronic Liver Disease
 
02:44
Chronic Liver Disease (CLD) is a common exam viva. The topic is extensive and the aim of video is to cover basic common exam questions. So essentially it is a quick revision before exam, not going in details but getting the extract quickly. This video quickly covers: Causes of CLD Signs of CLD Its consequences Its complications & clinical features associated with alcoholic liver disease once again this is not topic discussion, but a quick recap of facts you have already learnt meant for revision just before exam. Good Luck
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MRCP PACES Videos - Orientation about Stations in PACES Carousel
 
02:05
It is prudent for any exam candidate to get oriented him/herself with exam pattern before embarking on preparation for that exam. MRCP(UK) PACES is the third part of MRCP. It is Clinical exam consisting of 5 different clinical stations. This video is intended to give orientation to MRCP PACES candidate about these stations. https://www.mrcpuk.org/ is an excellent website giving you all possible information about every MRCP exam so do visit this excellent resource. https://www.mrcpuk.org/mrcpuk-examinations/paces What to expect on exam day https://www.mrcpuk.org/mrcpuk-examinations/paces/what-expect-exam-day you can also download sample scenarios from here https://www.mrcpuk.org/mrcpuk-examinations/paces/station-2-and-4-sample-scenarios Also get oriented yourself with mark-sheets used in exam https://www.mrcpuk.org/mrcpuk-examinations/paces/paces-marksheets Last but not the least checkout this video which helped me out a lot in my exam orientation https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L9P7PNipoQA&list=PLkqHeDZ2HyL5_2hZ7qgOTf8wf2ECS6cH9 Please do give your valuable feedback and let me know what topic you want in my future videos. Like, Subscribe to this channel and Share this video to your folks who want to take this exam. I will get back soon with more useful topics of medicine for preparation as well as for quick review just before exam. Background Music Courtesy: The Creek.mp3' by youtube free music
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Brugada Syndrome | Types & Treatment
 
02:39
Brugada syndrome is due to a mutation in the cardiac sodium channel gene. This is often referred to as a sodium channelopathy. ECG changes can be transient with Brugada syndrome and can also be unmasked or augmented by multiple factors like Fever, Ischemia, Multiple Drugs like Sodium channel blockers, Calcium channel blockers, Alpha agonists, Beta Blockers, Nitrates, Cholinergic stimulation, Cocaine, Alcohol, Hypokalaemia, Hypothermia, Post DC cardioversion. 3 types of ECG changes can be seen in Brugada syndrome. Type 1 is classic. In this type, there is Coved ST-segment elevation greater than 2mm in more than one of V1 to V3 leads followed by a negative T wave. This is the only ECG abnormality that is potentially diagnostic and this has been referred to as Brugada sign. This ECG abnormality must be associated with one of the following clinical criteria to make the diagnosis: Documented ventricular fibrillation or polymorphic ventricular tachycardia. Family history of sudden cardiac death at less than 45 years old. Coved-type ECGs in family members. Inducibility of VT with programmed electrical stimulation. Syncope. Nocturnal agonal respiration. The other two types of Brugada are non-diagnostic but possibly warrant further investigations Brugada Type 2: has greater than 2mm of saddleback shaped ST elevation. Brugada type 3: can be the morphology of either type 1 or type 2, but with less than 2mm of ST segment elevation. The only proven therapy is an implantable cardioverter defibrillator. Quinidine has been proposed as an alternative in settings where ICD’s are unavailable or where they would be inappropriate for example in neonates. _____________________________________________________ Please Visit & Subscribe Our Channel for Latest Videos: https://www.youtube.com/lastsecondmedicine Visit us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lastsecondmedicine Follow us on Twitter: https://twitter.com/Last_Second_Med Support us on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lastsecondmedicine Please Leave you valued suggestion in Comments.
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Physiological and Pathological Q waves
 
01:43
Q waves are abnormal or ‘pathological’, particularly if they are: 1. more than 2 small squares deep, or 2. more than 25 per cent of the height of the following R wave in depth, and/or 3. more than 1 small square wide. If wide or deep Q waves that is exceeding the above criteria are present, consider: ST segment elevation myocardial infarction Left ventricular hypertrophy Wolff–Parkinson–White syndrome and Bundle branch block. Please Visit & Subscribe Our Channel for Latest Videos: https://www.youtube.com/lastsecondmedicine Visit us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lastsecondmedicine Follow us on Twitter: https://twitter.com/Last_Second_Med Support us on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lastsecondmedicine Please Leave you valued suggestion in Comments.
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Abdominal Examination Station - Pearls
 
