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Tegretol
 
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Prescriptions for Tegretol known generically as carbamazepine far exceed indications established by the FDA. This drug offers some benefit in treating various forms of epilepsy, mania associated with the bipolar disorder and a nerve disorder known as trigeminal neuralgia. It only has a limited role in easing other types of neuropathic pain. Tegretol should not be used for simple or minor aches and pains. A long list of other drugs may provide similar benefits to Tegretol with a reduced list of side effects. The drug has a unique role in trigeminal neuralgia often associated with lancinating attacks of pain on either the right or left side of the face. Attacks may last only seconds and occur less often than once a day or up to dozens of times an hour. Tegretol works so quickly and predictably that the diagnosis should be doubted in the absence of a response. Complications include suicidal thoughts, headache, blurred vision, bone marrow depression and damage to the heart, kidneys or liver. A genetic predisposition mostly present in those of Asian ancestry increases the risk of severe, life-threatening skin reactions. Cash price for one month of low dose therapy ranges between $40-$95.
Просмотров: 881 wellnowdoctor
PHENYTOIN ADVERSE EFFECTS :  Anti epileptic PHARMACOLOGY
 
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1. What are the ADVERSE Effect of PHENYTOIN ? 2. What are the complications of PHENYTOIN drugs ??Headache, nausea, vomiting, constipation, dizziness, feeling of spinning, drowsiness, trouble sleeping, or nervousness may occur. If any of these effects persist or worsen, tell your doctor or pharmacistpromptly. SUBSCRIBE Drugs & Medications Phenytoin Suspension, (Final Dose Form) COMMON BRAND(S): Dilantin GENERIC NAME(S): Phenytoin Read Reviews (10)Get Prices UsesSide Effects Side Effects Headache, nausea, vomiting, constipation, dizziness, feeling of spinning, drowsiness, trouble sleeping, or nervousness may occur. If any of these effects persist or worsen, tell your doctor or pharmacistpromptly. ADVERTISEMENT Phenytoin may cause swelling and bleeding of the gums. Massage your gums and brush and floss your teeth regularly to minimize this problem. See your dentist regularly. Remember that your doctor has prescribed this medication because he or she has judged that the benefit to you is greater than the risk of side effects. Many people using this medication do not have serious side effects. Tell your doctor right away if any of these unlikely but serious side effects occur: unusual eye movements, loss of coordination, slurred speech, confusion, muscle twitching, double or blurred vision, tingling of the hands/feet, facial changes (e.g., swollen lips, butterfly-shaped rasharound the nose/cheeks), excessive hairgrowth, increased thirst or urination, unusual tiredness, bone or joint pain, easily broken bones. A small number of people who take anticonvulsants for any condition (such as seizure, bipolar disorder, pain) may experience depression, suicidalthoughts/attempts, or other mental/mood problems. Tell your doctor right away if you or your family/caregiver notice any unusual/sudden changes in your mood, thoughts, or behavior including signs of depression, suicidal thoughts/attempts, thoughts about harming yourself. For males, in the very unlikely event you have a painful or prolonged erection lasting 4 or more hours, stop using this drug and seek immediate medical attention, or permanent problems could occur. Get medical help right away if any of these rare but very serious side effects occur: uncontrolled muscle movements, signs of liver problems (such as nausea/vomitingthat doesn't stop, stomach/abdominal pain, yellowing eyes/skin, dark urine), easy bruising/bleeding. A very serious allergic reaction to this drug is rare. However, get medical help right away if you notice any symptoms of a serious allergic reaction, including: fever, swollen lymph nodes, rash, itching/swelling (especially of the face/tongue/throat), severe dizziness, trouble breathing.
Просмотров: 902 Dr Anshuman Tripathi
Anticonvulsants (antiepileptic drugs)
 
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This is a brief summary of anticonvulsants, or medicines used to treat epilepsy. I created this presentation with Google Slides. Image were created or taken from Wikimedia Commons I created this video with the YouTube Video Editor. ADDITIONAL TAGS: Anticonvulsants Drug Mechanism of action Modern approach Other indications Side effects (unique/notable listed first) Interaction Metab Carbamazepine Na+ channel blocker: binds inactive Na channel, extend inactivation simple partial, complex partial, secondary generalized (narrow) bipolar disorder, trigeminal neuralgia Hyponatremia... bone marrow suppression; hepatotox; sedation; dizziness; n/v; double vision; ataxia; fetal malform; bone demineraliz; Stevens-Johnson syndrome p450 induction hepatic Phenytoin Na+ channel blocker: complex actions simple partial, complex partial, secondary generalized (narrow) n/a Bone demineralization; gingival hyperplasia (long term use); hypotension, arrhythmias, tissue necrosis ( IV admin)... bone marrow suppression; hepatotox; sedation; dizziness; n/v; double vision; ataxia; fetal malform; Stevens-Johnson syndrome p450 induction hepatic Lamotrigine Na+ channel blocker: selective for excitatory neuron NT like glutamate all seizure types (broad spectrum) bipolar disorder; antidepressant effects Stevens-Johnson syndrome (life threatening rash)... sedation; dizziness; n/v; double vision; ataxia; fetal malform; bone demineraliz; Stevens-Johnson syndrome p450; OCPs decrease efficacy hepatic Ethosuximide Ca2+ channel blocker (α subunit, T type, thalamic) absence seizures (narrow spectrum) n/a; just first line for absence seizures sedation; dizziness; n/v; double vision; ataxia; fetal malform; bone demineraliz; Stevens-Johnson syndrome n/a hepatic Phenobarbital GABA antagonist: augments GABA receptor (Cl channel) simple partial, complex partial, secondary generalized (narrow) Tremors (similar to primidone for essential tremor) Hyperactivity, addiction, sedation... bone marrow suppression; hepatotox; dizziness; n/v; double vision; ataxia; fetal malform; bone demineraliz; Stevens-Johnson syndrome p450 induction hepatic Valproate many: blocks Na, enhance GABA, block Ca all seizure types (broad spectrum) Migraine prophylaxis, bipolar disorder fetal malformation (strongest teratogen); weight gain, tremor, hair loss, fulminant hepatic failure (limits use in kids); bone marrow suppression... sedation; dizziness; n/v; double vision; ataxia; fetal malform; bone demineraliz; Stevens-Johnson syndrome p450 inhibitor hepatic Topiramate many: blocks Na, enhance GABA, block glutamate (NMDA) receptor all seizure types (broad spectrum) Migraine prophylaxis Cognitive impairment, weight loss, kidney stones... sedation; dizziness; n/v; double vision; ataxia; fetal malform; bone demineraliz; Stevens-Johnson syndrome Decreases efficacy of OCPs 70:30 hepatic: renal Gabapentin unknown or partially known mechanism simple partial, complex partial, secondary generalized (narrow) Neuropathic pain, chronic pain Ankle edema, weight gain... sedation; dizziness; n/v; double vision; ataxia; fetal malform; bone demineraliz; Stevens-Johnson syndrome Antacids (limit bioavailability) renal Pregabalin unknown or partially known mechanism simple partial, complex partial, secondary generalized (narrow) Neuropathic pain; fibromyalgia Ankle edema, weight gain... sedation; dizziness; n/v; double vision; ataxia; fetal malform; bone demineraliz; Stevens-Johnson syndrome Antacids (limit bioavailability) renal Levetiracetam unknown or partially known mechanism all seizure types (broad spectrum) n/a Depression, behavioral/psychiatric issues (up to 15%)... sedation; dizziness; n/v; double vision; ataxia; fetal malform; bone demineraliz; Stevens-Johnson syndrome n/a renal
Просмотров: 30296 MedLecturesMadeEasy
What Is Dilantin Used For And What Are The Side Effects?
 
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It works by depicts the medication phenytoin (dilantin), a drug used as an anti seizure (anticonvulsant). Commonly used brand name(s)dilantin, dilantin 125, infatabs, an increased risk of certain side effects but may be unavoidable in some cases 28 jan 2016 get up to date information on effects, uses, dosage, overdose, pregnancy, alcohol and more. While uncommon to see these side effects while taking dilantin if combined phenytoin may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide. Dilantin uses, dosage, side effects & interactions drugs. Like other dilantin is a prescription medicine used to treat tonic clonic (grand mal), complex 144 the trade name for anti seizure medication phenytoin. Drinking alcohol while taking dilantin or phenytoin dilantin, infatabs, 125, phenytek (phenytoin (oral. Phenytoin is used to manage and prevent certain types of seizures, as well 28 nov 2016 dilantin (phenytoin) an anti epileptic drug, also called anticonvulsant, control seizures. Read more about the prescription drug phenytoin symptoms of an allergic reaction to dilantin may include do not take this medicine if you are taking delavirdine, a used in treatment hiv common brand names for type dilantin, phenytek, and treat what most side effects phenytoin? . This medicine is an anti epileptic and convulsant drug used to reduce substitutes alternatives dilantin (phenytoin) for uses like generalized seizure, at preventing seizures, but has many interactions side effects 6 feb 2013 medication control seizures. What are the possible side effects of phenytoin (dilantin, dilantin infatabs. Dilantin side effects, uses, dosage, overdose, pregnancy, alcohol phenytoin medlineplus drug informationside uses & more healthlinewhat is dilantin? Side effects of low dilantin levels (phenytoin) alternatives similar drugs iodine. Dilantin (phenytoin, phenytoin sodium) drug medicine informationwhat is dilantin? Goodrx. Common side effects of dilantin (phenytoin) drug center rxlistdilantin hero or horror? Phenytoin sodium capsules oral (dilantin) phenytoin, facts, effects, and dosing. Dilantin uses, dosage, side effects & interactions drugs dilantin (phenytoin) is an anti epileptic drug used to control seizures. More side effects include bone or joint pain, swollen glands, easy uses phenytoin is used to prevent and control seizures (also called an anticonvulsant antiepileptic drug). It is useful for the prevention of tonic clonic seizures, partial but not absence seizures. Includes dilantin side effects, interactions and indications find patient medical information for oral on webmd including its uses, effects safety, interactions, pictures, warnings user ratings phenytoin belongs to the group of medications known as anti epileptics. Dilantin is available in generic form phenytoin, sold under the brand name dilantin among others, an anti seizure medication. The intravenous form is used for status epilepticus that does not improve with potentially serious side effects i
Просмотров: 478 I Question You
Carbamazepine Blood Test - Monitoring Therapeutic Drug Toxicity
 
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This test measures the amount of Carbamazepine in blood, which is a first line drug for treating generalised and partial complex seizures. Dr. Ankush explains about Carbamazepine Test, its procedure, normal range and what information can be obtained from the test results. Watch!
Просмотров: 1881 MediFee.com
Carbamazepine Test - Measuring Carbamazepine Levels (in Hindi)
 
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कार्बामाज़ेपिन क्या है? कार्बामाज़ेपिन टेस्ट क्यों और कैसे किया जाता है? इस टेस्ट के नॉर्मल वैल्यूज क्या हैं? किन कारणों से डॉक्टर यह टेस्ट करने को कह सकते हैं? इस टेस्ट के रिजल्ट को कैसे पढ़ा जाता है? डॉ. अंकुश बता रहीं हैं कार्बामाज़ेपिन ब्लड टेस्ट के बारे में । Carbamazepine test is performed to know the amount of carbamazepine in blood. It's a drug used for treatment of partial complex seizures. Dr. Ankush illustrates about Carbamazepine blood test, procedure, normal values and how the results are interpreted. Watch!
Просмотров: 7205 MediFee.com
USMLE: Medical Video Lectures Pharmacology about Alendronate by UsmleTeam
 
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FREE FREE FREE !!! FIGURE1 medical app: Discover medical cases from every specialty their views and advice DOWNLOAD NOW  http://download.figure1.com/greenglobe Prepare for USMLE,UK,CANADIAN,AUSTRALIAN, NURSING & OTHER MEDICAL BOARD examinations around the globe with us.Understand the basics, concepts and how to answer wisely and score 99 in each step. we are here to help you. What are you waiting for subscribe now!!! SUBSCRIBE NOW: http://bit.ly/161OmbF For Business inquiries: allornonelaw4business@gmail.com Join our USMLE step 1 prep Zone : https://www.facebook.com/groups/730000020375744 Join our USMLE CK STUDY GROUP: https://www.facebook.com/groups/320959178079398
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Carbamazepine | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Carbamazepine Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ In case you don't find one that you were looking for, put a comment. This video uses Google TTS en-US-Standard-D voice. SUMMARY ======= Carbamazepine (CBZ), sold under the tradename Tegretol, among others, is a medication used primarily in the treatment of epilepsy and neuropathic pain. It is not effective for absence seizures or myoclonic seizures. It is used in schizophrenia along with other medications and as a second-line agent in bipolar disorder. Carbamazepine appears to work as well as phenytoin and valproate.Common side effects include nausea and drowsiness. Serious side effects may include skin rashes, decreased bone marrow function, suicidal thoughts, or confusion. It should not be used in those with a history of bone marrow problems. Use during pregnancy may cause harm to the baby; however stopping it in pregnant women with seizures is not recommended. Its use during breastfeeding is not recommended. Care should be taken in those with either kidney or liver problems.Carbamazepine was discovered in 1953 by Swiss chemist Walter Schindler. It was first marketed in 1962. It is available as a generic medication. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. The wholesale cost in the developing world is between 0.01 and 0.07 USD per dose as of 2014.
Просмотров: 5 wikipedia tts
Carbamazepine and Other Seizure Drugs
 
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This parody of Frank Mills' "Music Box Dancer" describes the pharmacology of the seizure drugs carbamazepine, ethosuximide, phenobarbital, lamotrigine, and gabapentin. Lyrics are below. Note that water intox. stands for water intoxification, and toxic epi. necrolysis stands for toxic epidermal necrolysis. Element abbreviations (e.g. Na) stand for their corresponding ions. Lyrics: Carbamazepine is used for bipolar manic, Trigeminal neuralgia, seizures tonic-clonic, And partial seizures. It’s broken down by the liver. It blocks Na and makes its own breaking down faster. It induces the enzyme CYP 450. Its clearance is slowed when it valproic acid meets. It can cause osteomalacia, diplopia, Agranulocytosis, aplastic anemia, CNS depression, skin rash erythromatous, Ataxia, exfoliative dermatitis, Cleft lip and palate, spina bifida, anemia, Megoblastic, water intox., and hyponatremia. Ethosuximide T-type Ca channels obscures In thalamic neurons and is for absence seizures. Valproate slows its breakdown. It can cause dizziness, Parkinsonism, headache, and also GI distress, And lastly, bone marrow depression rare, but so bad. Phenobarbital blocks AMPAs, ups GABA effects, Opens chloride channels and GABA-A receptors, And sodium and calcium channels does hinder. It’s for simple partial seizures, pre-anesthesia, Tonic-clonic seizures, for the short-term insomnia, And for status epilepticus alternatively. You shouldn’t take it with a prophyria history. Phenobarbital can cause hyperactive children, Sedation in adults, and cognitive impairment, And ataxia. Taking it might become habit, As it is of the drugs known as the barbiturates. Lamotrigine’s used for partial and absence seizures, And maintenance treatment for bipolar disorder. It blocks Na channels and can cause bad skin rashes Like Stevens-Johnson and toxic epi. necrolysis. Gabapentin’s used for post-herpetic neuralgia, Neuropathic pain, and partial seizures. It can cause Side effects such as weight gain, sedation, dizziness, GI distress, and lastly odd-looking nystagmus.
Просмотров: 585 J.C. Sue
DIAZEPAM||mechanism of action ||side eefect||16012018
 
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Pharmacology mcq||2018||Indian pharmatech||singh fb/indian pharmatech
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Hematology Mnemonics -part 1
 
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for medical students
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3-6 Microvascular Decompression MVD Dr. Parrish Neurosurgeon
 
