Lung cancer, also known as carcinoma of the lung or pulmonary carcinoma, is a malignant lung tumor characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung. If left untreated, this growth can spread beyond the lung by process of metastasis into nearby tissue or other parts of the body.
The vast majority (80–90%) of cases of lung cancer are due to long-term exposure to tobacco smoke. About 10–15% of cases occur in people who have never smoked. These cases are often caused by a combination of genetic factors and exposure to radon gas, asbestos, or other forms of air pollution, including second-hand smoke.
Worldwide, lung cancer is the most common cancer among men in terms of both incidence and mortality, and among women has the third highest incidence, and is second after breast cancer in mortality.
Learn the signs of lung cancer to catch the disease early and ensure a positive outcome. Below are some early signs of lung cancer according to healthline.com.
Lung cancer may not produce any noticeable symptoms in the early stages. In approximately 40 percent of people diagnosed with lung cancer, the diagnosis is made after the disease has advanced. In one third of those diagnosed, the cancer has reached stage 3.
Cough That Won’t Quit
Be on alert for a new cough that lingers. While a cough associated with a cold or respiratory infection will go away in a week or two, a persistent cough that lingers can be a possible sign of lung cancer. Don’t be tempted to dismiss a stubborn cough, whether it is dry or mucus-producing, as “just a cough.”
Change in a Cough
Pay attention to any changes in a chronic cough, particularly if you are a smoker. If you are coughing more often, your cough has a deeper or hoarse sound, or you are coughing up blood or more mucus than usual, it’s time to make a doctor’s appointment.
Shortness of breath or becoming easily winded are also possible symptoms of lung cancer. This symptom can occur if lung cancer blocks or narrows an airway, or if fluid from a lung tumor builds up in the chest. Make a point of noticing when you feel winded or short of breath. If this symptom occurs after climbing the stairs to your house, bringing in groceries, or performing another task you could previously do without finding it hard to breathe, don’t ignore it.
Pain in the Chest Area
Lung cancer may produce pain in the chest, shoulder, or back area. This aching feeling may not be associated with coughing. Tell your doctor if you notice any type of chest pain, whether it is sharp, dull, constant, or comes and goes. You should also note whether it is confined to a specific area or is occurring throughout your chest. When lung cancer causes chest pain, the discomfort may result from enlarged lymph nodes or metastasis to the chest wall, pleura (lining around the lungs), or the ribs.
When airways become constricted, blocked, or inflamed, the lungs produce a wheezing or whistling sound when you breathe. Wheezing can be associated with multiple causes, some of which are benign and easily treatable. However, wheezing is also a lung cancer symptom, which is why it merits your doctor’s attention. If wheezing continues, don’t assume it’s asthma or allergies. Have your doctor confirm what’s causing it.
Raspy, Hoarse Voice
If you hear a significant change in your voice, or if someone else points out that your voice sounds deeper, hoarse, or raspier, get checked out by your doctor. Hoarseness can be caused by a simple cold, but this symptom becomes worrisome when it hangs on for more than two weeks. Hoarseness related to lung cancer can occur when the tumor affects the nerve that controls the larynx, or voice box.
Drop in Weight
An unexplained weight loss of 10 pounds or more may be associated with lung cancer or another type of cancer. When cancer is present, this weight drop may result from cancer cells using energy in the body. It could also result from shifts in the way the body uses food energy. Don’t write off a change in your weight if you haven’t been trying to shed pounds—it may be a clue to a change in your health.
Lung cancer that has spread to the bones may produce pain in the back or in other areas of the body. This pain may worsen at night while resting on the back. Additionally, lung cancer is sometimes associated with shoulder, arm, or neck pain, although this is less common. Be attentive to your aches and pains, and discuss them with your doctor.
Headaches may be a sign that lung cancer has spread to the brain. However, not all headaches in people with lung cancer are associated with brain metastases. Sometimes, a lung tumor may create pressure on the superior vena cava, which is the large vein that moves blood from the upper body to the heart. This pressure can also trigger headaches.
Talk with your doctor if your body shows these symptoms.