02:47
Pearl # 1 Think of transplanted kidney When you see a patient with arteriovenous fistula and surgical scar on abdomen. Pearl # 2 When you see a renal transplant patient Always look for signs of immunosuppresion and comment when you tell your findings to the examiners Pearl # 3 When you see a patient of chronic liver disease You are expected to look for all the stigmata of chronic liver disease. And be ready to answer about its causes and complications. Pearl # 4 When you see jaundice with splenomegaly Think of chronic hemolytic causes thalassemia, sickle cell (in early disease) & hereditary spherocytosis followed by hematological malignancies Pearl # 5 If you encounter with hemochromatosis case In asian countries, think of secondary hemochomatosis while in western countries’ Patient, consider primary hereditary hemochromatosis Pearl # 6 If you see a patient of adult polycystic kidney disease Be ready to answer its associated complications...it is exam favourite Pearl # 7 When you see tense ascites Do not attempt shifting dullness. A common sense that it is only necessary to do it when you suspect mild ascites. In exams we tend to let go common sense :-) Pearl # 8 For causes of ascites Remeber transudative & exudative causes separately. But you can only impress the examiner, when you are able to apply your knowledge on patient. Remember saag ratio to differentiate between ascites due to portal hypertension & rest of the causes Pearl # 9 In gross ascites, do not forget to auscultate chest for pleural effusion especially right sided Pearl # 10 In patients with stigmata of chronic liver disease Remember signs specific to alcoholic liver diseases like cachexia, tremors, dupuytren’s contractures, cerebellar synd, peripheral neuropathey & myopathy Music provided by NCS Alan Walker - Force [NCS Release] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xshEZzpS4CQ Alan Walker ➞ SoundCloud https://soundcloud.com/alanwalkermusic ➞ Facebook https://www.facebook.com/alanwalkermusic ➞ Twitter https://twitter.com/IAmAlanWalker ➞ Instagram http://www.instagram.com/alanwalkermusic
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EKG Cardiac Axis | Rule of Thumbs
 
01:30
Find out Cardiac axis easily by following this Rule of Thumbs Please Visit & Subscribe Our Channel for Latest Videos: https://www.youtube.com/lastsecondmedicine Visit us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lastsecondmedicine Follow us on Twitter: https://twitter.com/Last_Second_Med Support us on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lastsecondmedicine Please Leave you valued suggestion in Comments.
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Heart Rate Calculation on ECG
 
01:44
This video will show you 3 methods to calculate heart rate on ECG. Please Visit & Subscribe Our Channel for Latest Videos: https://www.youtube.com/lastsecondmedicine Visit us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lastsecondmedicine Follow us on Twitter: https://twitter.com/Last_Second_Med Support us on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lastsecondmedicine Please Leave you valued suggestion in Comments.
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Kussmaul sign - Mechanism & Causes
 
01:14
Kussmaul sign is a rise in JVP during Inspiration. It occurs due to any reason that restricts cardiac filling during diastole e.g. restrictive cardiomyopathy, constrictive pericarditis, cardiac tamponade etc. ................................................. Please Visit & Subscribe Our Channel for Latest Videos: https://www.youtube.com/lastsecondmedicine Visit us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lastsecondmedicine Follow us on Twitter: https://twitter.com/Last_Second_Med Support us on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lastsecondmedicine Please Leave you valued suggestion in Comments.
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Pericardial Friction Rub & Acute Pericarditis | With Sound Audio
 
02:40
Learn about Acute Pericarditis & its typical auscultatory finding - Pericardial Friction Rub - its clinical characteristics along-with its Audio. ________________________________________________________ Please Visit & Subscribe Our Channel for Latest Videos: https://www.youtube.com/lastsecondmedicine Visit us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lastsecondmedicine Follow us on Twitter: https://twitter.com/Last_Second_Med Support us on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lastsecondmedicine Please Leave you valued suggestion in Comments.
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Intensity of Heart Murmurs - Levine Grading
 
02:28
Grading the intensity of murmur, if found during cardiovascular examination, is expected from a medical student. This video is about Levine Grading of heart murmurs. This grading is acceptable in all examination right from undergraduate MBBS to postgraduate exams like MRCP, FCPS, usmle, amc etc Please Visit & Subscribe Our Channel for Latest Videos: https://www.youtube.com/lastsecondmedicine Visit us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lastsecondmedicine Follow us on Twitter: https://twitter.com/Last_Second_Med Please Leave you valued suggestion in Comments. Backgroung music credit: Nicolai Heidlas Title: Modern Theme
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LVH Criteria on ECG
 