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Click More http://www.MyTrigeminalNeuralgiaStory.com AWC 4398 3-6 Microvascular Decompression MVD Click Dr.Parrish Neurosurgeon TN Tic douloureux Facial Pain Electric Shocks. TNA BrianNelson123 Suicide Painful Jannetta Association Teflon Nerve THIS WEBSITE IS DESIGNED TO HAVE EACH TRIGEMINAL NEURALGIA patient tell there story from the beginning of the problem to the current status which is understandably changing daily as the body processes more of the pain. My personal story is very long and and be seen at w htttp[://www.IamFightingCancer.com Important words found on this site. Trigeminal Neuralgia Minneapolis TN Pain Personal Story, Balloon Compression Mentor, dysesthesia, bad feeling constant spasm. excruciating pains, Henry, Pneumonia Electrical Shocks, Shirley, Shelly Wilson, Support Group, Education, Association, Stabbing, Jolts, Suicide Disease, Neuropathic, rare Disorder, Treatment, destructive surgery, Procedure, Microvascular Decompression, tic douloureux Marge Prietz Trigeminal Neuralgia Extreme Facial Pain TN Websites insert. YouTube. From NelsonIdeas.com Trigeminal Neuralgia Extreme Facial Pain TN Websites insert. Websites insert. My Trigeminal Neuralgia Extreme Facial Pain TN Websites http:/./www.NelsonIdeas.com Click Dental Education Trigeminal Neuralgia Extreme Facial Pain http://www.NewMedicalDirectories.com/Trigeminal-Neuralgia-Dental/Dentist-Dentists.html Click Trigeminal Neuralgia Patient Painful-Stories http://www.BrianNelsonConsulting.com/trigeminal-neuralgia-tn/patient-painful-stories.html Click My Trigeminal Neuralgia (TN) Story only http://www.PartyTentCity.com/mytnstory.html Click My Story on TN Brian N http://www.PartyTentCity.com/trigeminal-neuralgia-tn-tmj-my-story/directory.html Click Trigeminal Neuralgia Slide Show Story of Pain http://www.NewMedicalDirectories.com/Trigeminal-Neuralgia-Slide-Show/Draft.html Click Medical Data Base Medical Costs More Expensive Due to Non Use of Technology http://www.briannelsonconsulting.com/medical-data-base/faq-info.html Click MyTrigeminal Neuralgia Story Directory http://www.MyTrigeminalNeuralgiaStory.com Click Slide Show Draft for New TN Patients. http://www.newmedicaldirectories.com/Trigeminal-Neuralgia-Slide-Show/Draft.html Click-Trigeminal Neuralgia Assn Page 1 http://newmedicaldirectories.com/Trigeminal-Neuralgia-Association/TN-Facial-Pain.html Click-Trigeminal Neuralgia Assn Page 2 http://newmedicaldirectories.com/Trigeminal-Neuralgia-Association/TN-Facial-Pain-2.html Click What is Trigeminal Neuragia? Portland,OR Slide Show http://www.NewMedicalDirectories.com/Trigeminal-Neuralgia-Slide-Show/Draft.html Click Trigeminal Neuralgia National Conference http://www.NewMedicalDirectories.com/Trigeminal-Neuralgia-Slide-Show/Draft.html Click Trigeminal Neuralgia Brian's Journal Tic Douloureux (TN) FacialPain-Cancer http://www.BrianNelsonConsulting.com/trigeminal-neuralgia-tn/faq-info.html http://www.BrianNelsonConsulting.com/trigeminal-neuralgia-tn/faq-info.html Click Page 1. Trigeminal Neuralgia http://www.BrianNelsonConsulting.com/trigeminal-neuralgia-tn/faq-info.html Click Page 2 Trigeminal Neuralgia http://www.briannelsonconsulting.com/trigeminal-neuralgia-tn/faq-info2.html Click Page 3 Trigeminal Neuralgia http://www.briannelsonconsulting.com/trigeminal-neuralgia-tn/faq-info3.htm Click Page 4 Trigeminal Neuralgia http://www.BrianNelsonConsulting.com/trigeminal-neuralgia-tn/faq-info4.html Click MyTrigeminal Neuralgia Stories Directory http://www.MyTrigeminalNeuralgiaStory.com/Index.html Click Brian's TN Story Quck Version http://www.MyTrigeminalNeuralgiaStory.com/BrianNelson/TN1.html Click Shirley's Story Trigeminal Neuralgia http://www.MyTrigeminalNeuralgiaStory.com/ShirleyH/TN3.html Click Sand's Story TN WHAT IS TRIGEMINAL NEURALGIA? TN (Trigeminal Neuralgia) is a pain that is described as among the most acute known to mankind. TN produces excruciating, lightning strikes of facial pain, typically near the nose, lips, eyes or ears. It is a disorder of the trigeminal nerve, which is the fifth and largest cranial nerve. TN (Trigeminal Neuralgia / tic douloureux) is a disorder of the fifth cranial (trigeminal) nerve that causes episodes of intense, stabbing, electric shock-like pain in the areas of the face where the branches of the nerve are distributed - lips, eyes, nose, scalp, forehead, upper jaw, and lower jaw. By many, it's called the "suicide disease". A less common form of the disorder called "Atypical Trigeminal Neuralgia" may cause less intense, constant, dull burning or aching pain, sometimes with occasional electric shock-like stabs. Both forms of the disorder most often affect one side of the face, but some patients experience pain at different times on both sides. Onset of symptoms occurs most often after age 50, but cases are known in children and even infants. Something as simple and routine as brushing the teeth, putting on makeup or even a slight breeze can trigger an attack, resulting in sheer agony for the individual. Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is not fatal, but it is universally considered to be the most painful affliction known to medical practice. Initial treatment of TN is usually by means of anti-convulsant drugs, such as Tegretol or Neurontin. Some anti-depressant drugs also have significant pain relieving effects. Should medication be ineffective or if it produces undesirable side effects, neurosurgical procedures are available to relieve pressure on the nerve or to reduce nerve sensitivity. Some patients report having reduced or relieved pain by means of alternative medical therapies such as acupuncture, chiropractic adjustment, self-hypnosis or meditation. http://www.MyTrigeminalNeuralgiaStory.com/SandiW/TN4.html What is Trigeminal Neuralgia? Trigeminal neuralgia (TN), also called tic douloureux, is a chronic pain condition that causes extreme, sporadic, sudden burning or shock-like face pain that lasts anywhere from a few seconds to as long as 2 minutes per episode. The intensity of pain can be physically and mentally incapacitating. TN pain is typically felt on one side of the jaw or cheek. Episodes can last for days, weeks, or months at a time and then disappear for months or years. In the days before an episode begins, some patients may experience a tingling or numbing sensation or a somewhat constant and aching pain. The attacks often worsen over time, with fewer and shorter pain-free periods before they recur. The intense flashes of pain can be triggered by vibration or contact with the cheek (such as when shaving, washing the face, or applying makeup), brushing teeth, eating, drinking, talking, or being exposed to the wind. TN occurs most often in people over age 50, but it can occur at any age, and is more common in women than in men. There is some evidence that the disorder runs in families, perhaps because of an inherited pattern of blood vessel formation. Although sometimes debilitating, the disorder is not life-threatening. The presumed cause of TN is a blood vessel pressing on the trigeminal nerve in the head as it exits the brainstem. TN may be part of the normal aging process but in some cases it is the associated with another disorder, such as multiple sclerosis or other disorders characterized by damage to the myelin sheath that covers certain nerves. Is there any treatment? Because there are a large number of conditions that can cause facial pain, TN can be difficult to diagnose. But finding the cause of the pain is important as the treatments for different types of pain may differ. Treatment options include medicines such as anticonvulsants and tricyclic antidepressants, surgery, and complementary approaches. Typical analgesics and opioids are not usually helpful in treating the sharp, recurring pain caused by TN. If medication fails to relieve pain or produces intolerable side effects such as excess fatigue, surgical treatment may be recommended. Several neurosurgical procedures are available. Some are done on an outpatient basis, while others are more complex and require hospitalization. Some patients choose to manage TN using complementary techniques, usually in combination with drug treatment. These techniques include acupuncture, biofeedback, vitamin therapy, nutritional therapy, and electrical stimulation of the nerves. What is the prognosis? The disorder is characterized by recurrences and remissions, and successive recurrences may incapacitate the patient. Due to the intensity of the pain, even the fear of an impending attack may prevent activity. Trigeminal neuralgia is not fatal. What research is being done? Within the NINDS research programs, trigeminal neuralgia is addressed primarily through studies associated with pain research. NINDS vigorously pursues a research program seeking new treatments for pain and nerve damage with the ultimate goal of reversing debilitating conditions such as trigeminal neuralgia. NINDS has notified research investigators that it is seeking grant applications both in basic and clinical pain research. An Alternate Strategy Instead of waiting for the pain to become intractable or the medications toxic, an individual with trigeminal neuralgia has the option to request early surgery. This has a number of potential advantages: • Avoid years of medication and intermittent pain • Avoid facing surgery when old or infirm • If the person has a vascular loop, early microvascular decompression will increase the possibility of a successful operation with decreased risk of recurrence (evidence suggests better outcomes and lower recurrence rate the shorter the interval between onset of symptoms and nerve decompression) How To Find Out If You Have a Vascular Loop The conventional MRI scans used to rule out the presence of a brain tumor or multiple sclerosis as a cause of a patients face pain are not adequate to visualize the trigeminal nerve or an associated blood vessel. Fortunately, the continued improvement in MRI neuro-imaging now makes it possible to visualize both. The technique, which is called 3-D volume acquisition, is performed with contrast injection and utilizes thin cuts (0.8mm), without gaps similar to what was developed for MRI angiography and venography. The trigeminal nerve is easily visualized in the axial plane when the MRI series is centered at the midpoint of the fourth ventricle. To ensure an adequate evaluation, the nerve should be seen on three adjacent cuts. Early studies indicate that when an offending vessel is present it will be detected 80% of the of the time. With continued imaging improvements this percentage will definitely increase. Click here for UCSD Trigeminal Neuralgia Sequence Parameters for Seimens and GE MR Scanners. Surgical Options: Non-Destructive Procedures The only non-destructive procedure which reliably relieves the symptoms of Trigeminal Neuralgia is Microvascular Decompression (MVD). This involves surgical exploration with the operating microscope and visualization of the junction where the Trigeminal nerve enters the base of the brain, followed by coagulation or moving and padding away any compressing blood vessels. The advantage is pain relief without numbness in the majority of patients, which usually lasts indefinitely. If the pain recurs after a MVD, which it does in 10-15% of patients, it can usually be controlled with low dose Tegretol® or Neurontin®. If the pain continues, it will require a repeat MVD or one of the destructive procedures. Surgical Options: Destructive Procedures There are multiple destructive procedures which are beneficial in the treatment of Trigeminal Neuralgia. The most common of which are glycerol injections, gamma knife radiation, electrocoagulation, and balloon compression. These procedures are all based on interrupting the pain by partial damage to Trigeminal nerve fibers. Generally the more numbness they produce, the longer they last. The specific advantages and disadvantages need to be discussed with the surgeon performing the procedure. These procedures are recommended for patients who have failed MVD or are not candidates for major surgery. Comments Treatment is always individualized. All of the options above should be considered in consultation with a neurosurgeon familiar in their use. Recommendations Based on the data currently available, and in an effort to maximize quality of life, we recommend the following: Patients with less than 10 year life expectancy Refer for destructive procedure if pain not controlled medically without significant side effects Patients with more than 10 but less than 20 year life expectancy Consider destructive procedure May abolish need for continued increasing medications Will make medical therapy easier even if fails Patients with more than 20 year life expectancy Perform thin cut MRI with 3-D Volume Acquisition If vessel present recommend MVD 25 ARTICLE SECTIONS From the Mayo Clinic. Trigeminal neuralgia http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/trigeminal-neuralgia/DS00446 Introduction Signs and symptoms Causes When to seek medical advice Screening and diagnosis Treatment Coping skills Introduction Imagine having a jab of lightning-like pain shoot through your face when you brush your teeth or put on makeup. Sound excruciating? If you have trigeminal neuralgia, attacks of such pain are frequent and can often seem unbearable. You may initially experience short, mild attacks, but trigeminal neuralgia can progress, causing longer, more frequent bouts of searing pain. These painful attacks can be spontaneous, but they may also be provoked by even mild stimulation of your face, including brushing your teeth, shaving or putting on makeup. The pain of trigeminal neuralgia may occur in a fairly small area of your face, or it may spread rapidly over a wider area. Because of the variety of treatment options available, having trigeminal neuralgia doesn't necessarily mean you're doomed to a life of pain. Doctors usually can effectively manage trigeminal neuralgia, either with medications or surgery. Signs and symptoms An attack of trigeminal neuralgia can last from a few seconds to about a minute. Some people have mild, occasional twinges of pain, while other people have frequent, severe, electric-shock-like pain. The condition tends to come and go. You may experience attacks of pain off and on all day, or even for days or weeks at a time. Then, you may experience no pain for a prolonged period of time. Remission is less common the longer you have trigeminal neuralgia. People who have experienced severe trigeminal neuralgia have described the pain as: Lightning-like or electric-shock-like Shooting Jabbing Like having live wires in your face Trigeminal neuralgia usually affects just one side of your face. The pain may affect just a portion of one side of your face or spread in a wider pattern. Rarely, trigeminal neuralgia can affect both sides of your face, but not at the same time. Causes Branches of the trigeminal nerve CLICK TO ENLARGE The condition is called trigeminal neuralgia because the painful facial areas are those served by one or more of the three branches of your trigeminal nerve. This large nerve originates deep inside your brain and carries sensation from your face to your brain. The pain of trigeminal neuralgia is due to a disturbance in the function of the trigeminal nerve. Trigeminal neuralgia is also known as tic douloureux. The cause of the pain usually is due to contact between a normal artery or vein and the trigeminal nerve at the base of your brain. This places pressure on the nerve as it enters your brain and causes the nerve to misfire. Physical nerve damage or stress may be the initial trigger for trigeminal neuralgia. After the trigeminal nerve leaves your brain and travels through your skull, it divides into three smaller branches, controlling sensation throughout your face: The first branch controls sensation in your eye, upper eyelid and forehead. The second branch controls sensation in your lower eyelid, cheek, nostril, upper lip and upper gum. The third branch controls sensations in your jaw, lower lip, lower gum and some of the muscles you use for chewing. You may feel pain in the area served by just one branch of the trigeminal nerve, or the pain may affect all branches on one side of your face. Besides compression from blood vessel contact, other less frequent sources of pain to the trigeminal nerve may include: Compression by a tumor Multiple sclerosis A stroke affecting the lower part of your brain, where the trigeminal nerve enters your central nervous system A variety of triggers, many subtle, may set off the pain. These triggers may include: Shaving Stroking your face Eating Drinking Brushing your teeth Talking Putting on makeup Encountering a breeze Smiling Trigeminal neuralgia affects women more often than men. The disorder is more likely to occur in people who are older than 50. About 5 percent of people with trigeminal neuralgia have other family members with the disorder, which suggests a possible genetic cause in some cases. When to seek medical advice Some people mistake the pain of trigeminal neuralgia for a toothache or a headache. It's not uncommon for people to believe that their facial pain is dental-related, particularly when the pain seems to stem from the gumline or is located near a tooth. If you experience facial pain, particularly prolonged pain or pain that hasn't gone away with use of over-the-counter pain relievers, see your dentist or doctor. Screening and diagnosis If you go to your dentist, an examination of your mouth can reveal whether a problem with your teeth or gums is causing your pain. If you go to your doctor, he or she will want to ask about your medical history and have you describe your pain — how severe it is, what part of your face it affects, how long pain lasts and what seems to trigger episodes of pain. You'll also undergo a neurologic examination. During this examination, your doctor examines and touches parts of your face to try to determine exactly where the pain is occurring and — if it appears that you have trigeminal neuralgia — which branches of the trigeminal nerve may be affected. Your doctor may exclude other possible conditions based on your medical history, the examination, and a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of your head. Treatment Medications are the usual initial treatment for trigeminal neuralgia. Medications are often effective in lessening or blocking the pain signals sent to your brain. A number of drugs are available. If you stop responding to a particular medication or experience too many side effects, switching to another medication may work for you. Medications Carbamazepine (Tegretol, Carbatrol). Carbamazepine, an anticonvulsant drug, is the most common medication that doctors use to treat trigeminal neuralgia. In the early stages of the disease, carbamazepine controls pain for most people. However, the effectiveness of carbamazepine decreases over time. Side effects include dizziness, confusion, sleepiness and nausea. Baclofen. Baclofen is a muscle relaxant. Its effectiveness may increase when it's used in combination with carbamazepine or phenytoin. Side effects include confusion, nausea and drowsiness. Phenytoin (Dilantin, Phenytek). Phenytoin, another anticonvulsant medication, was the first medication used to treat trigeminal neuralgia. Side effects include gum enlargement, dizziness and drowsiness. Oxcarbazepine (Trileptal). Oxcarbazepine is another anticonvulsant medication and is similar to carbamazepine. Side effects include dizziness and double vision. Doctors may sometimes prescribe other medications, such as lamotrignine (Lamictal) or gabapentin (Neurontin). Some people with trigeminal neuralgia eventually stop responding to medications, or they experience unpleasant side effects. For those people, surgery, or a combination of surgery and medications, may be an option. Surgery The goal of a number of surgical procedures is to either damage or destroy the part of the trigeminal nerve that's the source of your pain. Because the success of these procedures depends on damaging the nerve, facial numbness of varying degree is a common side effect. These procedures involve: Alcohol injection. Alcohol injections under the skin of your face, where the branches of the trigeminal nerve leave the bones of your face, may offer temporary pain relief by numbing the areas for weeks or months. Because the pain relief isn't permanent, you may need repeated injections or a different procedure. Glycerol injection. This procedure is called percutaneous glycerol rhizotomy (PGR). "Percutaneous" means through the skin. Your doctor inserts a needle through your face and into an opening in the base of your skull. The needle is guided into the trigeminal cistern, a small sac of spinal fluid that surrounds the trigeminal nerve ganglion (the area where the trigeminal nerve divides into three branches) and part of its root. Images are made to confirm that the needle is in the proper location. After confirming the location, your doctor injects a small amount of sterile glycerol. After three or four hours, the glycerol damages the trigeminal nerve and blocks pain signals. Initially, PGR relieves pain in most people. However, some people have a recurrence of pain, and many experience facial numbness or tingling. http://www.MyTrigeminalNeuralgiaStory.com Balloon compression. In a procedure called percutaneous balloon compression of the trigeminal nerve (PBCTN), your doctor inserts a hollow needle through your face and into an opening in the base of your skull. Then, a thin, flexible tube (catheter) with a balloon on the end is threaded through the needle. The balloon is inflated with enough pressure to damage the nerve and block pain signals. PBCTN successfully controls pain in most people, at least for a while. Most people undergoing PBCTN experience facial numbness of varying degrees, and more than half experience nerve damage resulting in a temporary or permanent weakness of the muscles used to chew. http://www.MyTrigeminalNeuralgiaStory.com Electric current. A procedure called percutaneous stereotactic radiofrequency thermal rhizotomy (PSRTR) selectively destroys nerve fibers associated with pain. Your doctor threads a needle through your face and into an opening in your skull. Once in place, an electrode is threaded through the needle until it rests against the nerve root. An electric current is passed through the tip of the electrode until it's heated to the desired temperature. The heated tip damages the nerve fibers and creates an area of injury (lesion). If your pain isn't eliminated, your doctor may create additional lesions. PSRTR successfully controls pain in most people. Facial numbness is a common side effect of this type of treatment. The pain may return after a few years. Microvascular decompression (MVD). A procedure called microvascular decompression (MVD) doesn't damage or destroy part of the trigeminal nerve. Instead, MVD involves relocating or removing blood vessels that are in contact with the trigeminal root and separating the nerve root and blood vessels with a small pad. During MVD, your doctor makes an incision behind one ear. Then, through a small hole in your skull, part of your brain is lifted to expose the trigeminal nerve. If your doctor finds an artery in contact with the nerve root, he or she directs it away from the nerve and places a pad between the nerve and the artery. Doctors usually remove a vein that is found to be compressing the trigeminal nerve. MVD can successfully eliminate or reduce pain most of the time, but as with all other surgical procedures for trigeminal neuralgia, pain can recur in some people. http://www.MyTrigeminalNeuralgiaStory.com While MVD has a high success rate, it also carries risks. There are small chances of decreased hearing, facial weakness, facial numbness, double vision, and even a stroke or death. The risk of facial numbness is less with MVD than with procedures that involve damaging the trigeminal nerve. Severing the nerve. A procedure called partial sensory rhizotomy (PSR) involves cutting part of the trigeminal nerve at the base of your brain. Through an incision behind your ear, your doctor makes a quarter-sized hole in your skull to access the nerve. This procedure usually is helpful, but almost always causes facial numbness. And it's possible for pain to recur. If your doctor doesn't find an artery or vein in contact with the trigeminal nerve, he or she won't be able to perform an MVD, and a PSR may be done instead. Radiation. Gamma-knife radiosurgery (GKR) involves delivering a focused, high dose of radiation to the root of the trigeminal nerve. The radiation damages the trigeminal nerve and reduces or eliminates the pain. Relief isn't immediate and can take several weeks to begin. GKR is successful in eliminating pain more than half of the time. Sometimes the pain may recur. The procedure is painless and typically is done without anesthesia. Because this procedure is relatively new, the long-term risks of this type of radiation are not yet known. • Coping skills Living with trigeminal neuralgia can be difficult. The disorder may affect your interaction with friends and family, your productivity at work, and the overall quality of your life. You may find that talking to a counselor or therapist can help you cope with the effects of trigeminal neuralgia, or you may find encouragement and understanding in a support group. Although support groups aren't for everyone, they can be good sources of information. Group members often know about the latest treatments and tend to share their own experiences. If you're interested, your doctor may be able to recommend a group in your area. 27 Background: Trigeminal neuralgia (TN), also known as tic douloureux, is a pain syndrome recognizable by patient history alone. The condition is characterized by pain often accompanied by a brief facial spasm or tic. Pain distribution is unilateral and follows the sensory distribution of cranial nerve V, typically radiating to the maxillary (V2) or mandibular (V3) area. At times, both distributions are affected. Physical examination eliminates alternative diagnoses. Signs of cranial nerve dysfunction or other neurologic abnormality exclude the diagnosis of idiopathic TN and suggest that pain may be secondary to a structural lesion. Pathophysiology: The mechanism of pain production remains controversial. One theory suggests that peripheral injury or disease of the trigeminal nerve increases afferent firing in the nerve; failure of central inhibitory mechanisms may be involved as well. Pain is perceived when nociceptive neurons in a trigeminal nucleus involve thalamic relay neurons. Aneurysms, tumors, chronic meningeal inflammation, or other lesions may irritate trigeminal nerve roots along the pons. An abnormal vascular course of the superior cerebellar artery is often cited as the cause. In most cases, no lesion is identified, and the etiology is labeled idiopathic by default. Uncommonly, an area of demyelination from multiple sclerosis may be the precipitant. Lesions of the entry zone of the trigeminal roots within the pons may cause a similar pain syndrome. Thus, although TN typically is caused by a dysfunction in the peripheral nervous system (the roots or trigeminal nerve itself), a lesion within the central nervous system may rarely cause similar problems. Infrequently, adjacent dental fillings composed of dissimilar metals may trigger attacks. Frequency: Internationally: TN is uncommon, with an estimated prevalence of 155 cases per million persons. Mortality/Morbidity: No mortality is associated with idiopathic TN, although secondary depression is common if a chronic pain syndrome evolves. In rare cases, pain may be so frequent that oral nutrition is impaired. In symptomatic or secondary TN, morbidity or mortality relates to the underlying cause of the pain syndrome. Sex: Male-to-female ratio is 2:3. Age: Development of trigeminal neuralgia in a young person suggests the possibility of multiple sclerosis. Idiopathic TN typically occurs in patients in the sixth decade of life, but it may occur at any age. Symptomatic or secondary TN tends to occur in younger patients. 27 Background: Trigeminal neuralgia (TN), also known as tic douloureux, is a pain syndrome recognizable by patient history alone. The condition is characterized by pain often accompanied by a brief facial spasm or tic. Pain distribution is unilateral and follows the sensory distribution of cranial nerve V, typically radiating to the maxillary (V2) or mandibular (V3) area. At times, both distributions are affected. Physical examination eliminates alternative diagnoses. Signs of cranial nerve dysfunction or other neurologic abnormality exclude the diagnosis of idiopathic TN and suggest that pain may be secondary to a structural lesion. Pathophysiology: The mechanism of pain production remains controversial. One theory suggests that peripheral injury or disease of the trigeminal nerve increases afferent firing in the nerve; failure of central inhibitory mechanisms may be involved as well. Pain is perceived when nociceptive neurons in a trigeminal nucleus involve thalamic relay neurons. Aneurysms, tumors, chronic meningeal inflammation, or other lesions may irritate trigeminal nerve roots along the pons. An abnormal vascular course of the superior cerebellar artery is often cited as the cause. In most cases, no lesion is identified, and the etiology is labeled idiopathic by default. Uncommonly, an area of demyelination from multiple sclerosis may be the precipitant. Lesions of the entry zone of the trigeminal roots within the pons may cause a similar pain syndrome. Thus, although TN typically is caused by a dysfunction in the peripheral nervous system (the roots or trigeminal nerve itself), a lesion within the central nervous system may rarely cause similar problems. Infrequently, adjacent dental fillings composed of dissimilar metals may trigger attacks. http://www.MyTrigeminalNeuralgiaStory.com
Просмотров: 31442 BrianNelson123
Surgical Approaches to Facial Pain
 
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Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is one of the most common causes of facial pain characterized by recurring brief episodes of electric shock-like pains. This talk focuses on surgical approaches to treating this difficult disorder. Speaker: Casey H. Halpern, MD, Assistant Professor of Neurosurgery and, by courtesy, of Neurology and of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences at Stanford University Medical Center
Просмотров: 970 Stanford Health Care
6-6 Microvascular Decompression MVD Dr. Parrish Neurosurgeon
 
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Click More http://www.MyTrigeminalNeuralgiaStory.com AWC 4398 6-6 Microvascular Decompression MVD Click Dr.Parrish Neurosurgeon TN Tic douloureux Facial Pain Electric Shocks. TNA BrianNelson123 Suicide Painful Jannetta Association Teflon Nerve THIS WEBSITE IS DESIGNED TO HAVE EACH TRIGEMINAL NEURALGIA patient tell there story from the beginning of the problem to the current status which is understandably changing daily as the body processes more of the pain. My personal story is very long and and be seen at w htttp[://www.IamFightingCancer.com Important words found on this site. Trigeminal Neuralgia Minneapolis TN Pain Personal Story, Balloon Compression Mentor, dysesthesia, bad feeling constant spasm. excruciating pains, Henry, Pneumonia Electrical Shocks, Shirley, Shelly Wilson, Support Group, Education, Association, Stabbing, Jolts, Suicide Disease, Neuropathic, rare Disorder, Treatment, destructive surgery, Procedure, Microvascular Decompression, tic douloureux Marge Prietz Trigeminal Neuralgia Extreme Facial Pain TN Websites insert. YouTube. From NelsonIdeas.com Trigeminal Neuralgia Extreme Facial Pain TN Websites insert. Websites insert. My Trigeminal Neuralgia Extreme Facial Pain TN Websites http:/./www.NelsonIdeas.com Click Dental Education Trigeminal Neuralgia Extreme Facial Pain http://www.NewMedicalDirectories.com/Trigeminal-Neuralgia-Dental/Dentist-Dentists.html Click Trigeminal Neuralgia Patient Painful-Stories http://www.BrianNelsonConsulting.com/trigeminal-neuralgia-tn/patient-painful-stories.html Click My Trigeminal Neuralgia (TN) Story only http://www.PartyTentCity.com/mytnstory.html Click My Story on TN Brian N http://www.PartyTentCity.com/trigeminal-neuralgia-tn-tmj-my-story/directory.html Click Trigeminal Neuralgia Slide Show Story of Pain http://www.NewMedicalDirectories.com/Trigeminal-Neuralgia-Slide-Show/Draft.html Click Medical Data Base Medical Costs More Expensive Due to Non Use of Technology http://www.briannelsonconsulting.com/medical-data-base/faq-info.html Click MyTrigeminal Neuralgia Story Directory http://www.MyTrigeminalNeuralgiaStory.com Click Slide Show Draft for New TN Patients. http://www.newmedicaldirectories.com/Trigeminal-Neuralgia-Slide-Show/Draft.html Click-Trigeminal Neuralgia Assn Page 1 http://newmedicaldirectories.com/Trigeminal-Neuralgia-Association/TN-Facial-Pain.html Click-Trigeminal Neuralgia Assn Page 2 http://newmedicaldirectories.com/Trigeminal-Neuralgia-Association/TN-Facial-Pain-2.html Click What is Trigeminal Neuragia? Portland,OR Slide Show http://www.NewMedicalDirectories.com/Trigeminal-Neuralgia-Slide-Show/Draft.html Click Trigeminal Neuralgia National Conference http://www.NewMedicalDirectories.com/Trigeminal-Neuralgia-Slide-Show/Draft.html Click Trigeminal Neuralgia Brian's Journal Tic Douloureux (TN) FacialPain-Cancer http://www.BrianNelsonConsulting.com/trigeminal-neuralgia-tn/faq-info.html http://www.BrianNelsonConsulting.com/trigeminal-neuralgia-tn/faq-info.html Click Page 1. Trigeminal Neuralgia http://www.BrianNelsonConsulting.com/trigeminal-neuralgia-tn/faq-info.html Click Page 2 Trigeminal Neuralgia http://www.briannelsonconsulting.com/trigeminal-neuralgia-tn/faq-info2.html Click Page 3 Trigeminal Neuralgia http://www.briannelsonconsulting.com/trigeminal-neuralgia-tn/faq-info3.htm Click Page 4 Trigeminal Neuralgia http://www.BrianNelsonConsulting.com/trigeminal-neuralgia-tn/faq-info4.html Click MyTrigeminal Neuralgia Stories Directory http://www.MyTrigeminalNeuralgiaStory.com/Index.html Click Brian's TN Story Quck Version http://www.MyTrigeminalNeuralgiaStory.com/BrianNelson/TN1.html Click Shirley's Story Trigeminal Neuralgia http://www.MyTrigeminalNeuralgiaStory.com/ShirleyH/TN3.html Click Sand's Story TN WHAT IS TRIGEMINAL NEURALGIA? TN (Trigeminal Neuralgia) is a pain that is described as among the most acute known to mankind. TN produces excruciating, lightning strikes of facial pain, typically near the nose, lips, eyes or ears. It is a disorder of the trigeminal nerve, which is the fifth and largest cranial nerve. TN (Trigeminal Neuralgia / tic douloureux) is a disorder of the fifth cranial (trigeminal) nerve that causes episodes of intense, stabbing, electric shock-like pain in the areas of the face where the branches of the nerve are distributed - lips, eyes, nose, scalp, forehead, upper jaw, and lower jaw. By many, it's called the "suicide disease". A less common form of the disorder called "Atypical Trigeminal Neuralgia" may cause less intense, constant, dull burning or aching pain, sometimes with occasional electric shock-like stabs. Both forms of the disorder most often affect one side of the face, but some patients experience pain at different times on both sides. Onset of symptoms occurs most often after age 50, but cases are known in children and even infants. Something as simple and routine as brushing the teeth, putting on makeup or even a slight breeze can trigger an attack, resulting in sheer agony for the individual. Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is not fatal, but it is universally considered to be the most painful affliction known to medical practice. Initial treatment of TN is usually by means of anti-convulsant drugs, such as Tegretol or Neurontin. Some anti-depressant drugs also have significant pain relieving effects. Should medication be ineffective or if it produces undesirable side effects, neurosurgical procedures are available to relieve pressure on the nerve or to reduce nerve sensitivity. Some patients report having reduced or relieved pain by means of alternative medical therapies such as acupuncture, chiropractic adjustment, self-hypnosis or meditation. http://www.MyTrigeminalNeuralgiaStory.com/SandiW/TN4.html What is Trigeminal Neuralgia? Trigeminal neuralgia (TN), also called tic douloureux, is a chronic pain condition that causes extreme, sporadic, sudden burning or shock-like face pain that lasts anywhere from a few seconds to as long as 2 minutes per episode. The intensity of pain can be physically and mentally incapacitating. TN pain is typically felt on one side of the jaw or cheek. Episodes can last for days, weeks, or months at a time and then disappear for months or years. In the days before an episode begins, some patients may experience a tingling or numbing sensation or a somewhat constant and aching pain. The attacks often worsen over time, with fewer and shorter pain-free periods before they recur. The intense flashes of pain can be triggered by vibration or contact with the cheek (such as when shaving, washing the face, or applying makeup), brushing teeth, eating, drinking, talking, or being exposed to the wind. TN occurs most often in people over age 50, but it can occur at any age, and is more common in women than in men. There is some evidence that the disorder runs in families, perhaps because of an inherited pattern of blood vessel formation. Although sometimes debilitating, the disorder is not life-threatening. The presumed cause of TN is a blood vessel pressing on the trigeminal nerve in the head as it exits the brainstem. TN may be part of the normal aging process but in some cases it is the associated with another disorder, such as multiple sclerosis or other disorders characterized by damage to the myelin sheath that covers certain nerves. Is there any treatment? Because there are a large number of conditions that can cause facial pain, TN can be difficult to diagnose. But finding the cause of the pain is important as the treatments for different types of pain may differ. Treatment options include medicines such as anticonvulsants and tricyclic antidepressants, surgery, and complementary approaches. Typical analgesics and opioids are not usually helpful in treating the sharp, recurring pain caused by TN. If medication fails to relieve pain or produces intolerable side effects such as excess fatigue, surgical treatment may be recommended. Several neurosurgical procedures are available. Some are done on an outpatient basis, while others are more complex and require hospitalization. Some patients choose to manage TN using complementary techniques, usually in combination with drug treatment. These techniques include acupuncture, biofeedback, vitamin therapy, nutritional therapy, and electrical stimulation of the nerves. What is the prognosis? The disorder is characterized by recurrences and remissions, and successive recurrences may incapacitate the patient. Due to the intensity of the pain, even the fear of an impending attack may prevent activity. Trigeminal neuralgia is not fatal. What research is being done? Within the NINDS research programs, trigeminal neuralgia is addressed primarily through studies associated with pain research. NINDS vigorously pursues a research program seeking new treatments for pain and nerve damage with the ultimate goal of reversing debilitating conditions such as trigeminal neuralgia. NINDS has notified research investigators that it is seeking grant applications both in basic and clinical pain research. An Alternate Strategy Instead of waiting for the pain to become intractable or the medications toxic, an individual with trigeminal neuralgia has the option to request early surgery. This has a number of potential advantages: • Avoid years of medication and intermittent pain • Avoid facing surgery when old or infirm • If the person has a vascular loop, early microvascular decompression will increase the possibility of a successful operation with decreased risk of recurrence (evidence suggests better outcomes and lower recurrence rate the shorter the interval between onset of symptoms and nerve decompression) How To Find Out If You Have a Vascular Loop The conventional MRI scans used to rule out the presence of a brain tumor or multiple sclerosis as a cause of a patients face pain are not adequate to visualize the trigeminal nerve or an associated blood vessel. Fortunately, the continued improvement in MRI neuro-imaging now makes it possible to visualize both. The technique, which is called 3-D volume acquisition, is performed with contrast injection and utilizes thin cuts (0.8mm), without gaps similar to what was developed for MRI angiography and venography. The trigeminal nerve is easily visualized in the axial plane when the MRI series is centered at the midpoint of the fourth ventricle. To ensure an adequate evaluation, the nerve should be seen on three adjacent cuts. Early studies indicate that when an offending vessel is present it will be detected 80% of the of the time. With continued imaging improvements this percentage will definitely increase. Click here for UCSD Trigeminal Neuralgia Sequence Parameters for Seimens and GE MR Scanners. Surgical Options: Non-Destructive Procedures The only non-destructive procedure which reliably relieves the symptoms of Trigeminal Neuralgia is Microvascular Decompression (MVD). This involves surgical exploration with the operating microscope and visualization of the junction where the Trigeminal nerve enters the base of the brain, followed by coagulation or moving and padding away any compressing blood vessels. The advantage is pain relief without numbness in the majority of patients, which usually lasts indefinitely. If the pain recurs after a MVD, which it does in 10-15% of patients, it can usually be controlled with low dose Tegretol® or Neurontin®. If the pain continues, it will require a repeat MVD or one of the destructive procedures. Surgical Options: Destructive Procedures There are multiple destructive procedures which are beneficial in the treatment of Trigeminal Neuralgia. The most common of which are glycerol injections, gamma knife radiation, electrocoagulation, and balloon compression. These procedures are all based on interrupting the pain by partial damage to Trigeminal nerve fibers. Generally the more numbness they produce, the longer they last. The specific advantages and disadvantages need to be discussed with the surgeon performing the procedure. These procedures are recommended for patients who have failed MVD or are not candidates for major surgery. Comments Treatment is always individualized. All of the options above should be considered in consultation with a neurosurgeon familiar in their use. Recommendations Based on the data currently available, and in an effort to maximize quality of life, we recommend the following: Patients with less than 10 year life expectancy Refer for destructive procedure if pain not controlled medically without significant side effects Patients with more than 10 but less than 20 year life expectancy Consider destructive procedure May abolish need for continued increasing medications Will make medical therapy easier even if fails Patients with more than 20 year life expectancy Perform thin cut MRI with 3-D Volume Acquisition If vessel present recommend MVD 25 ARTICLE SECTIONS From the Mayo Clinic. Trigeminal neuralgia http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/trigeminal-neuralgia/DS00446 Introduction Signs and symptoms Causes When to seek medical advice Screening and diagnosis Treatment Coping skills Introduction Imagine having a jab of lightning-like pain shoot through your face when you brush your teeth or put on makeup. Sound excruciating? If you have trigeminal neuralgia, attacks of such pain are frequent and can often seem unbearable. You may initially experience short, mild attacks, but trigeminal neuralgia can progress, causing longer, more frequent bouts of searing pain. These painful attacks can be spontaneous, but they may also be provoked by even mild stimulation of your face, including brushing your teeth, shaving or putting on makeup. The pain of trigeminal neuralgia may occur in a fairly small area of your face, or it may spread rapidly over a wider area. Because of the variety of treatment options available, having trigeminal neuralgia doesn't necessarily mean you're doomed to a life of pain. Doctors usually can effectively manage trigeminal neuralgia, either with medications or surgery. Signs and symptoms An attack of trigeminal neuralgia can last from a few seconds to about a minute. Some people have mild, occasional twinges of pain, while other people have frequent, severe, electric-shock-like pain. The condition tends to come and go. You may experience attacks of pain off and on all day, or even for days or weeks at a time. Then, you may experience no pain for a prolonged period of time. Remission is less common the longer you have trigeminal neuralgia. People who have experienced severe trigeminal neuralgia have described the pain as: Lightning-like or electric-shock-like Shooting Jabbing Like having live wires in your face Trigeminal neuralgia usually affects just one side of your face. The pain may affect just a portion of one side of your face or spread in a wider pattern. Rarely, trigeminal neuralgia can affect both sides of your face, but not at the same time. Causes Branches of the trigeminal nerve CLICK TO ENLARGE The condition is called trigeminal neuralgia because the painful facial areas are those served by one or more of the three branches of your trigeminal nerve. This large nerve originates deep inside your brain and carries sensation from your face to your brain. The pain of trigeminal neuralgia is due to a disturbance in the function of the trigeminal nerve. Trigeminal neuralgia is also known as tic douloureux. The cause of the pain usually is due to contact between a normal artery or vein and the trigeminal nerve at the base of your brain. This places pressure on the nerve as it enters your brain and causes the nerve to misfire. Physical nerve damage or stress may be the initial trigger for trigeminal neuralgia. After the trigeminal nerve leaves your brain and travels through your skull, it divides into three smaller branches, controlling sensation throughout your face: The first branch controls sensation in your eye, upper eyelid and forehead. The second branch controls sensation in your lower eyelid, cheek, nostril, upper lip and upper gum. The third branch controls sensations in your jaw, lower lip, lower gum and some of the muscles you use for chewing. You may feel pain in the area served by just one branch of the trigeminal nerve, or the pain may affect all branches on one side of your face. Besides compression from blood vessel contact, other less frequent sources of pain to the trigeminal nerve may include: Compression by a tumor Multiple sclerosis A stroke affecting the lower part of your brain, where the trigeminal nerve enters your central nervous system A variety of triggers, many subtle, may set off the pain. These triggers may include: Shaving Stroking your face Eating Drinking Brushing your teeth Talking Putting on makeup Encountering a breeze Smiling Trigeminal neuralgia affects women more often than men. The disorder is more likely to occur in people who are older than 50. About 5 percent of people with trigeminal neuralgia have other family members with the disorder, which suggests a possible genetic cause in some cases. When to seek medical advice Some people mistake the pain of trigeminal neuralgia for a toothache or a headache. It's not uncommon for people to believe that their facial pain is dental-related, particularly when the pain seems to stem from the gumline or is located near a tooth. If you experience facial pain, particularly prolonged pain or pain that hasn't gone away with use of over-the-counter pain relievers, see your dentist or doctor. Screening and diagnosis If you go to your dentist, an examination of your mouth can reveal whether a problem with your teeth or gums is causing your pain. If you go to your doctor, he or she will want to ask about your medical history and have you describe your pain — how severe it is, what part of your face it affects, how long pain lasts and what seems to trigger episodes of pain. You'll also undergo a neurologic examination. During this examination, your doctor examines and touches parts of your face to try to determine exactly where the pain is occurring and — if it appears that you have trigeminal neuralgia — which branches of the trigeminal nerve may be affected. Your doctor may exclude other possible conditions based on your medical history, the examination, and a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of your head. Treatment Medications are the usual initial treatment for trigeminal neuralgia. Medications are often effective in lessening or blocking the pain signals sent to your brain. A number of drugs are available. If you stop responding to a particular medication or experience too many side effects, switching to another medication may work for you. Medications Carbamazepine (Tegretol, Carbatrol). Carbamazepine, an anticonvulsant drug, is the most common medication that doctors use to treat trigeminal neuralgia. In the early stages of the disease, carbamazepine controls pain for most people. However, the effectiveness of carbamazepine decreases over time. Side effects include dizziness, confusion, sleepiness and nausea. Baclofen. Baclofen is a muscle relaxant. Its effectiveness may increase when it's used in combination with carbamazepine or phenytoin. Side effects include confusion, nausea and drowsiness. Phenytoin (Dilantin, Phenytek). Phenytoin, another anticonvulsant medication, was the first medication used to treat trigeminal neuralgia. Side effects include gum enlargement, dizziness and drowsiness. Oxcarbazepine (Trileptal). Oxcarbazepine is another anticonvulsant medication and is similar to carbamazepine. Side effects include dizziness and double vision. Doctors may sometimes prescribe other medications, such as lamotrignine (Lamictal) or gabapentin (Neurontin). Some people with trigeminal neuralgia eventually stop responding to medications, or they experience unpleasant side effects. For those people, surgery, or a combination of surgery and medications, may be an option. Surgery The goal of a number of surgical procedures is to either damage or destroy the part of the trigeminal nerve that's the source of your pain. Because the success of these procedures depends on damaging the nerve, facial numbness of varying degree is a common side effect. These procedures involve: Alcohol injection. Alcohol injections under the skin of your face, where the branches of the trigeminal nerve leave the bones of your face, may offer temporary pain relief by numbing the areas for weeks or months. Because the pain relief isn't permanent, you may need repeated injections or a different procedure. Glycerol injection. This procedure is called percutaneous glycerol rhizotomy (PGR). "Percutaneous" means through the skin. Your doctor inserts a needle through your face and into an opening in the base of your skull. The needle is guided into the trigeminal cistern, a small sac of spinal fluid that surrounds the trigeminal nerve ganglion (the area where the trigeminal nerve divides into three branches) and part of its root. Images are made to confirm that the needle is in the proper location. After confirming the location, your doctor injects a small amount of sterile glycerol. After three or four hours, the glycerol damages the trigeminal nerve and blocks pain signals. Initially, PGR relieves pain in most people. However, some people have a recurrence of pain, and many experience facial numbness or tingling. http://www.MyTrigeminalNeuralgiaStory.com Balloon compression. In a procedure called percutaneous balloon compression of the trigeminal nerve (PBCTN), your doctor inserts a hollow needle through your face and into an opening in the base of your skull. Then, a thin, flexible tube (catheter) with a balloon on the end is threaded through the needle. The balloon is inflated with enough pressure to damage the nerve and block pain signals. PBCTN successfully controls pain in most people, at least for a while. Most people undergoing PBCTN experience facial numbness of varying degrees, and more than half experience nerve damage resulting in a temporary or permanent weakness of the muscles used to chew. http://www.MyTrigeminalNeuralgiaStory.com Electric current. A procedure called percutaneous stereotactic radiofrequency thermal rhizotomy (PSRTR) selectively destroys nerve fibers associated with pain. Your doctor threads a needle through your face and into an opening in your skull. Once in place, an electrode is threaded through the needle until it rests against the nerve root. An electric current is passed through the tip of the electrode until it's heated to the desired temperature. The heated tip damages the nerve fibers and creates an area of injury (lesion). If your pain isn't eliminated, your doctor may create additional lesions. PSRTR successfully controls pain in most people. Facial numbness is a common side effect of this type of treatment. The pain may return after a few years. Microvascular decompression (MVD). A procedure called microvascular decompression (MVD) doesn't damage or destroy part of the trigeminal nerve. Instead, MVD involves relocating or removing blood vessels that are in contact with the trigeminal root and separating the nerve root and blood vessels with a small pad. During MVD, your doctor makes an incision behind one ear. Then, through a small hole in your skull, part of your brain is lifted to expose the trigeminal nerve. If your doctor finds an artery in contact with the nerve root, he or she directs it away from the nerve and places a pad between the nerve and the artery. Doctors usually remove a vein that is found to be compressing the trigeminal nerve. MVD can successfully eliminate or reduce pain most of the time, but as with all other surgical procedures for trigeminal neuralgia, pain can recur in some people. http://www.MyTrigeminalNeuralgiaStory.com While MVD has a high success rate, it also carries risks. There are small chances of decreased hearing, facial weakness, facial numbness, double vision, and even a stroke or death. The risk of facial numbness is less with MVD than with procedures that involve damaging the trigeminal nerve. Severing the nerve. A procedure called partial sensory rhizotomy (PSR) involves cutting part of the trigeminal nerve at the base of your brain. Through an incision behind your ear, your doctor makes a quarter-sized hole in your skull to access the nerve. This procedure usually is helpful, but almost always causes facial numbness. And it's possible for pain to recur. If your doctor doesn't find an artery or vein in contact with the trigeminal nerve, he or she won't be able to perform an MVD, and a PSR may be done instead. Radiation. Gamma-knife radiosurgery (GKR) involves delivering a focused, high dose of radiation to the root of the trigeminal nerve. The radiation damages the trigeminal nerve and reduces or eliminates the pain. Relief isn't immediate and can take several weeks to begin. GKR is successful in eliminating pain more than half of the time. Sometimes the pain may recur. The procedure is painless and typically is done without anesthesia. Because this procedure is relatively new, the long-term risks of this type of radiation are not yet known. • Coping skills Living with trigeminal neuralgia can be difficult. The disorder may affect your interaction with friends and family, your productivity at work, and the overall quality of your life. You may find that talking to a counselor or therapist can help you cope with the effects of trigeminal neuralgia, or you may find encouragement and understanding in a support group. Although support groups aren't for everyone, they can be good sources of information. Group members often know about the latest treatments and tend to share their own experiences. If you're interested, your doctor may be able to recommend a group in your area. 27 Background: Trigeminal neuralgia (TN), also known as tic douloureux, is a pain syndrome recognizable by patient history alone. The condition is characterized by pain often accompanied by a brief facial spasm or tic. Pain distribution is unilateral and follows the sensory distribution of cranial nerve V, typically radiating to the maxillary (V2) or mandibular (V3) area. At times, both distributions are affected. Physical examination eliminates alternative diagnoses. Signs of cranial nerve dysfunction or other neurologic abnormality exclude the diagnosis of idiopathic TN and suggest that pain may be secondary to a structural lesion. Pathophysiology: The mechanism of pain production remains controversial. One theory suggests that peripheral injury or disease of the trigeminal nerve increases afferent firing in the nerve; failure of central inhibitory mechanisms may be involved as well. Pain is perceived when nociceptive neurons in a trigeminal nucleus involve thalamic relay neurons. Aneurysms, tumors, chronic meningeal inflammation, or other lesions may irritate trigeminal nerve roots along the pons. An abnormal vascular course of the superior cerebellar artery is often cited as the cause. In most cases, no lesion is identified, and the etiology is labeled idiopathic by default. Uncommonly, an area of demyelination from multiple sclerosis may be the precipitant. Lesions of the entry zone of the trigeminal roots within the pons may cause a similar pain syndrome. Thus, although TN typically is caused by a dysfunction in the peripheral nervous system (the roots or trigeminal nerve itself), a lesion within the central nervous system may rarely cause similar problems. Infrequently, adjacent dental fillings composed of dissimilar metals may trigger attacks. Frequency: Internationally: TN is uncommon, with an estimated prevalence of 155 cases per million persons. Mortality/Morbidity: No mortality is associated with idiopathic TN, although secondary depression is common if a chronic pain syndrome evolves. In rare cases, pain may be so frequent that oral nutrition is impaired. In symptomatic or secondary TN, morbidity or mortality relates to the underlying cause of the pain syndrome. Sex: Male-to-female ratio is 2:3. Age: Development of trigeminal neuralgia in a young person suggests the possibility of multiple sclerosis. Idiopathic TN typically occurs in patients in the sixth decade of life, but it may occur at any age. Symptomatic or secondary TN tends to occur in younger patients. 27 Background: Trigeminal neuralgia (TN), also known as tic douloureux, is a pain syndrome recognizable by patient history alone. The condition is characterized by pain often accompanied by a brief facial spasm or tic. Pain distribution is unilateral and follows the sensory distribution of cranial nerve V, typically radiating to the maxillary (V2) or mandibular (V3) area. At times, both distributions are affected. Physical examination eliminates alternative diagnoses. Signs of cranial nerve dysfunction or other neurologic abnormality exclude the diagnosis of idiopathic TN and suggest that pain may be secondary to a structural lesion. Pathophysiology: The mechanism of pain production remains controversial. One theory suggests that peripheral injury or disease of the trigeminal nerve increases afferent firing in the nerve; failure of central inhibitory mechanisms may be involved as well. Pain is perceived when nociceptive neurons in a trigeminal nucleus involve thalamic relay neurons. Aneurysms, tumors, chronic meningeal inflammation, or other lesions may irritate trigeminal nerve roots along the pons. An abnormal vascular course of the superior cerebellar artery is often cited as the cause. In most cases, no lesion is identified, and the etiology is labeled idiopathic by default. Uncommonly, an area of demyelination from multiple sclerosis may be the precipitant. Lesions of the entry zone of the trigeminal roots within the pons may cause a similar pain syndrome. Thus, although TN typically is caused by a dysfunction in the peripheral nervous system (the roots or trigeminal nerve itself), a lesion within the central nervous system may rarely cause similar problems. Infrequently, adjacent dental fillings composed of dissimilar metals may trigger attacks. http://www.MyTrigeminalNeuralgiaStory.com