03:25
This video will show you how to interpret ECG for suspected LVH. Please Visit & Subscribe Our Channel for Latest Videos: https://www.youtube.com/lastsecondmedicine Visit us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lastsecondmedicine Follow us on Twitter: https://twitter.com/Last_Second_Med Support us on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lastsecondmedicine Please Leave you valued suggestion in Comments.
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MRCP PACES Station 1 - Common Cases Encountered in Respiratory System Examination
 
01:49
Common Cases Encountered in Respiratotry System Examination Station: There are very limited cases encountered in this station, therefore master them and score maximum here very easily. 1. Pneumonectomy/Lobectomy Common in uk centers. Check back of patient for scar right at the begining of examination. 2. Lung Fibrosis/Fibrosing Alveolitis Prepare causes of upper,middle & lower lobe fibrosis. Look for cushing syndrome as an effect of corticosteroid treatment. 3. Bronchiectasis Be an expert in differentiating coarse from fine crepts. Look at sputum pot beside patient. 4. Pleural Effusion Look for scar of previous pleural biopsy/Pleurocentesis. 5. Bronchogenic carcinoma with or without superior vena cava obstruction (svco) Look for associated pleural effusion, radiotherapy scar. 6. Consolidation/collapse of lung You are less likely to get these cases but no harm in preparing. Good Luck !
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MRCP PACES  - Common CVS Cases Encountered on Station 1
 
02:24
Common Clinical Cases Encountered in Cardiovascular System Examination This is the list taken out from a large list of possible cardiovascular cases for clinical exams. seemingly oversimplified list yet it can give you a clear head as what to stress upon most among a variety of possibilities. We can give you further guidance so do comment and ask. we will be glad to answer your questions. good luck !
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Multiple Sclerosis - Quick Facts For Exam Viva
 
01:31
Multiple Sclerosis is an exam favorite. This small video gives you just quick revision facts about this disease. Music: www.bensound.com
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Thromboembolism Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation - CHA2DS2-VASc Score
 
02:43
Thromboembolism prevention is important in atrial fibrillation. CHA2DS2-VASc score helps in risk assessment and choice of prophylactic medicine. Please Visit & Subscribe Our Channel for Latest Videos: https://www.youtube.com/lastsecondmedicine Visit us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lastsecondmedicine Follow us on Twitter: https://twitter.com/Last_Second_Med Support us on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lastsecondmedicine Please Leave you valued suggestion in Comments.
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01 _ Normal Lung Sounds - Vesicular breath sounds
 
00:35
Here is a quick review of NORMAL breath sounds heard on auscultation. The normal breath sounds are Vesicular breath sounds heard on most of the lung. It is soft and of low pitch. Inspiratory phase in longer than expiration without any pause between these two phases. Abnormalities can be presence of bronchial breath sounds, diminished or absent breath sounds, or presence of added/Adventitious breath sounds. Bronchial breathing is hollow, tubular in quality, high pitched. There is definite gap between inspiration & expiration. Added or Adventitious sounds include Wheeze, Crepitations, Pleural friction rub & Stridor. Wheeze can be Low pitched also known as Rhonchi or High pitched which is the usual wheeze. Low pitched wheeze/Rhonchi is caused by secretions in smaller airways causing narrowing while High pitched wheeze is because of Bronchospasm. Stridor is not included in this video as it is not classically a breath sound auscultated but is audible without stethoscope and is caused by narrowing/obstruction of larger airways. A good stethoscope like Litmann stethoscope is a must to pick sounds easily during auscultation. It is encouraged to listen to breath sounds (included in video) with headphones. We hope you enjoy this video ! Good luck ! ________________________________________________________ Please Visit & Subscribe Our Channel for Latest Videos: https://www.youtube.com/lastsecondmedicine Visit us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lastsecondmedicine Follow us on Twitter: https://twitter.com/Last_Second_Med Please Leave you valued suggestion in Comments.
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Left Bundle Branch Block (LBBB) , Its Causes & Interpretation
 
04:27
This video will provide an overview of the LBBB and its interpretation in cases of chest pain. Please Visit & Subscribe Our Channel for Latest Videos: https://www.youtube.com/lastsecondmedicine Visit us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lastsecondmedicine Follow us on Twitter: https://twitter.com/Last_Second_Med Support us on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lastsecondmedicine Please Leave you valued suggestion in Comments.
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Auto-Antibodies in Rheumatology | Quick Revision
 