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Click More http://www.MyTrigeminalNeuralgiaStory.com AWC 4398 2-6 Microvascular Decompression MVD Click Dr.Parrish Neurosurgeon TN Tic douloureux Facial Pain Electric Shocks. TNA BrianNelson123 Suicide Painful Jannetta Association Teflon Nerve THIS WEBSITE IS DESIGNED TO HAVE EACH TRIGEMINAL NEURALGIA patient tell there story from the beginning of the problem to the current status which is understandably changing daily as the body processes more of the pain. My personal story is very long and and be seen at w htttp[://www.IamFightingCancer.com Important words found on this site. Trigeminal Neuralgia Minneapolis TN Pain Personal Story, Balloon Compression Mentor, dysesthesia, bad feeling constant spasm. excruciating pains, Henry, Pneumonia Electrical Shocks, Shirley, Shelly Wilson, Support Group, Education, Association, Stabbing, Jolts, Suicide Disease, Neuropathic, rare Disorder, Treatment, destructive surgery, Procedure, Microvascular Decompression, tic douloureux Marge Prietz Trigeminal Neuralgia Extreme Facial Pain TN Websites insert. YouTube. From NelsonIdeas.com Trigeminal Neuralgia Extreme Facial Pain TN Websites insert. Websites insert. My Trigeminal Neuralgia Extreme Facial Pain TN Websites http:/./www.NelsonIdeas.com Click Dental Education Trigeminal Neuralgia Extreme Facial Pain http://www.NewMedicalDirectories.com/Trigeminal-Neuralgia-Dental/Dentist-Dentists.html Click Trigeminal Neuralgia Patient Painful-Stories http://www.BrianNelsonConsulting.com/trigeminal-neuralgia-tn/patient-painful-stories.html Click My Trigeminal Neuralgia (TN) Story only http://www.PartyTentCity.com/mytnstory.html Click My Story on TN Brian N http://www.PartyTentCity.com/trigeminal-neuralgia-tn-tmj-my-story/directory.html Click Trigeminal Neuralgia Slide Show Story of Pain http://www.NewMedicalDirectories.com/Trigeminal-Neuralgia-Slide-Show/Draft.html Click Medical Data Base Medical Costs More Expensive Due to Non Use of Technology http://www.briannelsonconsulting.com/medical-data-base/faq-info.html Click MyTrigeminal Neuralgia Story Directory http://www.MyTrigeminalNeuralgiaStory.com Click Slide Show Draft for New TN Patients. http://www.newmedicaldirectories.com/Trigeminal-Neuralgia-Slide-Show/Draft.html Click-Trigeminal Neuralgia Assn Page 1 http://newmedicaldirectories.com/Trigeminal-Neuralgia-Association/TN-Facial-Pain.html Click-Trigeminal Neuralgia Assn Page 2 http://newmedicaldirectories.com/Trigeminal-Neuralgia-Association/TN-Facial-Pain-2.html Click What is Trigeminal Neuragia? Portland,OR Slide Show http://www.NewMedicalDirectories.com/Trigeminal-Neuralgia-Slide-Show/Draft.html Click Trigeminal Neuralgia National Conference http://www.NewMedicalDirectories.com/Trigeminal-Neuralgia-Slide-Show/Draft.html Click Trigeminal Neuralgia Brian's Journal Tic Douloureux (TN) FacialPain-Cancer http://www.BrianNelsonConsulting.com/trigeminal-neuralgia-tn/faq-info.html http://www.BrianNelsonConsulting.com/trigeminal-neuralgia-tn/faq-info.html Click Page 1. Trigeminal Neuralgia http://www.BrianNelsonConsulting.com/trigeminal-neuralgia-tn/faq-info.html Click Page 2 Trigeminal Neuralgia http://www.briannelsonconsulting.com/trigeminal-neuralgia-tn/faq-info2.html Click Page 3 Trigeminal Neuralgia http://www.briannelsonconsulting.com/trigeminal-neuralgia-tn/faq-info3.htm Click Page 4 Trigeminal Neuralgia http://www.BrianNelsonConsulting.com/trigeminal-neuralgia-tn/faq-info4.html Click MyTrigeminal Neuralgia Stories Directory http://www.MyTrigeminalNeuralgiaStory.com/Index.html Click Brian's TN Story Quck Version http://www.MyTrigeminalNeuralgiaStory.com/BrianNelson/TN1.html Click Shirley's Story Trigeminal Neuralgia http://www.MyTrigeminalNeuralgiaStory.com/ShirleyH/TN3.html Click Sand's Story TN WHAT IS TRIGEMINAL NEURALGIA? TN (Trigeminal Neuralgia) is a pain that is described as among the most acute known to mankind. TN produces excruciating, lightning strikes of facial pain, typically near the nose, lips, eyes or ears. It is a disorder of the trigeminal nerve, which is the fifth and largest cranial nerve. TN (Trigeminal Neuralgia / tic douloureux) is a disorder of the fifth cranial (trigeminal) nerve that causes episodes of intense, stabbing, electric shock-like pain in the areas of the face where the branches of the nerve are distributed - lips, eyes, nose, scalp, forehead, upper jaw, and lower jaw. By many, it's called the "suicide disease". A less common form of the disorder called "Atypical Trigeminal Neuralgia" may cause less intense, constant, dull burning or aching pain, sometimes with occasional electric shock-like stabs. Both forms of the disorder most often affect one side of the face, but some patients experience pain at different times on both sides. Onset of symptoms occurs most often after age 50, but cases are known in children and even infants. Something as simple and routine as brushing the teeth, putting on makeup or even a slight breeze can trigger an attack, resulting in sheer agony for the individual. Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is not fatal, but it is universally considered to be the most painful affliction known to medical practice. Initial treatment of TN is usually by means of anti-convulsant drugs, such as Tegretol or Neurontin. Some anti-depressant drugs also have significant pain relieving effects. Should medication be ineffective or if it produces undesirable side effects, neurosurgical procedures are available to relieve pressure on the nerve or to reduce nerve sensitivity. Some patients report having reduced or relieved pain by means of alternative medical therapies such as acupuncture, chiropractic adjustment, self-hypnosis or meditation. http://www.MyTrigeminalNeuralgiaStory.com/SandiW/TN4.html What is Trigeminal Neuralgia? Trigeminal neuralgia (TN), also called tic douloureux, is a chronic pain condition that causes extreme, sporadic, sudden burning or shock-like face pain that lasts anywhere from a few seconds to as long as 2 minutes per episode. The intensity of pain can be physically and mentally incapacitating. TN pain is typically felt on one side of the jaw or cheek. Episodes can last for days, weeks, or months at a time and then disappear for months or years. In the days before an episode begins, some patients may experience a tingling or numbing sensation or a somewhat constant and aching pain. The attacks often worsen over time, with fewer and shorter pain-free periods before they recur. The intense flashes of pain can be triggered by vibration or contact with the cheek (such as when shaving, washing the face, or applying makeup), brushing teeth, eating, drinking, talking, or being exposed to the wind. TN occurs most often in people over age 50, but it can occur at any age, and is more common in women than in men. There is some evidence that the disorder runs in families, perhaps because of an inherited pattern of blood vessel formation. Although sometimes debilitating, the disorder is not life-threatening. The presumed cause of TN is a blood vessel pressing on the trigeminal nerve in the head as it exits the brainstem. TN may be part of the normal aging process but in some cases it is the associated with another disorder, such as multiple sclerosis or other disorders characterized by damage to the myelin sheath that covers certain nerves. Is there any treatment? Because there are a large number of conditions that can cause facial pain, TN can be difficult to diagnose. But finding the cause of the pain is important as the treatments for different types of pain may differ. Treatment options include medicines such as anticonvulsants and tricyclic antidepressants, surgery, and complementary approaches. Typical analgesics and opioids are not usually helpful in treating the sharp, recurring pain caused by TN. If medication fails to relieve pain or produces intolerable side effects such as excess fatigue, surgical treatment may be recommended. Several neurosurgical procedures are available. Some are done on an outpatient basis, while others are more complex and require hospitalization. Some patients choose to manage TN using complementary techniques, usually in combination with drug treatment. These techniques include acupuncture, biofeedback, vitamin therapy, nutritional therapy, and electrical stimulation of the nerves. What is the prognosis? The disorder is characterized by recurrences and remissions, and successive recurrences may incapacitate the patient. Due to the intensity of the pain, even the fear of an impending attack may prevent activity. Trigeminal neuralgia is not fatal. What research is being done? Within the NINDS research programs, trigeminal neuralgia is addressed primarily through studies associated with pain research. NINDS vigorously pursues a research program seeking new treatments for pain and nerve damage with the ultimate goal of reversing debilitating conditions such as trigeminal neuralgia. NINDS has notified research investigators that it is seeking grant applications both in basic and clinical pain research. An Alternate Strategy Instead of waiting for the pain to become intractable or the medications toxic, an individual with trigeminal neuralgia has the option to request early surgery. This has a number of potential advantages: • Avoid years of medication and intermittent pain • Avoid facing surgery when old or infirm • If the person has a vascular loop, early microvascular decompression will increase the possibility of a successful operation with decreased risk of recurrence (evidence suggests better outcomes and lower recurrence rate the shorter the interval between onset of symptoms and nerve decompression) How To Find Out If You Have a Vascular Loop The conventional MRI scans used to rule out the presence of a brain tumor or multiple sclerosis as a cause of a patients face pain are not adequate to visualize the trigeminal nerve or an associated blood vessel. Fortunately, the continued improvement in MRI neuro-imaging now makes it possible to visualize both. The technique, which is called 3-D volume acquisition, is performed with contrast injection and utilizes thin cuts (0.8mm), without gaps similar to what was developed for MRI angiography and venography. The trigeminal nerve is easily visualized in the axial plane when the MRI series is centered at the midpoint of the fourth ventricle. To ensure an adequate evaluation, the nerve should be seen on three adjacent cuts. Early studies indicate that when an offending vessel is present it will be detected 80% of the of the time. With continued imaging improvements this percentage will definitely increase. Click here for UCSD Trigeminal Neuralgia Sequence Parameters for Seimens and GE MR Scanners. Surgical Options: Non-Destructive Procedures The only non-destructive procedure which reliably relieves the symptoms of Trigeminal Neuralgia is Microvascular Decompression (MVD). This involves surgical exploration with the operating microscope and visualization of the junction where the Trigeminal nerve enters the base of the brain, followed by coagulation or moving and padding away any compressing blood vessels. The advantage is pain relief without numbness in the majority of patients, which usually lasts indefinitely. If the pain recurs after a MVD, which it does in 10-15% of patients, it can usually be controlled with low dose Tegretol® or Neurontin®. If the pain continues, it will require a repeat MVD or one of the destructive procedures. Surgical Options: Destructive Procedures There are multiple destructive procedures which are beneficial in the treatment of Trigeminal Neuralgia. The most common of which are glycerol injections, gamma knife radiation, electrocoagulation, and balloon compression. These procedures are all based on interrupting the pain by partial damage to Trigeminal nerve fibers. Generally the more numbness they produce, the longer they last. The specific advantages and disadvantages need to be discussed with the surgeon performing the procedure. These procedures are recommended for patients who have failed MVD or are not candidates for major surgery. Comments Treatment is always individualized. All of the options above should be considered in consultation with a neurosurgeon familiar in their use. Recommendations Based on the data currently available, and in an effort to maximize quality of life, we recommend the following: Patients with less than 10 year life expectancy Refer for destructive procedure if pain not controlled medically without significant side effects Patients with more than 10 but less than 20 year life expectancy Consider destructive procedure May abolish need for continued increasing medications Will make medical therapy easier even if fails Patients with more than 20 year life expectancy Perform thin cut MRI with 3-D Volume Acquisition If vessel present recommend MVD 25 ARTICLE SECTIONS From the Mayo Clinic. Trigeminal neuralgia http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/trigeminal-neuralgia/DS00446 Introduction Signs and symptoms Causes When to seek medical advice Screening and diagnosis Treatment Coping skills Introduction Imagine having a jab of lightning-like pain shoot through your face when you brush your teeth or put on makeup. Sound excruciating? If you have trigeminal neuralgia, attacks of such pain are frequent and can often seem unbearable. You may initially experience short, mild attacks, but trigeminal neuralgia can progress, causing longer, more frequent bouts of searing pain. These painful attacks can be spontaneous, but they may also be provoked by even mild stimulation of your face, including brushing your teeth, shaving or putting on makeup. The pain of trigeminal neuralgia may occur in a fairly small area of your face, or it may spread rapidly over a wider area. Because of the variety of treatment options available, having trigeminal neuralgia doesn't necessarily mean you're doomed to a life of pain. Doctors usually can effectively manage trigeminal neuralgia, either with medications or surgery. Signs and symptoms An attack of trigeminal neuralgia can last from a few seconds to about a minute. Some people have mild, occasional twinges of pain, while other people have frequent, severe, electric-shock-like pain. The condition tends to come and go. You may experience attacks of pain off and on all day, or even for days or weeks at a time. Then, you may experience no pain for a prolonged period of time. Remission is less common the longer you have trigeminal neuralgia. People who have experienced severe trigeminal neuralgia have described the pain as: Lightning-like or electric-shock-like Shooting Jabbing Like having live wires in your face Trigeminal neuralgia usually affects just one side of your face. The pain may affect just a portion of one side of your face or spread in a wider pattern. Rarely, trigeminal neuralgia can affect both sides of your face, but not at the same time. Causes Branches of the trigeminal nerve CLICK TO ENLARGE The condition is called trigeminal neuralgia because the painful facial areas are those served by one or more of the three branches of your trigeminal nerve. This large nerve originates deep inside your brain and carries sensation from your face to your brain. The pain of trigeminal neuralgia is due to a disturbance in the function of the trigeminal nerve. Trigeminal neuralgia is also known as tic douloureux. The cause of the pain usually is due to contact between a normal artery or vein and the trigeminal nerve at the base of your brain. This places pressure on the nerve as it enters your brain and causes the nerve to misfire. Physical nerve damage or stress may be the initial trigger for trigeminal neuralgia. After the trigeminal nerve leaves your brain and travels through your skull, it divides into three smaller branches, controlling sensation throughout your face: The first branch controls sensation in your eye, upper eyelid and forehead. The second branch controls sensation in your lower eyelid, cheek, nostril, upper lip and upper gum. The third branch controls sensations in your jaw, lower lip, lower gum and some of the muscles you use for chewing. You may feel pain in the area served by just one branch of the trigeminal nerve, or the pain may affect all branches on one side of your face. Besides compression from blood vessel contact, other less frequent sources of pain to the trigeminal nerve may include: Compression by a tumor Multiple sclerosis A stroke affecting the lower part of your brain, where the trigeminal nerve enters your central nervous system A variety of triggers, many subtle, may set off the pain. These triggers may include: Shaving Stroking your face Eating Drinking Brushing your teeth Talking Putting on makeup Encountering a breeze Smiling Trigeminal neuralgia affects women more often than men. The disorder is more likely to occur in people who are older than 50. About 5 percent of people with trigeminal neuralgia have other family members with the disorder, which suggests a possible genetic cause in some cases. When to seek medical advice Some people mistake the pain of trigeminal neuralgia for a toothache or a headache. It's not uncommon for people to believe that their facial pain is dental-related, particularly when the pain seems to stem from the gumline or is located near a tooth. If you experience facial pain, particularly prolonged pain or pain that hasn't gone away with use of over-the-counter pain relievers, see your dentist or doctor. Screening and diagnosis If you go to your dentist, an examination of your mouth can reveal whether a problem with your teeth or gums is causing your pain. If you go to your doctor, he or she will want to ask about your medical history and have you describe your pain — how severe it is, what part of your face it affects, how long pain lasts and what seems to trigger episodes of pain. You'll also undergo a neurologic examination. During this examination, your doctor examines and touches parts of your face to try to determine exactly where the pain is occurring and — if it appears that you have trigeminal neuralgia — which branches of the trigeminal nerve may be affected. Your doctor may exclude other possible conditions based on your medical history, the examination, and a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of your head. Treatment Medications are the usual initial treatment for trigeminal neuralgia. Medications are often effective in lessening or blocking the pain signals sent to your brain. A number of drugs are available. If you stop responding to a particular medication or experience too many side effects, switching to another medication may work for you. Medications Carbamazepine (Tegretol, Carbatrol). Carbamazepine, an anticonvulsant drug, is the most common medication that doctors use to treat trigeminal neuralgia. In the early stages of the disease, carbamazepine controls pain for most people. However, the effectiveness of carbamazepine decreases over time. Side effects include dizziness, confusion, sleepiness and nausea. Baclofen. Baclofen is a muscle relaxant. Its effectiveness may increase when it's used in combination with carbamazepine or phenytoin. Side effects include confusion, nausea and drowsiness. Phenytoin (Dilantin, Phenytek). Phenytoin, another anticonvulsant medication, was the first medication used to treat trigeminal neuralgia. Side effects include gum enlargement, dizziness and drowsiness. Oxcarbazepine (Trileptal). Oxcarbazepine is another anticonvulsant medication and is similar to carbamazepine. Side effects include dizziness and double vision. Doctors may sometimes prescribe other medications, such as lamotrignine (Lamictal) or gabapentin (Neurontin). Some people with trigeminal neuralgia eventually stop responding to medications, or they experience unpleasant side effects. For those people, surgery, or a combination of surgery and medications, may be an option. Surgery The goal of a number of surgical procedures is to either damage or destroy the part of the trigeminal nerve that's the source of your pain. Because the success of these procedures depends on damaging the nerve, facial numbness of varying degree is a common side effect. These procedures involve: Alcohol injection. Alcohol injections under the skin of your face, where the branches of the trigeminal nerve leave the bones of your face, may offer temporary pain relief by numbing the areas for weeks or months. Because the pain relief isn't permanent, you may need repeated injections or a different procedure. Glycerol injection. This procedure is called percutaneous glycerol rhizotomy (PGR). "Percutaneous" means through the skin. Your doctor inserts a needle through your face and into an opening in the base of your skull. The needle is guided into the trigeminal cistern, a small sac of spinal fluid that surrounds the trigeminal nerve ganglion (the area where the trigeminal nerve divides into three branches) and part of its root. Images are made to confirm that the needle is in the proper location. After confirming the location, your doctor injects a small amount of sterile glycerol. After three or four hours, the glycerol damages the trigeminal nerve and blocks pain signals. Initially, PGR relieves pain in most people. However, some people have a recurrence of pain, and many experience facial numbness or tingling. http://www.MyTrigeminalNeuralgiaStory.com Balloon compression. In a procedure called percutaneous balloon compression of the trigeminal nerve (PBCTN), your doctor inserts a hollow needle through your face and into an opening in the base of your skull. Then, a thin, flexible tube (catheter) with a balloon on the end is threaded through the needle. The balloon is inflated with enough pressure to damage the nerve and block pain signals. PBCTN successfully controls pain in most people, at least for a while. Most people undergoing PBCTN experience facial numbness of varying degrees, and more than half experience nerve damage resulting in a temporary or permanent weakness of the muscles used to chew. http://www.MyTrigeminalNeuralgiaStory.com Electric current. A procedure called percutaneous stereotactic radiofrequency thermal rhizotomy (PSRTR) selectively destroys nerve fibers associated with pain. Your doctor threads a needle through your face and into an opening in your skull. Once in place, an electrode is threaded through the needle until it rests against the nerve root. An electric current is passed through the tip of the electrode until it's heated to the desired temperature. The heated tip damages the nerve fibers and creates an area of injury (lesion). If your pain isn't eliminated, your doctor may create additional lesions. PSRTR successfully controls pain in most people. Facial numbness is a common side effect of this type of treatment. The pain may return after a few years. Microvascular decompression (MVD). A procedure called microvascular decompression (MVD) doesn't damage or destroy part of the trigeminal nerve. Instead, MVD involves relocating or removing blood vessels that are in contact with the trigeminal root and separating the nerve root and blood vessels with a small pad. During MVD, your doctor makes an incision behind one ear. Then, through a small hole in your skull, part of your brain is lifted to expose the trigeminal nerve. If your doctor finds an artery in contact with the nerve root, he or she directs it away from the nerve and places a pad between the nerve and the artery. Doctors usually remove a vein that is found to be compressing the trigeminal nerve. MVD can successfully eliminate or reduce pain most of the time, but as with all other surgical procedures for trigeminal neuralgia, pain can recur in some people. http://www.MyTrigeminalNeuralgiaStory.com While MVD has a high success rate, it also carries risks. There are small chances of decreased hearing, facial weakness, facial numbness, double vision, and even a stroke or death. The risk of facial numbness is less with MVD than with procedures that involve damaging the trigeminal nerve. Severing the nerve. A procedure called partial sensory rhizotomy (PSR) involves cutting part of the trigeminal nerve at the base of your brain. Through an incision behind your ear, your doctor makes a quarter-sized hole in your skull to access the nerve. This procedure usually is helpful, but almost always causes facial numbness. And it's possible for pain to recur. If your doctor doesn't find an artery or vein in contact with the trigeminal nerve, he or she won't be able to perform an MVD, and a PSR may be done instead. Radiation. Gamma-knife radiosurgery (GKR) involves delivering a focused, high dose of radiation to the root of the trigeminal nerve. The radiation damages the trigeminal nerve and reduces or eliminates the pain. Relief isn't immediate and can take several weeks to begin. GKR is successful in eliminating pain more than half of the time. Sometimes the pain may recur. The procedure is painless and typically is done without anesthesia. Because this procedure is relatively new, the long-term risks of this type of radiation are not yet known. • Coping skills Living with trigeminal neuralgia can be difficult. The disorder may affect your interaction with friends and family, your productivity at work, and the overall quality of your life. You may find that talking to a counselor or therapist can help you cope with the effects of trigeminal neuralgia, or you may find encouragement and understanding in a support group. Although support groups aren't for everyone, they can be good sources of information. Group members often know about the latest treatments and tend to share their own experiences. If you're interested, your doctor may be able to recommend a group in your area. 27 Background: Trigeminal neuralgia (TN), also known as tic douloureux, is a pain syndrome recognizable by patient history alone. The condition is characterized by pain often accompanied by a brief facial spasm or tic. Pain distribution is unilateral and follows the sensory distribution of cranial nerve V, typically radiating to the maxillary (V2) or mandibular (V3) area. At times, both distributions are affected. Physical examination eliminates alternative diagnoses. Signs of cranial nerve dysfunction or other neurologic abnormality exclude the diagnosis of idiopathic TN and suggest that pain may be secondary to a structural lesion. Pathophysiology: The mechanism of pain production remains controversial. One theory suggests that peripheral injury or disease of the trigeminal nerve increases afferent firing in the nerve; failure of central inhibitory mechanisms may be involved as well. Pain is perceived when nociceptive neurons in a trigeminal nucleus involve thalamic relay neurons. Aneurysms, tumors, chronic meningeal inflammation, or other lesions may irritate trigeminal nerve roots along the pons. An abnormal vascular course of the superior cerebellar artery is often cited as the cause. In most cases, no lesion is identified, and the etiology is labeled idiopathic by default. Uncommonly, an area of demyelination from multiple sclerosis may be the precipitant. Lesions of the entry zone of the trigeminal roots within the pons may cause a similar pain syndrome. Thus, although TN typically is caused by a dysfunction in the peripheral nervous system (the roots or trigeminal nerve itself), a lesion within the central nervous system may rarely cause similar problems. Infrequently, adjacent dental fillings composed of dissimilar metals may trigger attacks. Frequency: Internationally: TN is uncommon, with an estimated prevalence of 155 cases per million persons. Mortality/Morbidity: No mortality is associated with idiopathic TN, although secondary depression is common if a chronic pain syndrome evolves. In rare cases, pain may be so frequent that oral nutrition is impaired. In symptomatic or secondary TN, morbidity or mortality relates to the underlying cause of the pain syndrome. Sex: Male-to-female ratio is 2:3. Age: Development of trigeminal neuralgia in a young person suggests the possibility of multiple sclerosis. Idiopathic TN typically occurs in patients in the sixth decade of life, but it may occur at any age. Symptomatic or secondary TN tends to occur in younger patients. 27 Background: Trigeminal neuralgia (TN), also known as tic douloureux, is a pain syndrome recognizable by patient history alone. The condition is characterized by pain often accompanied by a brief facial spasm or tic. Pain distribution is unilateral and follows the sensory distribution of cranial nerve V, typically radiating to the maxillary (V2) or mandibular (V3) area. At times, both distributions are affected. Physical examination eliminates alternative diagnoses. Signs of cranial nerve dysfunction or other neurologic abnormality exclude the diagnosis of idiopathic TN and suggest that pain may be secondary to a structural lesion. Pathophysiology: The mechanism of pain production remains controversial. One theory suggests that peripheral injury or disease of the trigeminal nerve increases afferent firing in the nerve; failure of central inhibitory mechanisms may be involved as well. Pain is perceived when nociceptive neurons in a trigeminal nucleus involve thalamic relay neurons. Aneurysms, tumors, chronic meningeal inflammation, or other lesions may irritate trigeminal nerve roots along the pons. An abnormal vascular course of the superior cerebellar artery is often cited as the cause. In most cases, no lesion is identified, and the etiology is labeled idiopathic by default. Uncommonly, an area of demyelination from multiple sclerosis may be the precipitant. Lesions of the entry zone of the trigeminal roots within the pons may cause a similar pain syndrome. Thus, although TN typically is caused by a dysfunction in the peripheral nervous system (the roots or trigeminal nerve itself), a lesion within the central nervous system may rarely cause similar problems. Infrequently, adjacent dental fillings composed of dissimilar metals may trigger attacks. http://www.MyTrigeminalNeuralgiaStory.com
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Inferior Mesenteric Artery: Easy Anatomy Mnemonic Tutorial- Branches: colic, sigmoid, rectal
 
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Blood supply to the hindgut is remembered with this easy anatomy mnemonic. Please SUBSCRIBE: More cool stuff coming as we get more HippoHelpers! Anatomy playlist at: http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLIPkjUW-piR2QuaJ7zaxA7X-A9netP0cK And visit http://www.helphippo.com for more tutorial videos and flashcards. ------------ Celiac Trunk Mnemonic: Left Hand Side Left = Left Gastric Artery Hand = Common Hepatic Side = Splenic ----------- Superior Mesenteric Artery: "Pain" Interests Ill Righteous Madams: "Pancreaticoduoneal", Intestinal, Ileocolic, Right Colic, Middle Colic ----------- Inferior Mesenteric Artery: LeSS Left colic, Sigmoid Branches, Superior Rectal http://youtu.be/i992A2MZLPY ---------------------------- Directly off aorta: http://youtu.be/aGzjP0v8Fac Prostitutes Cause Super Super Red Testicles, Lumbering Into My Cock Phrenic, Celiac, Superior Mesenteric, Suprarenal, Renal, Testicular, Lumbar, Inferior Mesenteric, Common Iliac
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5-6 Microvascular Decompression MVD Dr. Parrish Neurosurgeon
 
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Click More http://www.MyTrigeminalNeuralgiaStory.com AWC 4398 5-6 Microvascular Decompression MVD Click Dr.Parrish Neurosurgeon TN Tic douloureux Facial Pain Electric Shocks. TNA BrianNelson123 Suicide Painful Jannetta Association Teflon Nerve THIS WEBSITE IS DESIGNED TO HAVE EACH TRIGEMINAL NEURALGIA patient tell there story from the beginning of the problem to the current status which is understandably changing daily as the body processes more of the pain. My personal story is very long and and be seen at w htttp[://www.IamFightingCancer.com Important words found on this site. Trigeminal Neuralgia Minneapolis TN Pain Personal Story, Balloon Compression Mentor, dysesthesia, bad feeling constant spasm. excruciating pains, Henry, Pneumonia Electrical Shocks, Shirley, Shelly Wilson, Support Group, Education, Association, Stabbing, Jolts, Suicide Disease, Neuropathic, rare Disorder, Treatment, destructive surgery, Procedure, Microvascular Decompression, tic douloureux Marge Prietz Trigeminal Neuralgia Extreme Facial Pain TN Websites insert. YouTube. From NelsonIdeas.com Trigeminal Neuralgia Extreme Facial Pain TN Websites insert. Websites insert. My Trigeminal Neuralgia Extreme Facial Pain TN Websites http:/./www.NelsonIdeas.com Click Dental Education Trigeminal Neuralgia Extreme Facial Pain http://www.NewMedicalDirectories.com/Trigeminal-Neuralgia-Dental/Dentist-Dentists.html Click Trigeminal Neuralgia Patient Painful-Stories http://www.BrianNelsonConsulting.com/trigeminal-neuralgia-tn/patient-painful-stories.html Click My Trigeminal Neuralgia (TN) Story only http://www.PartyTentCity.com/mytnstory.html Click My Story on TN Brian N http://www.PartyTentCity.com/trigeminal-neuralgia-tn-tmj-my-story/directory.html Click Trigeminal Neuralgia Slide Show Story of Pain http://www.NewMedicalDirectories.com/Trigeminal-Neuralgia-Slide-Show/Draft.html Click Medical Data Base Medical Costs More Expensive Due to Non Use of Technology http://www.briannelsonconsulting.com/medical-data-base/faq-info.html Click MyTrigeminal Neuralgia Story Directory http://www.MyTrigeminalNeuralgiaStory.com Click Slide Show Draft for New TN Patients. http://www.newmedicaldirectories.com/Trigeminal-Neuralgia-Slide-Show/Draft.html Click-Trigeminal Neuralgia Assn Page 1 http://newmedicaldirectories.com/Trigeminal-Neuralgia-Association/TN-Facial-Pain.html Click-Trigeminal Neuralgia Assn Page 2 http://newmedicaldirectories.com/Trigeminal-Neuralgia-Association/TN-Facial-Pain-2.html Click What is Trigeminal Neuragia? Portland,OR Slide Show http://www.NewMedicalDirectories.com/Trigeminal-Neuralgia-Slide-Show/Draft.html Click Trigeminal Neuralgia National Conference http://www.NewMedicalDirectories.com/Trigeminal-Neuralgia-Slide-Show/Draft.html Click Trigeminal Neuralgia Brian's Journal Tic Douloureux (TN) FacialPain-Cancer http://www.BrianNelsonConsulting.com/trigeminal-neuralgia-tn/faq-info.html http://www.BrianNelsonConsulting.com/trigeminal-neuralgia-tn/faq-info.html Click Page 1. Trigeminal Neuralgia http://www.BrianNelsonConsulting.com/trigeminal-neuralgia-tn/faq-info.html Click Page 2 Trigeminal Neuralgia http://www.briannelsonconsulting.com/trigeminal-neuralgia-tn/faq-info2.html Click Page 3 Trigeminal Neuralgia http://www.briannelsonconsulting.com/trigeminal-neuralgia-tn/faq-info3.htm Click Page 4 Trigeminal Neuralgia http://www.BrianNelsonConsulting.com/trigeminal-neuralgia-tn/faq-info4.html Click MyTrigeminal Neuralgia Stories Directory http://www.MyTrigeminalNeuralgiaStory.com/Index.html Click Brian's TN Story Quck Version http://www.MyTrigeminalNeuralgiaStory.com/BrianNelson/TN1.html Click Shirley's Story Trigeminal Neuralgia http://www.MyTrigeminalNeuralgiaStory.com/ShirleyH/TN3.html Click Sand's Story TN WHAT IS TRIGEMINAL NEURALGIA? TN (Trigeminal Neuralgia) is a pain that is described as among the most acute known to mankind. TN produces excruciating, lightning strikes of facial pain, typically near the nose, lips, eyes or ears. It is a disorder of the trigeminal nerve, which is the fifth and largest cranial nerve. TN (Trigeminal Neuralgia / tic douloureux) is a disorder of the fifth cranial (trigeminal) nerve that causes episodes of intense, stabbing, electric shock-like pain in the areas of the face where the branches of the nerve are distributed - lips, eyes, nose, scalp, forehead, upper jaw, and lower jaw. By many, it's called the "suicide disease". A less common form of the disorder called "Atypical Trigeminal Neuralgia" may cause less intense, constant, dull burning or aching pain, sometimes with occasional electric shock-like stabs. Both forms of the disorder most often affect one side of the face, but some patients experience pain at different times on both sides. Onset of symptoms occurs most often after age 50, but cases are known in children and even infants. Something as simple and routine as brushing the teeth, putting on makeup or even a slight breeze can trigger an attack, resulting in sheer agony for the individual. Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is not fatal, but it is universally considered to be the most painful affliction known to medical practice. Initial treatment of TN is usually by means of anti-convulsant drugs, such as Tegretol or Neurontin. Some anti-depressant drugs also have significant pain relieving effects. Should medication be ineffective or if it produces undesirable side effects, neurosurgical procedures are available to relieve pressure on the nerve or to reduce nerve sensitivity. Some patients report having reduced or relieved pain by means of alternative medical therapies such as acupuncture, chiropractic adjustment, self-hypnosis or meditation. http://www.MyTrigeminalNeuralgiaStory.com/SandiW/TN4.html What is Trigeminal Neuralgia? Trigeminal neuralgia (TN), also called tic douloureux, is a chronic pain condition that causes extreme, sporadic, sudden burning or shock-like face pain that lasts anywhere from a few seconds to as long as 2 minutes per episode. The intensity of pain can be physically and mentally incapacitating. TN pain is typically felt on one side of the jaw or cheek. Episodes can last for days, weeks, or months at a time and then disappear for months or years. In the days before an episode begins, some patients may experience a tingling or numbing sensation or a somewhat constant and aching pain. The attacks often worsen over time, with fewer and shorter pain-free periods before they recur. The intense flashes of pain can be triggered by vibration or contact with the cheek (such as when shaving, washing the face, or applying makeup), brushing teeth, eating, drinking, talking, or being exposed to the wind. TN occurs most often in people over age 50, but it can occur at any age, and is more common in women than in men. There is some evidence that the disorder runs in families, perhaps because of an inherited pattern of blood vessel formation. Although sometimes debilitating, the disorder is not life-threatening. The presumed cause of TN is a blood vessel pressing on the trigeminal nerve in the head as it exits the brainstem. TN may be part of the normal aging process but in some cases it is the associated with another disorder, such as multiple sclerosis or other disorders characterized by damage to the myelin sheath that covers certain nerves. Is there any treatment? Because there are a large number of conditions that can cause facial pain, TN can be difficult to diagnose. But finding the cause of the pain is important as the treatments for different types of pain may differ. Treatment options include medicines such as anticonvulsants and tricyclic antidepressants, surgery, and complementary approaches. Typical analgesics and opioids are not usually helpful in treating the sharp, recurring pain caused by TN. If medication fails to relieve pain or produces intolerable side effects such as excess fatigue, surgical treatment may be recommended. Several neurosurgical procedures are available. Some are done on an outpatient basis, while others are more complex and require hospitalization. Some patients choose to manage TN using complementary techniques, usually in combination with drug treatment. These techniques include acupuncture, biofeedback, vitamin therapy, nutritional therapy, and electrical stimulation of the nerves. What is the prognosis? The disorder is characterized by recurrences and remissions, and successive recurrences may incapacitate the patient. Due to the intensity of the pain, even the fear of an impending attack may prevent activity. Trigeminal neuralgia is not fatal. What research is being done? Within the NINDS research programs, trigeminal neuralgia is addressed primarily through studies associated with pain research. NINDS vigorously pursues a research program seeking new treatments for pain and nerve damage with the ultimate goal of reversing debilitating conditions such as trigeminal neuralgia. NINDS has notified research investigators that it is seeking grant applications both in basic and clinical pain research. An Alternate Strategy Instead of waiting for the pain to become intractable or the medications toxic, an individual with trigeminal neuralgia has the option to request early surgery. This has a number of potential advantages: • Avoid years of medication and intermittent pain • Avoid facing surgery when old or infirm • If the person has a vascular loop, early microvascular decompression will increase the possibility of a successful operation with decreased risk of recurrence (evidence suggests better outcomes and lower recurrence rate the shorter the interval between onset of symptoms and nerve decompression) How To Find Out If You Have a Vascular Loop The conventional MRI scans used to rule out the presence of a brain tumor or multiple sclerosis as a cause of a patients face pain are not adequate to visualize the trigeminal nerve or an associated blood vessel. Fortunately, the continued improvement in MRI neuro-imaging now makes it possible to visualize both. The technique, which is called 3-D volume acquisition, is performed with contrast injection and utilizes thin cuts (0.8mm), without gaps similar to what was developed for MRI angiography and venography. The trigeminal nerve is easily visualized in the axial plane when the MRI series is centered at the midpoint of the fourth ventricle. To ensure an adequate evaluation, the nerve should be seen on three adjacent cuts. Early studies indicate that when an offending vessel is present it will be detected 80% of the of the time. With continued imaging improvements this percentage will definitely increase. Click here for UCSD Trigeminal Neuralgia Sequence Parameters for Seimens and GE MR Scanners. Surgical Options: Non-Destructive Procedures The only non-destructive procedure which reliably relieves the symptoms of Trigeminal Neuralgia is Microvascular Decompression (MVD). This involves surgical exploration with the operating microscope and visualization of the junction where the Trigeminal nerve enters the base of the brain, followed by coagulation or moving and padding away any compressing blood vessels. The advantage is pain relief without numbness in the majority of patients, which usually lasts indefinitely. If the pain recurs after a MVD, which it does in 10-15% of patients, it can usually be controlled with low dose Tegretol® or Neurontin®. If the pain continues, it will require a repeat MVD or one of the destructive procedures. Surgical Options: Destructive Procedures There are multiple destructive procedures which are beneficial in the treatment of Trigeminal Neuralgia. The most common of which are glycerol injections, gamma knife radiation, electrocoagulation, and balloon compression. These procedures are all based on interrupting the pain by partial damage to Trigeminal nerve fibers. Generally the more numbness they produce, the longer they last. The specific advantages and disadvantages need to be discussed with the surgeon performing the procedure. These procedures are recommended for patients who have failed MVD or are not candidates for major surgery. Comments Treatment is always individualized. All of the options above should be considered in consultation with a neurosurgeon familiar in their use. Recommendations Based on the data currently available, and in an effort to maximize quality of life, we recommend the following: Patients with less than 10 year life expectancy Refer for destructive procedure if pain not controlled medically without significant side effects Patients with more than 10 but less than 20 year life expectancy Consider destructive procedure May abolish need for continued increasing medications Will make medical therapy easier even if fails Patients with more than 20 year life expectancy Perform thin cut MRI with 3-D Volume Acquisition If vessel present recommend MVD 25 ARTICLE SECTIONS From the Mayo Clinic. Trigeminal neuralgia http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/trigeminal-neuralgia/DS00446 Introduction Signs and symptoms Causes When to seek medical advice Screening and diagnosis Treatment Coping skills Introduction Imagine having a jab of lightning-like pain shoot through your face when you brush your teeth or put on makeup. Sound excruciating? If you have trigeminal neuralgia, attacks of such pain are frequent and can often seem unbearable. You may initially experience short, mild attacks, but trigeminal neuralgia can progress, causing longer, more frequent bouts of searing pain. These painful attacks can be spontaneous, but they may also be provoked by even mild stimulation of your face, including brushing your teeth, shaving or putting on makeup. The pain of trigeminal neuralgia may occur in a fairly small area of your face, or it may spread rapidly over a wider area. Because of the variety of treatment options available, having trigeminal neuralgia doesn't necessarily mean you're doomed to a life of pain. Doctors usually can effectively manage trigeminal neuralgia, either with medications or surgery. Signs and symptoms An attack of trigeminal neuralgia can last from a few seconds to about a minute. Some people have mild, occasional twinges of pain, while other people have frequent, severe, electric-shock-like pain. The condition tends to come and go. You may experience attacks of pain off and on all day, or even for days or weeks at a time. Then, you may experience no pain for a prolonged period of time. Remission is less common the longer you have trigeminal neuralgia. People who have experienced severe trigeminal neuralgia have described the pain as: Lightning-like or electric-shock-like Shooting Jabbing Like having live wires in your face Trigeminal neuralgia usually affects just one side of your face. The pain may affect just a portion of one side of your face or spread in a wider pattern. Rarely, trigeminal neuralgia can affect both sides of your face, but not at the same time. Causes Branches of the trigeminal nerve CLICK TO ENLARGE The condition is called trigeminal neuralgia because the painful facial areas are those served by one or more of the three branches of your trigeminal nerve. This large nerve originates deep inside your brain and carries sensation from your face to your brain. The pain of trigeminal neuralgia is due to a disturbance in the function of the trigeminal nerve. Trigeminal neuralgia is also known as tic douloureux. The cause of the pain usually is due to contact between a normal artery or vein and the trigeminal nerve at the base of your brain. This places pressure on the nerve as it enters your brain and causes the nerve to misfire. Physical nerve damage or stress may be the initial trigger for trigeminal neuralgia. After the trigeminal nerve leaves your brain and travels through your skull, it divides into three smaller branches, controlling sensation throughout your face: The first branch controls sensation in your eye, upper eyelid and forehead. The second branch controls sensation in your lower eyelid, cheek, nostril, upper lip and upper gum. The third branch controls sensations in your jaw, lower lip, lower gum and some of the muscles you use for chewing. You may feel pain in the area served by just one branch of the trigeminal nerve, or the pain may affect all branches on one side of your face. Besides compression from blood vessel contact, other less frequent sources of pain to the trigeminal nerve may include: Compression by a tumor Multiple sclerosis A stroke affecting the lower part of your brain, where the trigeminal nerve enters your central nervous system A variety of triggers, many subtle, may set off the pain. These triggers may include: Shaving Stroking your face Eating Drinking Brushing your teeth Talking Putting on makeup Encountering a breeze Smiling Trigeminal neuralgia affects women more often than men. The disorder is more likely to occur in people who are older than 50. About 5 percent of people with trigeminal neuralgia have other family members with the disorder, which suggests a possible genetic cause in some cases. When to seek medical advice Some people mistake the pain of trigeminal neuralgia for a toothache or a headache. It's not uncommon for people to believe that their facial pain is dental-related, particularly when the pain seems to stem from the gumline or is located near a tooth. If you experience facial pain, particularly prolonged pain or pain that hasn't gone away with use of over-the-counter pain relievers, see your dentist or doctor. Screening and diagnosis If you go to your dentist, an examination of your mouth can reveal whether a problem with your teeth or gums is causing your pain. If you go to your doctor, he or she will want to ask about your medical history and have you describe your pain — how severe it is, what part of your face it affects, how long pain lasts and what seems to trigger episodes of pain. You'll also undergo a neurologic examination. During this examination, your doctor examines and touches parts of your face to try to determine exactly where the pain is occurring and — if it appears that you have trigeminal neuralgia — which branches of the trigeminal nerve may be affected. Your doctor may exclude other possible conditions based on your medical history, the examination, and a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of your head. Treatment Medications are the usual initial treatment for trigeminal neuralgia. Medications are often effective in lessening or blocking the pain signals sent to your brain. A number of drugs are available. If you stop responding to a particular medication or experience too many side effects, switching to another medication may work for you. Medications Carbamazepine (Tegretol, Carbatrol). Carbamazepine, an anticonvulsant drug, is the most common medication that doctors use to treat trigeminal neuralgia. In the early stages of the disease, carbamazepine controls pain for most people. However, the effectiveness of carbamazepine decreases over time. Side effects include dizziness, confusion, sleepiness and nausea. Baclofen. Baclofen is a muscle relaxant. Its effectiveness may increase when it's used in combination with carbamazepine or phenytoin. Side effects include confusion, nausea and drowsiness. Phenytoin (Dilantin, Phenytek). Phenytoin, another anticonvulsant medication, was the first medication used to treat trigeminal neuralgia. Side effects include gum enlargement, dizziness and drowsiness. Oxcarbazepine (Trileptal). Oxcarbazepine is another anticonvulsant medication and is similar to carbamazepine. Side effects include dizziness and double vision. Doctors may sometimes prescribe other medications, such as lamotrignine (Lamictal) or gabapentin (Neurontin). Some people with trigeminal neuralgia eventually stop responding to medications, or they experience unpleasant side effects. For those people, surgery, or a combination of surgery and medications, may be an option. Surgery The goal of a number of surgical procedures is to either damage or destroy the part of the trigeminal nerve that's the source of your pain. Because the success of these procedures depends on damaging the nerve, facial numbness of varying degree is a common side effect. These procedures involve: Alcohol injection. Alcohol injections under the skin of your face, where the branches of the trigeminal nerve leave the bones of your face, may offer temporary pain relief by numbing the areas for weeks or months. Because the pain relief isn't permanent, you may need repeated injections or a different procedure. Glycerol injection. This procedure is called percutaneous glycerol rhizotomy (PGR). "Percutaneous" means through the skin. Your doctor inserts a needle through your face and into an opening in the base of your skull. The needle is guided into the trigeminal cistern, a small sac of spinal fluid that surrounds the trigeminal nerve ganglion (the area where the trigeminal nerve divides into three branches) and part of its root. Images are made to confirm that the needle is in the proper location. After confirming the location, your doctor injects a small amount of sterile glycerol. After three or four hours, the glycerol damages the trigeminal nerve and blocks pain signals. Initially, PGR relieves pain in most people. However, some people have a recurrence of pain, and many experience facial numbness or tingling. http://www.MyTrigeminalNeuralgiaStory.com Balloon compression. In a procedure called percutaneous balloon compression of the trigeminal nerve (PBCTN), your doctor inserts a hollow needle through your face and into an opening in the base of your skull. Then, a thin, flexible tube (catheter) with a balloon on the end is threaded through the needle. The balloon is inflated with enough pressure to damage the nerve and block pain signals. PBCTN successfully controls pain in most people, at least for a while. Most people undergoing PBCTN experience facial numbness of varying degrees, and more than half experience nerve damage resulting in a temporary or permanent weakness of the muscles used to chew. http://www.MyTrigeminalNeuralgiaStory.com Electric current. A procedure called percutaneous stereotactic radiofrequency thermal rhizotomy (PSRTR) selectively destroys nerve fibers associated with pain. Your doctor threads a needle through your face and into an opening in your skull. Once in place, an electrode is threaded through the needle until it rests against the nerve root. An electric current is passed through the tip of the electrode until it's heated to the desired temperature. The heated tip damages the nerve fibers and creates an area of injury (lesion). If your pain isn't eliminated, your doctor may create additional lesions. PSRTR successfully controls pain in most people. Facial numbness is a common side effect of this type of treatment. The pain may return after a few years. Microvascular decompression (MVD). A procedure called microvascular decompression (MVD) doesn't damage or destroy part of the trigeminal nerve. Instead, MVD involves relocating or removing blood vessels that are in contact with the trigeminal root and separating the nerve root and blood vessels with a small pad. During MVD, your doctor makes an incision behind one ear. Then, through a small hole in your skull, part of your brain is lifted to expose the trigeminal nerve. If your doctor finds an artery in contact with the nerve root, he or she directs it away from the nerve and places a pad between the nerve and the artery. Doctors usually remove a vein that is found to be compressing the trigeminal nerve. MVD can successfully eliminate or reduce pain most of the time, but as with all other surgical procedures for trigeminal neuralgia, pain can recur in some people. http://www.MyTrigeminalNeuralgiaStory.com While MVD has a high success rate, it also carries risks. There are small chances of decreased hearing, facial weakness, facial numbness, double vision, and even a stroke or death. The risk of facial numbness is less with MVD than with procedures that involve damaging the trigeminal nerve. Severing the nerve. A procedure called partial sensory rhizotomy (PSR) involves cutting part of the trigeminal nerve at the base of your brain. Through an incision behind your ear, your doctor makes a quarter-sized hole in your skull to access the nerve. This procedure usually is helpful, but almost always causes facial numbness. And it's possible for pain to recur. If your doctor doesn't find an artery or vein in contact with the trigeminal nerve, he or she won't be able to perform an MVD, and a PSR may be done instead. Radiation. Gamma-knife radiosurgery (GKR) involves delivering a focused, high dose of radiation to the root of the trigeminal nerve. The radiation damages the trigeminal nerve and reduces or eliminates the pain. Relief isn't immediate and can take several weeks to begin. GKR is successful in eliminating pain more than half of the time. Sometimes the pain may recur. The procedure is painless and typically is done without anesthesia. Because this procedure is relatively new, the long-term risks of this type of radiation are not yet known. • Coping skills Living with trigeminal neuralgia can be difficult. The disorder may affect your interaction with friends and family, your productivity at work, and the overall quality of your life. You may find that talking to a counselor or therapist can help you cope with the effects of trigeminal neuralgia, or you may find encouragement and understanding in a support group. Although support groups aren't for everyone, they can be good sources of information. Group members often know about the latest treatments and tend to share their own experiences. If you're interested, your doctor may be able to recommend a group in your area. 27 Background: Trigeminal neuralgia (TN), also known as tic douloureux, is a pain syndrome recognizable by patient history alone. The condition is characterized by pain often accompanied by a brief facial spasm or tic. Pain distribution is unilateral and follows the sensory distribution of cranial nerve V, typically radiating to the maxillary (V2) or mandibular (V3) area. At times, both distributions are affected. Physical examination eliminates alternative diagnoses. Signs of cranial nerve dysfunction or other neurologic abnormality exclude the diagnosis of idiopathic TN and suggest that pain may be secondary to a structural lesion. Pathophysiology: The mechanism of pain production remains controversial. One theory suggests that peripheral injury or disease of the trigeminal nerve increases afferent firing in the nerve; failure of central inhibitory mechanisms may be involved as well. Pain is perceived when nociceptive neurons in a trigeminal nucleus involve thalamic relay neurons. Aneurysms, tumors, chronic meningeal inflammation, or other lesions may irritate trigeminal nerve roots along the pons. An abnormal vascular course of the superior cerebellar artery is often cited as the cause. In most cases, no lesion is identified, and the etiology is labeled idiopathic by default. Uncommonly, an area of demyelination from multiple sclerosis may be the precipitant. Lesions of the entry zone of the trigeminal roots within the pons may cause a similar pain syndrome. Thus, although TN typically is caused by a dysfunction in the peripheral nervous system (the roots or trigeminal nerve itself), a lesion within the central nervous system may rarely cause similar problems. Infrequently, adjacent dental fillings composed of dissimilar metals may trigger attacks. Frequency: Internationally: TN is uncommon, with an estimated prevalence of 155 cases per million persons. Mortality/Morbidity: No mortality is associated with idiopathic TN, although secondary depression is common if a chronic pain syndrome evolves. In rare cases, pain may be so frequent that oral nutrition is impaired. In symptomatic or secondary TN, morbidity or mortality relates to the underlying cause of the pain syndrome. Sex: Male-to-female ratio is 2:3. Age: Development of trigeminal neuralgia in a young person suggests the possibility of multiple sclerosis. Idiopathic TN typically occurs in patients in the sixth decade of life, but it may occur at any age. Symptomatic or secondary TN tends to occur in younger patients. 27 Background: Trigeminal neuralgia (TN), also known as tic douloureux, is a pain syndrome recognizable by patient history alone. The condition is characterized by pain often accompanied by a brief facial spasm or tic. Pain distribution is unilateral and follows the sensory distribution of cranial nerve V, typically radiating to the maxillary (V2) or mandibular (V3) area. At times, both distributions are affected. Physical examination eliminates alternative diagnoses. Signs of cranial nerve dysfunction or other neurologic abnormality exclude the diagnosis of idiopathic TN and suggest that pain may be secondary to a structural lesion. Pathophysiology: The mechanism of pain production remains controversial. One theory suggests that peripheral injury or disease of the trigeminal nerve increases afferent firing in the nerve; failure of central inhibitory mechanisms may be involved as well. Pain is perceived when nociceptive neurons in a trigeminal nucleus involve thalamic relay neurons. Aneurysms, tumors, chronic meningeal inflammation, or other lesions may irritate trigeminal nerve roots along the pons. An abnormal vascular course of the superior cerebellar artery is often cited as the cause. In most cases, no lesion is identified, and the etiology is labeled idiopathic by default. Uncommonly, an area of demyelination from multiple sclerosis may be the precipitant. Lesions of the entry zone of the trigeminal roots within the pons may cause a similar pain syndrome. Thus, although TN typically is caused by a dysfunction in the peripheral nervous system (the roots or trigeminal nerve itself), a lesion within the central nervous system may rarely cause similar problems. Infrequently, adjacent dental fillings composed of dissimilar metals may trigger attacks. http://www.MyTrigeminalNeuralgiaStory.com
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1-6 Microvascular Decompression MVD Dr. Parrish Neurosurgeon
 