02:25
This video is a quick revision of Rheumatological antibodies i.e., antibodies in connective tissue disease, and their disease associations like association of Rheumatoid factor to Rheumatoid arthritis and its prevalence in normal population etc. Be sure to comment if any suggestion, query . Like and share the video with your medical colleagues. ________________________________________________________ Please Visit & Subscribe Our Channel for Latest Videos: https://www.youtube.com/lastsecondmedicine Visit us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lastsecondmedicine Follow us on Twitter: https://twitter.com/Last_Second_Med Please Leave you valued suggestion in Comments. Music: Alan Walker - Fade [NCS Release] Alan Walker ➞ Facebook https://www.facebook.com/alanwalkermu... ➞ SoundCloud https://soundcloud.com/alanwalker ➞ Twitter https://twitter.com/IAmAlanWalker ➞ YouTube https://www.youtube.com/user/DjWalkzz ➞ Instagram https://www.instagram.com/alanwalkerm...
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Pulmonary Hypertension   Causes WHO Classification
 
04:53
Pulmonary Hypertension is caused by these 5 pathophysiological causes (WHO classification). Please Visit & Subscribe Our Channel for Latest Videos: https://www.youtube.com/lastsecondmedicine Visit us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lastsecondmedicine Follow us on Twitter: https://twitter.com/Last_Second_Med Support us on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lastsecondmedicine Please Leave you valued suggestion in Comments.
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MRCP PACES Station 5 | Marksheet | What Is Expected from You ?
 
02:53
This is probably the most important station in a way that it tests all 7 clinical skills in less time. So for this reason, it carries maximum of total marks of overall exam. This station needs special preparation for the above mentioned reason. You can master all 7 skills by preparing this station well. The aim of this station is to test candidates ability to deal usual cases in a focused way and less time as he/she would practice in routine outpatients. The major difficulty, or apprehension, candidates find in preparing this station is the fear of less time i.e., 8 minutes. But trust me, this is to your own advantage as it is very easy to take focused history, do focused examination and crisp communication both with patient and then with examiners. Examiners will give you the credit if you make minor/negligible mistakes. Moreover, the cases in this station are usually not complicated but are rather basic and usually straightforward. And you have only 2 minutes to interact with examiners so the viva by examiners contain most common and basic questions. So gather your thoughts and leave anxiety about this station behind.
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Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis
 
01:22
Allergic Bronchopulmonary Mycosis (Formerly Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis) • Caused by an allergy to antigens of Aspergillus species or other fungi colonizing the tracheobronchial tree • Symptoms: History of asthma, Recurrent dyspnea, unmasked by corticosteroid withdrawal; a cough productive of brownish plugs of sputum • Physical examination as in asthma • Laboratory Findings: Peripheral eosinophilia, elevated serum IgE level, precipitating antibody to Aspergillus antigen present; positive skin hypersensitivity to Aspergillus antigen • Chest Radiograph: Infiltrate (often fleeting) and central bronchiectasis ■ Differential Diagnosis • Asthma • Bronchiectasis • Invasive Aspergillosis • Churg-Strauss syndrome • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ■ Treatment • Oral corticosteroids often required for several months • Inhaled bronchodilators as for attacks of asthma • Treatment with itraconazole (for 16 weeks) improves disease control • Complications include hemoptysis, severe bronchiectasis, and pulmonary fibrosis Please Visit & Subscribe Our Channel for Latest Videos: https://www.youtube.com/lastsecondmedicine Visit us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lastsecondmedicine Follow us on Twitter: https://twitter.com/Last_Second_Med Support us on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lastsecondmedicine Please Leave you valued suggestion in Comments.
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MRCP PACES Station 2 | Tested Skills on this Station
 
01:58
Each station in MRCP PACES is important in itself. However, 'History Taking Skill' station or 'Station-2' is easily overlooked by many candidates. This station is not prepared well because of its apparent low difficulty level.This holds especially true for UK candidates for obvious reason of working in same setup and have no language barrier. I suggest giving due time to this station as well because this tests 5 skills. Meaning, 2 marks with each examiner for each skill. So you can well imagine this apparently easy station can make a difference in your overall score. On the contrary, if you stay in false sense of satisfaction regarding this station, you may face difficulty on test day and that may in return effect your performance in subsequent stations. Moreover, this station helps you in history taking part of station 5 as well. Skills tested in this station are: 1. Clinical Communication Skills 2. Managing Patient's Concerns 3. Differential Diagnosis 4. Clinical Judgement 5. Maintaining Patient Welfare 2 Marks = Satisfactory 1 Mark = Borderline 0 Marks = Unsatisfactory Check Out More Videos on This Channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCPnja4taYSqY8Ydk1W4fN8w?sub_confirmation=1 Video Playlist Link:
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