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Click More http://www.MyTrigeminalNeuralgiaStory.com AWC 4398 1-6 Microvascular Decompression MVD Click Dr.Parrish Neurosurgeon TN Tic douloureux Facial Pain Electric Shocks. TNA BrianNelson123 Suicide Painful Jannetta Association Teflon Nerve THIS WEBSITE IS DESIGNED TO HAVE EACH TRIGEMINAL NEURALGIA patient tell there story from the beginning of the problem to the current status which is understandably changing daily as the body processes more of the pain. My personal story is very long and and be seen at w htttp[://www.IamFightingCancer.com Important words found on this site. Trigeminal Neuralgia Minneapolis TN Pain Personal Story, Balloon Compression Mentor, dysesthesia, bad feeling constant spasm. excruciating pains, Henry, Pneumonia Electrical Shocks, Shirley, Shelly Wilson, Support Group, Education, Association, Stabbing, Jolts, Suicide Disease, Neuropathic, rare Disorder, Treatment, destructive surgery, Procedure, Microvascular Decompression, tic douloureux Marge Prietz Trigeminal Neuralgia Extreme Facial Pain TN Websites insert. YouTube. From NelsonIdeas.com Trigeminal Neuralgia Extreme Facial Pain TN Websites insert. Websites insert. My Trigeminal Neuralgia Extreme Facial Pain TN Websites http:/./www.NelsonIdeas.com Click Dental Education Trigeminal Neuralgia Extreme Facial Pain http://www.NewMedicalDirectories.com/Trigeminal-Neuralgia-Dental/Dentist-Dentists.html Click Trigeminal Neuralgia Patient Painful-Stories http://www.BrianNelsonConsulting.com/trigeminal-neuralgia-tn/patient-painful-stories.html Click My Trigeminal Neuralgia (TN) Story only http://www.PartyTentCity.com/mytnstory.html Click My Story on TN Brian N http://www.PartyTentCity.com/trigeminal-neuralgia-tn-tmj-my-story/directory.html Click Trigeminal Neuralgia Slide Show Story of Pain http://www.NewMedicalDirectories.com/Trigeminal-Neuralgia-Slide-Show/Draft.html Click Medical Data Base Medical Costs More Expensive Due to Non Use of Technology http://www.briannelsonconsulting.com/medical-data-base/faq-info.html Click MyTrigeminal Neuralgia Story Directory http://www.MyTrigeminalNeuralgiaStory.com Click Slide Show Draft for New TN Patients. http://www.newmedicaldirectories.com/Trigeminal-Neuralgia-Slide-Show/Draft.html Click-Trigeminal Neuralgia Assn Page 1 http://newmedicaldirectories.com/Trigeminal-Neuralgia-Association/TN-Facial-Pain.html Click-Trigeminal Neuralgia Assn Page 2 http://newmedicaldirectories.com/Trigeminal-Neuralgia-Association/TN-Facial-Pain-2.html Click What is Trigeminal Neuragia? Portland,OR Slide Show http://www.NewMedicalDirectories.com/Trigeminal-Neuralgia-Slide-Show/Draft.html Click Trigeminal Neuralgia National Conference http://www.NewMedicalDirectories.com/Trigeminal-Neuralgia-Slide-Show/Draft.html Click Trigeminal Neuralgia Brian's Journal Tic Douloureux (TN) FacialPain-Cancer http://www.BrianNelsonConsulting.com/trigeminal-neuralgia-tn/faq-info.html http://www.BrianNelsonConsulting.com/trigeminal-neuralgia-tn/faq-info.html Click Page 1. Trigeminal Neuralgia http://www.BrianNelsonConsulting.com/trigeminal-neuralgia-tn/faq-info.html Click Page 2 Trigeminal Neuralgia http://www.briannelsonconsulting.com/trigeminal-neuralgia-tn/faq-info2.html Click Page 3 Trigeminal Neuralgia http://www.briannelsonconsulting.com/trigeminal-neuralgia-tn/faq-info3.htm Click Page 4 Trigeminal Neuralgia http://www.BrianNelsonConsulting.com/trigeminal-neuralgia-tn/faq-info4.html Click MyTrigeminal Neuralgia Stories Directory http://www.MyTrigeminalNeuralgiaStory.com/Index.html Click Brian's TN Story Quck Version http://www.MyTrigeminalNeuralgiaStory.com/BrianNelson/TN1.html Click Shirley's Story Trigeminal Neuralgia http://www.MyTrigeminalNeuralgiaStory.com/ShirleyH/TN3.html Click Sand's Story TN WHAT IS TRIGEMINAL NEURALGIA? TN (Trigeminal Neuralgia) is a pain that is described as among the most acute known to mankind. TN produces excruciating, lightning strikes of facial pain, typically near the nose, lips, eyes or ears. It is a disorder of the trigeminal nerve, which is the fifth and largest cranial nerve. TN (Trigeminal Neuralgia / tic douloureux) is a disorder of the fifth cranial (trigeminal) nerve that causes episodes of intense, stabbing, electric shock-like pain in the areas of the face where the branches of the nerve are distributed - lips, eyes, nose, scalp, forehead, upper jaw, and lower jaw. By many, it's called the "suicide disease". A less common form of the disorder called "Atypical Trigeminal Neuralgia" may cause less intense, constant, dull burning or aching pain, sometimes with occasional electric shock-like stabs. Both forms of the disorder most often affect one side of the face, but some patients experience pain at different times on both sides. Onset of symptoms occurs most often after age 50, but cases are known in children and even infants. Something as simple and routine as brushing the teeth, putting on makeup or even a slight breeze can trigger an attack, resulting in sheer agony for the individual. Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is not fatal, but it is universally considered to be the most painful affliction known to medical practice. Initial treatment of TN is usually by means of anti-convulsant drugs, such as Tegretol or Neurontin. Some anti-depressant drugs also have significant pain relieving effects. Should medication be ineffective or if it produces undesirable side effects, neurosurgical procedures are available to relieve pressure on the nerve or to reduce nerve sensitivity. Some patients report having reduced or relieved pain by means of alternative medical therapies such as acupuncture, chiropractic adjustment, self-hypnosis or meditation. http://www.MyTrigeminalNeuralgiaStory.com/SandiW/TN4.html What is Trigeminal Neuralgia? Trigeminal neuralgia (TN), also called tic douloureux, is a chronic pain condition that causes extreme, sporadic, sudden burning or shock-like face pain that lasts anywhere from a few seconds to as long as 2 minutes per episode. The intensity of pain can be physically and mentally incapacitating. TN pain is typically felt on one side of the jaw or cheek. Episodes can last for days, weeks, or months at a time and then disappear for months or years. In the days before an episode begins, some patients may experience a tingling or numbing sensation or a somewhat constant and aching pain. The attacks often worsen over time, with fewer and shorter pain-free periods before they recur. The intense flashes of pain can be triggered by vibration or contact with the cheek (such as when shaving, washing the face, or applying makeup), brushing teeth, eating, drinking, talking, or being exposed to the wind. TN occurs most often in people over age 50, but it can occur at any age, and is more common in women than in men. There is some evidence that the disorder runs in families, perhaps because of an inherited pattern of blood vessel formation. Although sometimes debilitating, the disorder is not life-threatening. The presumed cause of TN is a blood vessel pressing on the trigeminal nerve in the head as it exits the brainstem. TN may be part of the normal aging process but in some cases it is the associated with another disorder, such as multiple sclerosis or other disorders characterized by damage to the myelin sheath that covers certain nerves. Is there any treatment? Because there are a large number of conditions that can cause facial pain, TN can be difficult to diagnose. But finding the cause of the pain is important as the treatments for different types of pain may differ. Treatment options include medicines such as anticonvulsants and tricyclic antidepressants, surgery, and complementary approaches. Typical analgesics and opioids are not usually helpful in treating the sharp, recurring pain caused by TN. If medication fails to relieve pain or produces intolerable side effects such as excess fatigue, surgical treatment may be recommended. Several neurosurgical procedures are available. Some are done on an outpatient basis, while others are more complex and require hospitalization. Some patients choose to manage TN using complementary techniques, usually in combination with drug treatment. These techniques include acupuncture, biofeedback, vitamin therapy, nutritional therapy, and electrical stimulation of the nerves. What is the prognosis? The disorder is characterized by recurrences and remissions, and successive recurrences may incapacitate the patient. Due to the intensity of the pain, even the fear of an impending attack may prevent activity. Trigeminal neuralgia is not fatal. What research is being done? Within the NINDS research programs, trigeminal neuralgia is addressed primarily through studies associated with pain research. NINDS vigorously pursues a research program seeking new treatments for pain and nerve damage with the ultimate goal of reversing debilitating conditions such as trigeminal neuralgia. NINDS has notified research investigators that it is seeking grant applications both in basic and clinical pain research. An Alternate Strategy Instead of waiting for the pain to become intractable or the medications toxic, an individual with trigeminal neuralgia has the option to request early surgery. This has a number of potential advantages: • Avoid years of medication and intermittent pain • Avoid facing surgery when old or infirm • If the person has a vascular loop, early microvascular decompression will increase the possibility of a successful operation with decreased risk of recurrence (evidence suggests better outcomes and lower recurrence rate the shorter the interval between onset of symptoms and nerve decompression) How To Find Out If You Have a Vascular Loop The conventional MRI scans used to rule out the presence of a brain tumor or multiple sclerosis as a cause of a patients face pain are not adequate to visualize the trigeminal nerve or an associated blood vessel. Fortunately, the continued improvement in MRI neuro-imaging now makes it possible to visualize both. The technique, which is called 3-D volume acquisition, is performed with contrast injection and utilizes thin cuts (0.8mm), without gaps similar to what was developed for MRI angiography and venography. The trigeminal nerve is easily visualized in the axial plane when the MRI series is centered at the midpoint of the fourth ventricle. To ensure an adequate evaluation, the nerve should be seen on three adjacent cuts. Early studies indicate that when an offending vessel is present it will be detected 80% of the of the time. With continued imaging improvements this percentage will definitely increase. Click here for UCSD Trigeminal Neuralgia Sequence Parameters for Seimens and GE MR Scanners. Surgical Options: Non-Destructive Procedures The only non-destructive procedure which reliably relieves the symptoms of Trigeminal Neuralgia is Microvascular Decompression (MVD). This involves surgical exploration with the operating microscope and visualization of the junction where the Trigeminal nerve enters the base of the brain, followed by coagulation or moving and padding away any compressing blood vessels. The advantage is pain relief without numbness in the majority of patients, which usually lasts indefinitely. If the pain recurs after a MVD, which it does in 10-15% of patients, it can usually be controlled with low dose Tegretol® or Neurontin®. If the pain continues, it will require a repeat MVD or one of the destructive procedures. Surgical Options: Destructive Procedures There are multiple destructive procedures which are beneficial in the treatment of Trigeminal Neuralgia. The most common of which are glycerol injections, gamma knife radiation, electrocoagulation, and balloon compression. These procedures are all based on interrupting the pain by partial damage to Trigeminal nerve fibers. Generally the more numbness they produce, the longer they last. The specific advantages and disadvantages need to be discussed with the surgeon performing the procedure. These procedures are recommended for patients who have failed MVD or are not candidates for major surgery. Comments Treatment is always individualized. All of the options above should be considered in consultation with a neurosurgeon familiar in their use. Recommendations Based on the data currently available, and in an effort to maximize quality of life, we recommend the following: Patients with less than 10 year life expectancy Refer for destructive procedure if pain not controlled medically without significant side effects Patients with more than 10 but less than 20 year life expectancy Consider destructive procedure May abolish need for continued increasing medications Will make medical therapy easier even if fails Patients with more than 20 year life expectancy Perform thin cut MRI with 3-D Volume Acquisition If vessel present recommend MVD 25 ARTICLE SECTIONS From the Mayo Clinic. Trigeminal neuralgia http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/trigeminal-neuralgia/DS00446 Introduction Signs and symptoms Causes When to seek medical advice Screening and diagnosis Treatment Coping skills Introduction Imagine having a jab of lightning-like pain shoot through your face when you brush your teeth or put on makeup. Sound excruciating? If you have trigeminal neuralgia, attacks of such pain are frequent and can often seem unbearable. You may initially experience short, mild attacks, but trigeminal neuralgia can progress, causing longer, more frequent bouts of searing pain. These painful attacks can be spontaneous, but they may also be provoked by even mild stimulation of your face, including brushing your teeth, shaving or putting on makeup. The pain of trigeminal neuralgia may occur in a fairly small area of your face, or it may spread rapidly over a wider area. Because of the variety of treatment options available, having trigeminal neuralgia doesn't necessarily mean you're doomed to a life of pain. Doctors usually can effectively manage trigeminal neuralgia, either with medications or surgery. Signs and symptoms An attack of trigeminal neuralgia can last from a few seconds to about a minute. Some people have mild, occasional twinges of pain, while other people have frequent, severe, electric-shock-like pain. The condition tends to come and go. You may experience attacks of pain off and on all day, or even for days or weeks at a time. Then, you may experience no pain for a prolonged period of time. Remission is less common the longer you have trigeminal neuralgia. People who have experienced severe trigeminal neuralgia have described the pain as: Lightning-like or electric-shock-like Shooting Jabbing Like having live wires in your face Trigeminal neuralgia usually affects just one side of your face. The pain may affect just a portion of one side of your face or spread in a wider pattern. Rarely, trigeminal neuralgia can affect both sides of your face, but not at the same time. Causes Branches of the trigeminal nerve CLICK TO ENLARGE The condition is called trigeminal neuralgia because the painful facial areas are those served by one or more of the three branches of your trigeminal nerve. This large nerve originates deep inside your brain and carries sensation from your face to your brain. The pain of trigeminal neuralgia is due to a disturbance in the function of the trigeminal nerve. Trigeminal neuralgia is also known as tic douloureux. The cause of the pain usually is due to contact between a normal artery or vein and the trigeminal nerve at the base of your brain. This places pressure on the nerve as it enters your brain and causes the nerve to misfire. Physical nerve damage or stress may be the initial trigger for trigeminal neuralgia. After the trigeminal nerve leaves your brain and travels through your skull, it divides into three smaller branches, controlling sensation throughout your face: The first branch controls sensation in your eye, upper eyelid and forehead. The second branch controls sensation in your lower eyelid, cheek, nostril, upper lip and upper gum. The third branch controls sensations in your jaw, lower lip, lower gum and some of the muscles you use for chewing. You may feel pain in the area served by just one branch of the trigeminal nerve, or the pain may affect all branches on one side of your face. Besides compression from blood vessel contact, other less frequent sources of pain to the trigeminal nerve may include: Compression by a tumor Multiple sclerosis A stroke affecting the lower part of your brain, where the trigeminal nerve enters your central nervous system A variety of triggers, many subtle, may set off the pain. These triggers may include: Shaving Stroking your face Eating Drinking Brushing your teeth Talking Putting on makeup Encountering a breeze Smiling Trigeminal neuralgia affects women more often than men. The disorder is more likely to occur in people who are older than 50. About 5 percent of people with trigeminal neuralgia have other family members with the disorder, which suggests a possible genetic cause in some cases. When to seek medical advice Some people mistake the pain of trigeminal neuralgia for a toothache or a headache. It's not uncommon for people to believe that their facial pain is dental-related, particularly when the pain seems to stem from the gumline or is located near a tooth. If you experience facial pain, particularly prolonged pain or pain that hasn't gone away with use of over-the-counter pain relievers, see your dentist or doctor. Screening and diagnosis If you go to your dentist, an examination of your mouth can reveal whether a problem with your teeth or gums is causing your pain. If you go to your doctor, he or she will want to ask about your medical history and have you describe your pain — how severe it is, what part of your face it affects, how long pain lasts and what seems to trigger episodes of pain. You'll also undergo a neurologic examination. During this examination, your doctor examines and touches parts of your face to try to determine exactly where the pain is occurring and — if it appears that you have trigeminal neuralgia — which branches of the trigeminal nerve may be affected. Your doctor may exclude other possible conditions based on your medical history, the examination, and a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of your head. Treatment Medications are the usual initial treatment for trigeminal neuralgia. Medications are often effective in lessening or blocking the pain signals sent to your brain. A number of drugs are available. If you stop responding to a particular medication or experience too many side effects, switching to another medication may work for you. Medications Carbamazepine (Tegretol, Carbatrol). Carbamazepine, an anticonvulsant drug, is the most common medication that doctors use to treat trigeminal neuralgia. In the early stages of the disease, carbamazepine controls pain for most people. However, the effectiveness of carbamazepine decreases over time. Side effects include dizziness, confusion, sleepiness and nausea. Baclofen. Baclofen is a muscle relaxant. Its effectiveness may increase when it's used in combination with carbamazepine or phenytoin. Side effects include confusion, nausea and drowsiness. Phenytoin (Dilantin, Phenytek). Phenytoin, another anticonvulsant medication, was the first medication used to treat trigeminal neuralgia. Side effects include gum enlargement, dizziness and drowsiness. Oxcarbazepine (Trileptal). Oxcarbazepine is another anticonvulsant medication and is similar to carbamazepine. Side effects include dizziness and double vision. Doctors may sometimes prescribe other medications, such as lamotrignine (Lamictal) or gabapentin (Neurontin). Some people with trigeminal neuralgia eventually stop responding to medications, or they experience unpleasant side effects. For those people, surgery, or a combination of surgery and medications, may be an option. Surgery The goal of a number of surgical procedures is to either damage or destroy the part of the trigeminal nerve that's the source of your pain. Because the success of these procedures depends on damaging the nerve, facial numbness of varying degree is a common side effect. These procedures involve: Alcohol injection. Alcohol injections under the skin of your face, where the branches of the trigeminal nerve leave the bones of your face, may offer temporary pain relief by numbing the areas for weeks or months. Because the pain relief isn't permanent, you may need repeated injections or a different procedure. Glycerol injection. This procedure is called percutaneous glycerol rhizotomy (PGR). "Percutaneous" means through the skin. Your doctor inserts a needle through your face and into an opening in the base of your skull. The needle is guided into the trigeminal cistern, a small sac of spinal fluid that surrounds the trigeminal nerve ganglion (the area where the trigeminal nerve divides into three branches) and part of its root. Images are made to confirm that the needle is in the proper location. After confirming the location, your doctor injects a small amount of sterile glycerol. After three or four hours, the glycerol damages the trigeminal nerve and blocks pain signals. Initially, PGR relieves pain in most people. However, some people have a recurrence of pain, and many experience facial numbness or tingling. http://www.MyTrigeminalNeuralgiaStory.com Balloon compression. In a procedure called percutaneous balloon compression of the trigeminal nerve (PBCTN), your doctor inserts a hollow needle through your face and into an opening in the base of your skull. Then, a thin, flexible tube (catheter) with a balloon on the end is threaded through the needle. The balloon is inflated with enough pressure to damage the nerve and block pain signals. PBCTN successfully controls pain in most people, at least for a while. Most people undergoing PBCTN experience facial numbness of varying degrees, and more than half experience nerve damage resulting in a temporary or permanent weakness of the muscles used to chew. http://www.MyTrigeminalNeuralgiaStory.com Electric current. A procedure called percutaneous stereotactic radiofrequency thermal rhizotomy (PSRTR) selectively destroys nerve fibers associated with pain. Your doctor threads a needle through your face and into an opening in your skull. Once in place, an electrode is threaded through the needle until it rests against the nerve root. An electric current is passed through the tip of the electrode until it's heated to the desired temperature. The heated tip damages the nerve fibers and creates an area of injury (lesion). If your pain isn't eliminated, your doctor may create additional lesions. PSRTR successfully controls pain in most people. Facial numbness is a common side effect of this type of treatment. The pain may return after a few years. Microvascular decompression (MVD). A procedure called microvascular decompression (MVD) doesn't damage or destroy part of the trigeminal nerve. Instead, MVD involves relocating or removing blood vessels that are in contact with the trigeminal root and separating the nerve root and blood vessels with a small pad. During MVD, your doctor makes an incision behind one ear. Then, through a small hole in your skull, part of your brain is lifted to expose the trigeminal nerve. If your doctor finds an artery in contact with the nerve root, he or she directs it away from the nerve and places a pad between the nerve and the artery. Doctors usually remove a vein that is found to be compressing the trigeminal nerve. MVD can successfully eliminate or reduce pain most of the time, but as with all other surgical procedures for trigeminal neuralgia, pain can recur in some people. http://www.MyTrigeminalNeuralgiaStory.com While MVD has a high success rate, it also carries risks. There are small chances of decreased hearing, facial weakness, facial numbness, double vision, and even a stroke or death. The risk of facial numbness is less with MVD than with procedures that involve damaging the trigeminal nerve. Severing the nerve. A procedure called partial sensory rhizotomy (PSR) involves cutting part of the trigeminal nerve at the base of your brain. Through an incision behind your ear, your doctor makes a quarter-sized hole in your skull to access the nerve. This procedure usually is helpful, but almost always causes facial numbness. And it's possible for pain to recur. If your doctor doesn't find an artery or vein in contact with the trigeminal nerve, he or she won't be able to perform an MVD, and a PSR may be done instead. Radiation. Gamma-knife radiosurgery (GKR) involves delivering a focused, high dose of radiation to the root of the trigeminal nerve. The radiation damages the trigeminal nerve and reduces or eliminates the pain. Relief isn't immediate and can take several weeks to begin. GKR is successful in eliminating pain more than half of the time. Sometimes the pain may recur. The procedure is painless and typically is done without anesthesia. Because this procedure is relatively new, the long-term risks of this type of radiation are not yet known. • Coping skills Living with trigeminal neuralgia can be difficult. The disorder may affect your interaction with friends and family, your productivity at work, and the overall quality of your life. You may find that talking to a counselor or therapist can help you cope with the effects of trigeminal neuralgia, or you may find encouragement and understanding in a support group. Although support groups aren't for everyone, they can be good sources of information. Group members often know about the latest treatments and tend to share their own experiences. If you're interested, your doctor may be able to recommend a group in your area. 27 Background: Trigeminal neuralgia (TN), also known as tic douloureux, is a pain syndrome recognizable by patient history alone. The condition is characterized by pain often accompanied by a brief facial spasm or tic. Pain distribution is unilateral and follows the sensory distribution of cranial nerve V, typically radiating to the maxillary (V2) or mandibular (V3) area. At times, both distributions are affected. Physical examination eliminates alternative diagnoses. Signs of cranial nerve dysfunction or other neurologic abnormality exclude the diagnosis of idiopathic TN and suggest that pain may be secondary to a structural lesion. Pathophysiology: The mechanism of pain production remains controversial. One theory suggests that peripheral injury or disease of the trigeminal nerve increases afferent firing in the nerve; failure of central inhibitory mechanisms may be involved as well. Pain is perceived when nociceptive neurons in a trigeminal nucleus involve thalamic relay neurons. Aneurysms, tumors, chronic meningeal inflammation, or other lesions may irritate trigeminal nerve roots along the pons. An abnormal vascular course of the superior cerebellar artery is often cited as the cause. In most cases, no lesion is identified, and the etiology is labeled idiopathic by default. Uncommonly, an area of demyelination from multiple sclerosis may be the precipitant. Lesions of the entry zone of the trigeminal roots within the pons may cause a similar pain syndrome. Thus, although TN typically is caused by a dysfunction in the peripheral nervous system (the roots or trigeminal nerve itself), a lesion within the central nervous system may rarely cause similar problems. Infrequently, adjacent dental fillings composed of dissimilar metals may trigger attacks. Frequency: Internationally: TN is uncommon, with an estimated prevalence of 155 cases per million persons. Mortality/Morbidity: No mortality is associated with idiopathic TN, although secondary depression is common if a chronic pain syndrome evolves. In rare cases, pain may be so frequent that oral nutrition is impaired. In symptomatic or secondary TN, morbidity or mortality relates to the underlying cause of the pain syndrome. Sex: Male-to-female ratio is 2:3. Age: Development of trigeminal neuralgia in a young person suggests the possibility of multiple sclerosis. Idiopathic TN typically occurs in patients in the sixth decade of life, but it may occur at any age. Symptomatic or secondary TN tends to occur in younger patients. 27 Background: Trigeminal neuralgia (TN), also known as tic douloureux, is a pain syndrome recognizable by patient history alone. The condition is characterized by pain often accompanied by a brief facial spasm or tic. Pain distribution is unilateral and follows the sensory distribution of cranial nerve V, typically radiating to the maxillary (V2) or mandibular (V3) area. At times, both distributions are affected. Physical examination eliminates alternative diagnoses. Signs of cranial nerve dysfunction or other neurologic abnormality exclude the diagnosis of idiopathic TN and suggest that pain may be secondary to a structural lesion. Pathophysiology: The mechanism of pain production remains controversial. One theory suggests that peripheral injury or disease of the trigeminal nerve increases afferent firing in the nerve; failure of central inhibitory mechanisms may be involved as well. Pain is perceived when nociceptive neurons in a trigeminal nucleus involve thalamic relay neurons. Aneurysms, tumors, chronic meningeal inflammation, or other lesions may irritate trigeminal nerve roots along the pons. An abnormal vascular course of the superior cerebellar artery is often cited as the cause. In most cases, no lesion is identified, and the etiology is labeled idiopathic by default. Uncommonly, an area of demyelination from multiple sclerosis may be the precipitant. Lesions of the entry zone of the trigeminal roots within the pons may cause a similar pain syndrome. Thus, although TN typically is caused by a dysfunction in the peripheral nervous system (the roots or trigeminal nerve itself), a lesion within the central nervous system may rarely cause similar problems. Infrequently, adjacent dental fillings composed of dissimilar metals may trigger attacks. http://www.MyTrigeminalNeuralgiaStory.com
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This Wisconsin Critical Care Paramedic module covers toxicology as associated with critical care interfacility transports.
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Click More http://www.MyTrigeminalNeuralgiaStory.com AWC 4398 4-6 Microvascular Decompression MVD Click Dr.Parrish Neurosurgeon TN Tic douloureux Facial Pain Electric Shocks. TNA BrianNelson123 Suicide Painful Jannetta Association Teflon Nerve THIS WEBSITE IS DESIGNED TO HAVE EACH TRIGEMINAL NEURALGIA patient tell there story from the beginning of the problem to the current status which is understandably changing daily as the body processes more of the pain. My personal story is very long and and be seen at w htttp[://www.IamFightingCancer.com Important words found on this site. Trigeminal Neuralgia Minneapolis TN Pain Personal Story, Balloon Compression Mentor, dysesthesia, bad feeling constant spasm. excruciating pains, Henry, Pneumonia Electrical Shocks, Shirley, Shelly Wilson, Support Group, Education, Association, Stabbing, Jolts, Suicide Disease, Neuropathic, rare Disorder, Treatment, destructive surgery, Procedure, Microvascular Decompression, tic douloureux Marge Prietz Trigeminal Neuralgia Extreme Facial Pain TN Websites insert. YouTube. From NelsonIdeas.com Trigeminal Neuralgia Extreme Facial Pain TN Websites insert. Websites insert. My Trigeminal Neuralgia Extreme Facial Pain TN Websites http:/./www.NelsonIdeas.com Click Dental Education Trigeminal Neuralgia Extreme Facial Pain http://www.NewMedicalDirectories.com/Trigeminal-Neuralgia-Dental/Dentist-Dentists.html Click Trigeminal Neuralgia Patient Painful-Stories http://www.BrianNelsonConsulting.com/trigeminal-neuralgia-tn/patient-painful-stories.html Click My Trigeminal Neuralgia (TN) Story only http://www.PartyTentCity.com/mytnstory.html Click My Story on TN Brian N http://www.PartyTentCity.com/trigeminal-neuralgia-tn-tmj-my-story/directory.html Click Trigeminal Neuralgia Slide Show Story of Pain http://www.NewMedicalDirectories.com/Trigeminal-Neuralgia-Slide-Show/Draft.html Click Medical Data Base Medical Costs More Expensive Due to Non Use of Technology http://www.briannelsonconsulting.com/medical-data-base/faq-info.html Click MyTrigeminal Neuralgia Story Directory http://www.MyTrigeminalNeuralgiaStory.com Click Slide Show Draft for New TN Patients. http://www.newmedicaldirectories.com/Trigeminal-Neuralgia-Slide-Show/Draft.html Click-Trigeminal Neuralgia Assn Page 1 http://newmedicaldirectories.com/Trigeminal-Neuralgia-Association/TN-Facial-Pain.html Click-Trigeminal Neuralgia Assn Page 2 http://newmedicaldirectories.com/Trigeminal-Neuralgia-Association/TN-Facial-Pain-2.html Click What is Trigeminal Neuragia? Portland,OR Slide Show http://www.NewMedicalDirectories.com/Trigeminal-Neuralgia-Slide-Show/Draft.html Click Trigeminal Neuralgia National Conference http://www.NewMedicalDirectories.com/Trigeminal-Neuralgia-Slide-Show/Draft.html Click Trigeminal Neuralgia Brian's Journal Tic Douloureux (TN) FacialPain-Cancer http://www.BrianNelsonConsulting.com/trigeminal-neuralgia-tn/faq-info.html http://www.BrianNelsonConsulting.com/trigeminal-neuralgia-tn/faq-info.html Click Page 1. Trigeminal Neuralgia http://www.BrianNelsonConsulting.com/trigeminal-neuralgia-tn/faq-info.html Click Page 2 Trigeminal Neuralgia http://www.briannelsonconsulting.com/trigeminal-neuralgia-tn/faq-info2.html Click Page 3 Trigeminal Neuralgia http://www.briannelsonconsulting.com/trigeminal-neuralgia-tn/faq-info3.htm Click Page 4 Trigeminal Neuralgia http://www.BrianNelsonConsulting.com/trigeminal-neuralgia-tn/faq-info4.html Click MyTrigeminal Neuralgia Stories Directory http://www.MyTrigeminalNeuralgiaStory.com/Index.html Click Brian's TN Story Quck Version http://www.MyTrigeminalNeuralgiaStory.com/BrianNelson/TN1.html Click Shirley's Story Trigeminal Neuralgia http://www.MyTrigeminalNeuralgiaStory.com/ShirleyH/TN3.html Click Sand's Story TN WHAT IS TRIGEMINAL NEURALGIA? TN (Trigeminal Neuralgia) is a pain that is described as among the most acute known to mankind. TN produces excruciating, lightning strikes of facial pain, typically near the nose, lips, eyes or ears. It is a disorder of the trigeminal nerve, which is the fifth and largest cranial nerve. TN (Trigeminal Neuralgia / tic douloureux) is a disorder of the fifth cranial (trigeminal) nerve that causes episodes of intense, stabbing, electric shock-like pain in the areas of the face where the branches of the nerve are distributed - lips, eyes, nose, scalp, forehead, upper jaw, and lower jaw. By many, it's called the "suicide disease". A less common form of the disorder called "Atypical Trigeminal Neuralgia" may cause less intense, constant, dull burning or aching pain, sometimes with occasional electric shock-like stabs. Both forms of the disorder most often affect one side of the face, but some patients experience pain at different times on both sides. Onset of symptoms occurs most often after age 50, but cases are known in children and even infants. Something as simple and routine as brushing the teeth, putting on makeup or even a slight breeze can trigger an attack, resulting in sheer agony for the individual. Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is not fatal, but it is universally considered to be the most painful affliction known to medical practice. Initial treatment of TN is usually by means of anti-convulsant drugs, such as Tegretol or Neurontin. Some anti-depressant drugs also have significant pain relieving effects. Should medication be ineffective or if it produces undesirable side effects, neurosurgical procedures are available to relieve pressure on the nerve or to reduce nerve sensitivity. Some patients report having reduced or relieved pain by means of alternative medical therapies such as acupuncture, chiropractic adjustment, self-hypnosis or meditation. http://www.MyTrigeminalNeuralgiaStory.com/SandiW/TN4.html What is Trigeminal Neuralgia? Trigeminal neuralgia (TN), also called tic douloureux, is a chronic pain condition that causes extreme, sporadic, sudden burning or shock-like face pain that lasts anywhere from a few seconds to as long as 2 minutes per episode. The intensity of pain can be physically and mentally incapacitating. TN pain is typically felt on one side of the jaw or cheek. Episodes can last for days, weeks, or months at a time and then disappear for months or years. In the days before an episode begins, some patients may experience a tingling or numbing sensation or a somewhat constant and aching pain. The attacks often worsen over time, with fewer and shorter pain-free periods before they recur. The intense flashes of pain can be triggered by vibration or contact with the cheek (such as when shaving, washing the face, or applying makeup), brushing teeth, eating, drinking, talking, or being exposed to the wind. TN occurs most often in people over age 50, but it can occur at any age, and is more common in women than in men. There is some evidence that the disorder runs in families, perhaps because of an inherited pattern of blood vessel formation. Although sometimes debilitating, the disorder is not life-threatening. The presumed cause of TN is a blood vessel pressing on the trigeminal nerve in the head as it exits the brainstem. TN may be part of the normal aging process but in some cases it is the associated with another disorder, such as multiple sclerosis or other disorders characterized by damage to the myelin sheath that covers certain nerves. Is there any treatment? Because there are a large number of conditions that can cause facial pain, TN can be difficult to diagnose. But finding the cause of the pain is important as the treatments for different types of pain may differ. Treatment options include medicines such as anticonvulsants and tricyclic antidepressants, surgery, and complementary approaches. Typical analgesics and opioids are not usually helpful in treating the sharp, recurring pain caused by TN. If medication fails to relieve pain or produces intolerable side effects such as excess fatigue, surgical treatment may be recommended. Several neurosurgical procedures are available. Some are done on an outpatient basis, while others are more complex and require hospitalization. Some patients choose to manage TN using complementary techniques, usually in combination with drug treatment. These techniques include acupuncture, biofeedback, vitamin therapy, nutritional therapy, and electrical stimulation of the nerves. What is the prognosis? The disorder is characterized by recurrences and remissions, and successive recurrences may incapacitate the patient. Due to the intensity of the pain, even the fear of an impending attack may prevent activity. Trigeminal neuralgia is not fatal. What research is being done? Within the NINDS research programs, trigeminal neuralgia is addressed primarily through studies associated with pain research. NINDS vigorously pursues a research program seeking new treatments for pain and nerve damage with the ultimate goal of reversing debilitating conditions such as trigeminal neuralgia. NINDS has notified research investigators that it is seeking grant applications both in basic and clinical pain research. An Alternate Strategy Instead of waiting for the pain to become intractable or the medications toxic, an individual with trigeminal neuralgia has the option to request early surgery. This has a number of potential advantages: • Avoid years of medication and intermittent pain • Avoid facing surgery when old or infirm • If the person has a vascular loop, early microvascular decompression will increase the possibility of a successful operation with decreased risk of recurrence (evidence suggests better outcomes and lower recurrence rate the shorter the interval between onset of symptoms and nerve decompression) How To Find Out If You Have a Vascular Loop The conventional MRI scans used to rule out the presence of a brain tumor or multiple sclerosis as a cause of a patients face pain are not adequate to visualize the trigeminal nerve or an associated blood vessel. Fortunately, the continued improvement in MRI neuro-imaging now makes it possible to visualize both. The technique, which is called 3-D volume acquisition, is performed with contrast injection and utilizes thin cuts (0.8mm), without gaps similar to what was developed for MRI angiography and venography. The trigeminal nerve is easily visualized in the axial plane when the MRI series is centered at the midpoint of the fourth ventricle. To ensure an adequate evaluation, the nerve should be seen on three adjacent cuts. Early studies indicate that when an offending vessel is present it will be detected 80% of the of the time. With continued imaging improvements this percentage will definitely increase. Click here for UCSD Trigeminal Neuralgia Sequence Parameters for Seimens and GE MR Scanners. Surgical Options: Non-Destructive Procedures The only non-destructive procedure which reliably relieves the symptoms of Trigeminal Neuralgia is Microvascular Decompression (MVD). This involves surgical exploration with the operating microscope and visualization of the junction where the Trigeminal nerve enters the base of the brain, followed by coagulation or moving and padding away any compressing blood vessels. The advantage is pain relief without numbness in the majority of patients, which usually lasts indefinitely. If the pain recurs after a MVD, which it does in 10-15% of patients, it can usually be controlled with low dose Tegretol® or Neurontin®. If the pain continues, it will require a repeat MVD or one of the destructive procedures. Surgical Options: Destructive Procedures There are multiple destructive procedures which are beneficial in the treatment of Trigeminal Neuralgia. The most common of which are glycerol injections, gamma knife radiation, electrocoagulation, and balloon compression. These procedures are all based on interrupting the pain by partial damage to Trigeminal nerve fibers. Generally the more numbness they produce, the longer they last. The specific advantages and disadvantages need to be discussed with the surgeon performing the procedure. These procedures are recommended for patients who have failed MVD or are not candidates for major surgery. Comments Treatment is always individualized. All of the options above should be considered in consultation with a neurosurgeon familiar in their use. Recommendations Based on the data currently available, and in an effort to maximize quality of life, we recommend the following: Patients with less than 10 year life expectancy Refer for destructive procedure if pain not controlled medically without significant side effects Patients with more than 10 but less than 20 year life expectancy Consider destructive procedure May abolish need for continued increasing medications Will make medical therapy easier even if fails Patients with more than 20 year life expectancy Perform thin cut MRI with 3-D Volume Acquisition If vessel present recommend MVD 25 ARTICLE SECTIONS From the Mayo Clinic. Trigeminal neuralgia http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/trigeminal-neuralgia/DS00446 Introduction Signs and symptoms Causes When to seek medical advice Screening and diagnosis Treatment Coping skills Introduction Imagine having a jab of lightning-like pain shoot through your face when you brush your teeth or put on makeup. Sound excruciating? If you have trigeminal neuralgia, attacks of such pain are frequent and can often seem unbearable. You may initially experience short, mild attacks, but trigeminal neuralgia can progress, causing longer, more frequent bouts of searing pain. These painful attacks can be spontaneous, but they may also be provoked by even mild stimulation of your face, including brushing your teeth, shaving or putting on makeup. The pain of trigeminal neuralgia may occur in a fairly small area of your face, or it may spread rapidly over a wider area. Because of the variety of treatment options available, having trigeminal neuralgia doesn't necessarily mean you're doomed to a life of pain. Doctors usually can effectively manage trigeminal neuralgia, either with medications or surgery. Signs and symptoms An attack of trigeminal neuralgia can last from a few seconds to about a minute. Some people have mild, occasional twinges of pain, while other people have frequent, severe, electric-shock-like pain. The condition tends to come and go. You may experience attacks of pain off and on all day, or even for days or weeks at a time. Then, you may experience no pain for a prolonged period of time. Remission is less common the longer you have trigeminal neuralgia. People who have experienced severe trigeminal neuralgia have described the pain as: Lightning-like or electric-shock-like Shooting Jabbing Like having live wires in your face Trigeminal neuralgia usually affects just one side of your face. The pain may affect just a portion of one side of your face or spread in a wider pattern. Rarely, trigeminal neuralgia can affect both sides of your face, but not at the same time. Causes Branches of the trigeminal nerve CLICK TO ENLARGE The condition is called trigeminal neuralgia because the painful facial areas are those served by one or more of the three branches of your trigeminal nerve. This large nerve originates deep inside your brain and carries sensation from your face to your brain. The pain of trigeminal neuralgia is due to a disturbance in the function of the trigeminal nerve. Trigeminal neuralgia is also known as tic douloureux. The cause of the pain usually is due to contact between a normal artery or vein and the trigeminal nerve at the base of your brain. This places pressure on the nerve as it enters your brain and causes the nerve to misfire. Physical nerve damage or stress may be the initial trigger for trigeminal neuralgia. After the trigeminal nerve leaves your brain and travels through your skull, it divides into three smaller branches, controlling sensation throughout your face: The first branch controls sensation in your eye, upper eyelid and forehead. The second branch controls sensation in your lower eyelid, cheek, nostril, upper lip and upper gum. The third branch controls sensations in your jaw, lower lip, lower gum and some of the muscles you use for chewing. You may feel pain in the area served by just one branch of the trigeminal nerve, or the pain may affect all branches on one side of your face. Besides compression from blood vessel contact, other less frequent sources of pain to the trigeminal nerve may include: Compression by a tumor Multiple sclerosis A stroke affecting the lower part of your brain, where the trigeminal nerve enters your central nervous system A variety of triggers, many subtle, may set off the pain. These triggers may include: Shaving Stroking your face Eating Drinking Brushing your teeth Talking Putting on makeup Encountering a breeze Smiling Trigeminal neuralgia affects women more often than men. The disorder is more likely to occur in people who are older than 50. About 5 percent of people with trigeminal neuralgia have other family members with the disorder, which suggests a possible genetic cause in some cases. When to seek medical advice Some people mistake the pain of trigeminal neuralgia for a toothache or a headache. It's not uncommon for people to believe that their facial pain is dental-related, particularly when the pain seems to stem from the gumline or is located near a tooth. If you experience facial pain, particularly prolonged pain or pain that hasn't gone away with use of over-the-counter pain relievers, see your dentist or doctor. Screening and diagnosis If you go to your dentist, an examination of your mouth can reveal whether a problem with your teeth or gums is causing your pain. If you go to your doctor, he or she will want to ask about your medical history and have you describe your pain — how severe it is, what part of your face it affects, how long pain lasts and what seems to trigger episodes of pain. You'll also undergo a neurologic examination. During this examination, your doctor examines and touches parts of your face to try to determine exactly where the pain is occurring and — if it appears that you have trigeminal neuralgia — which branches of the trigeminal nerve may be affected. Your doctor may exclude other possible conditions based on your medical history, the examination, and a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of your head. Treatment Medications are the usual initial treatment for trigeminal neuralgia. Medications are often effective in lessening or blocking the pain signals sent to your brain. A number of drugs are available. If you stop responding to a particular medication or experience too many side effects, switching to another medication may work for you. Medications Carbamazepine (Tegretol, Carbatrol). Carbamazepine, an anticonvulsant drug, is the most common medication that doctors use to treat trigeminal neuralgia. In the early stages of the disease, carbamazepine controls pain for most people. However, the effectiveness of carbamazepine decreases over time. Side effects include dizziness, confusion, sleepiness and nausea. Baclofen. Baclofen is a muscle relaxant. Its effectiveness may increase when it's used in combination with carbamazepine or phenytoin. Side effects include confusion, nausea and drowsiness. Phenytoin (Dilantin, Phenytek). Phenytoin, another anticonvulsant medication, was the first medication used to treat trigeminal neuralgia. Side effects include gum enlargement, dizziness and drowsiness. Oxcarbazepine (Trileptal). Oxcarbazepine is another anticonvulsant medication and is similar to carbamazepine. Side effects include dizziness and double vision. Doctors may sometimes prescribe other medications, such as lamotrignine (Lamictal) or gabapentin (Neurontin). Some people with trigeminal neuralgia eventually stop responding to medications, or they experience unpleasant side effects. For those people, surgery, or a combination of surgery and medications, may be an option. Surgery The goal of a number of surgical procedures is to either damage or destroy the part of the trigeminal nerve that's the source of your pain. Because the success of these procedures depends on damaging the nerve, facial numbness of varying degree is a common side effect. These procedures involve: Alcohol injection. Alcohol injections under the skin of your face, where the branches of the trigeminal nerve leave the bones of your face, may offer temporary pain relief by numbing the areas for weeks or months. Because the pain relief isn't permanent, you may need repeated injections or a different procedure. Glycerol injection. This procedure is called percutaneous glycerol rhizotomy (PGR). "Percutaneous" means through the skin. Your doctor inserts a needle through your face and into an opening in the base of your skull. The needle is guided into the trigeminal cistern, a small sac of spinal fluid that surrounds the trigeminal nerve ganglion (the area where the trigeminal nerve divides into three branches) and part of its root. Images are made to confirm that the needle is in the proper location. After confirming the location, your doctor injects a small amount of sterile glycerol. After three or four hours, the glycerol damages the trigeminal nerve and blocks pain signals. Initially, PGR relieves pain in most people. However, some people have a recurrence of pain, and many experience facial numbness or tingling. http://www.MyTrigeminalNeuralgiaStory.com Balloon compression. In a procedure called percutaneous balloon compression of the trigeminal nerve (PBCTN), your doctor inserts a hollow needle through your face and into an opening in the base of your skull. Then, a thin, flexible tube (catheter) with a balloon on the end is threaded through the needle. The balloon is inflated with enough pressure to damage the nerve and block pain signals. PBCTN successfully controls pain in most people, at least for a while. Most people undergoing PBCTN experience facial numbness of varying degrees, and more than half experience nerve damage resulting in a temporary or permanent weakness of the muscles used to chew. http://www.MyTrigeminalNeuralgiaStory.com Electric current. A procedure called percutaneous stereotactic radiofrequency thermal rhizotomy (PSRTR) selectively destroys nerve fibers associated with pain. Your doctor threads a needle through your face and into an opening in your skull. Once in place, an electrode is threaded through the needle until it rests against the nerve root. An electric current is passed through the tip of the electrode until it's heated to the desired temperature. The heated tip damages the nerve fibers and creates an area of injury (lesion). If your pain isn't eliminated, your doctor may create additional lesions. PSRTR successfully controls pain in most people. Facial numbness is a common side effect of this type of treatment. The pain may return after a few years. Microvascular decompression (MVD). A procedure called microvascular decompression (MVD) doesn't damage or destroy part of the trigeminal nerve. Instead, MVD involves relocating or removing blood vessels that are in contact with the trigeminal root and separating the nerve root and blood vessels with a small pad. During MVD, your doctor makes an incision behind one ear. Then, through a small hole in your skull, part of your brain is lifted to expose the trigeminal nerve. If your doctor finds an artery in contact with the nerve root, he or she directs it away from the nerve and places a pad between the nerve and the artery. Doctors usually remove a vein that is found to be compressing the trigeminal nerve. MVD can successfully eliminate or reduce pain most of the time, but as with all other surgical procedures for trigeminal neuralgia, pain can recur in some people. http://www.MyTrigeminalNeuralgiaStory.com While MVD has a high success rate, it also carries risks. There are small chances of decreased hearing, facial weakness, facial numbness, double vision, and even a stroke or death. The risk of facial numbness is less with MVD than with procedures that involve damaging the trigeminal nerve. Severing the nerve. A procedure called partial sensory rhizotomy (PSR) involves cutting part of the trigeminal nerve at the base of your brain. Through an incision behind your ear, your doctor makes a quarter-sized hole in your skull to access the nerve. This procedure usually is helpful, but almost always causes facial numbness. And it's possible for pain to recur. If your doctor doesn't find an artery or vein in contact with the trigeminal nerve, he or she won't be able to perform an MVD, and a PSR may be done instead. Radiation. Gamma-knife radiosurgery (GKR) involves delivering a focused, high dose of radiation to the root of the trigeminal nerve. The radiation damages the trigeminal nerve and reduces or eliminates the pain. Relief isn't immediate and can take several weeks to begin. GKR is successful in eliminating pain more than half of the time. Sometimes the pain may recur. The procedure is painless and typically is done without anesthesia. Because this procedure is relatively new, the long-term risks of this type of radiation are not yet known. • Coping skills Living with trigeminal neuralgia can be difficult. The disorder may affect your interaction with friends and family, your productivity at work, and the overall quality of your life. You may find that talking to a counselor or therapist can help you cope with the effects of trigeminal neuralgia, or you may find encouragement and understanding in a support group. Although support groups aren't for everyone, they can be good sources of information. Group members often know about the latest treatments and tend to share their own experiences. If you're interested, your doctor may be able to recommend a group in your area. 27 Background: Trigeminal neuralgia (TN), also known as tic douloureux, is a pain syndrome recognizable by patient history alone. The condition is characterized by pain often accompanied by a brief facial spasm or tic. Pain distribution is unilateral and follows the sensory distribution of cranial nerve V, typically radiating to the maxillary (V2) or mandibular (V3) area. At times, both distributions are affected. Physical examination eliminates alternative diagnoses. Signs of cranial nerve dysfunction or other neurologic abnormality exclude the diagnosis of idiopathic TN and suggest that pain may be secondary to a structural lesion. Pathophysiology: The mechanism of pain production remains controversial. One theory suggests that peripheral injury or disease of the trigeminal nerve increases afferent firing in the nerve; failure of central inhibitory mechanisms may be involved as well. Pain is perceived when nociceptive neurons in a trigeminal nucleus involve thalamic relay neurons. Aneurysms, tumors, chronic meningeal inflammation, or other lesions may irritate trigeminal nerve roots along the pons. An abnormal vascular course of the superior cerebellar artery is often cited as the cause. In most cases, no lesion is identified, and the etiology is labeled idiopathic by default. Uncommonly, an area of demyelination from multiple sclerosis may be the precipitant. Lesions of the entry zone of the trigeminal roots within the pons may cause a similar pain syndrome. Thus, although TN typically is caused by a dysfunction in the peripheral nervous system (the roots or trigeminal nerve itself), a lesion within the central nervous system may rarely cause similar problems. Infrequently, adjacent dental fillings composed of dissimilar metals may trigger attacks. Frequency: Internationally: TN is uncommon, with an estimated prevalence of 155 cases per million persons. Mortality/Morbidity: No mortality is associated with idiopathic TN, although secondary depression is common if a chronic pain syndrome evolves. In rare cases, pain may be so frequent that oral nutrition is impaired. In symptomatic or secondary TN, morbidity or mortality relates to the underlying cause of the pain syndrome. Sex: Male-to-female ratio is 2:3. Age: Development of trigeminal neuralgia in a young person suggests the possibility of multiple sclerosis. Idiopathic TN typically occurs in patients in the sixth decade of life, but it may occur at any age. Symptomatic or secondary TN tends to occur in younger patients. 27 Background: Trigeminal neuralgia (TN), also known as tic douloureux, is a pain syndrome recognizable by patient history alone. The condition is characterized by pain often accompanied by a brief facial spasm or tic. Pain distribution is unilateral and follows the sensory distribution of cranial nerve V, typically radiating to the maxillary (V2) or mandibular (V3) area. At times, both distributions are affected. Physical examination eliminates alternative diagnoses. Signs of cranial nerve dysfunction or other neurologic abnormality exclude the diagnosis of idiopathic TN and suggest that pain may be secondary to a structural lesion. Pathophysiology: The mechanism of pain production remains controversial. One theory suggests that peripheral injury or disease of the trigeminal nerve increases afferent firing in the nerve; failure of central inhibitory mechanisms may be involved as well. Pain is perceived when nociceptive neurons in a trigeminal nucleus involve thalamic relay neurons. Aneurysms, tumors, chronic meningeal inflammation, or other lesions may irritate trigeminal nerve roots along the pons. An abnormal vascular course of the superior cerebellar artery is often cited as the cause. In most cases, no lesion is identified, and the etiology is labeled idiopathic by default. Uncommonly, an area of demyelination from multiple sclerosis may be the precipitant. Lesions of the entry zone of the trigeminal roots within the pons may cause a similar pain syndrome. Thus, although TN typically is caused by a dysfunction in the peripheral nervous system (the roots or trigeminal nerve itself), a lesion within the central nervous system may rarely cause similar problems. Infrequently, adjacent dental fillings composed of dissimilar metals may trigger attacks. http://www.MyTrigeminalNeuralgiaStory.com
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Tofisopam Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ In case you don't find one that you were looking for, put a comment. This video uses Google TTS en-US-Standard-D voice. SUMMARY ======= Tofisopam (Emandaxin, Grandaxin, Sériel) is an anxiolytic that is marketed in several European countries. Chemically, it is a 2,3-benzodiazepine. Unlike other anxiolytic benzodiazepines (which are generally 1,4- or 1,5-substituted) however, tofisopam does not have anticonvulsant, sedative, skeletal muscle relaxant, motor skill-impairing or amnestic properties. While it may not be an anticonvulsant in and of itself, it has been shown to enhance the anticonvulsant action of classical 1,4-benzodiazepines (such as diazepam) and muscimol, but not sodium valproate, carbamazepine, phenobarbital, or phenytoin. Tofisopam is indicated for the treatment of anxiety and alcohol withdrawal, and is prescribed in a dosage of 50–300 mg per day divided into three doses. Peak plasma levels are attained two hours after an oral dose. Tofisopam is not reported as causing dependence to the same extent as other benzodiazepines, but is still recommended to be prescribed for a maximum of 12 weeks. Tofisopam is not approved for sale in the United States or Canada. However, Vela Pharmaceuticals of New Jersey is developing the D-enantiomer (dextofisopam) as a treatment for irritable bowel syndrome, with moderate efficacy demonstrated in clinical trials so far.Tofisopam is also claimed to be a PDE10A inhibitor, which may provide an alternative mechanism of action for its various therapeutic effects, and this action has been proposed to make tofisopam potentially useful as a treatment for schizophrenia.Tofisopam has been shown to act as an inhibitor of the liver enzyme CYP3A4, and this could cause dangerous drug interactions with other medications metabolised by this enzyme, although the clinical significance of these findings remains unclear.
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(CC) Really Fast Visual Top 200 Drugs Closed Captioned Final 14 minute Pharmacology Suffix Review
 
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Website: https://www.memorizingpharmacology.com/ Use the closed captioning pharmacology help, it will really help you see the drug names as I speak! I do a more visual and mnemonic review quick review of the 200 drugs in Memorizing Pharmacology
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